Current Glial Cells News and Events

Current Glial Cells News and Events, Glial Cells News Articles.
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Mimicking a chronic immune response changes the brain
Abnormal production of Inflammatory cytokines by the immune system is responsible for a host of autoimmune disorders. One important cytokine is IL-17A, which is also involved in neurological diseases. Researchers at Tsukuba University in Japan made a mouse model of chronically high IL-17A and to study its effect on the brain. They show that it leads to reduced activity and density of microglia in the brain's hippocampus, but no obvious memory deficits. (2021-02-17)

Discovery of biomarker could help predict Alzheimer's years before symptoms emerge
A unique brain protein measured in the blood could be used to diagnose Alzheimer's disease decades before symptoms develop, according to new Edith Cowan University (ECU) research. (2021-02-17)

New hope for treating chronic pain without opioids
According to some estimates, chronic pain affects up to 40% of Americans, and treating it frustrates both clinicians and patients--a frustration that's often compounded by a hesitation to prescribe opioids for pain. (2021-02-15)

How research on chronic illnesses will improve COVID-19 treatment
A new paper in Oxford Open Immunology, published by Oxford University Press, examines prior findings in the field of neuroimmunology that suggest potential treatment strategies for patients suffering long-term symptoms from COVID-19. (2021-02-10)

Aging-US: PAM (PIK3/AKT/mTOR) signaling in glia: potential contributions to brain tumors
'The consideration of aberrant PIK3/AKT/mTOR signaling in glia during aging elucidates several therapeutic opportunities for brain tumors'. (2021-01-25)

Epilepsy research focused on astrocytes
A significant number of epilepsy patients does not respond to currently available drugs. A collaboration between researchers in Japan and at the Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf (HHU) now addressed a cell type in the brain that has so far not received much attention in epilepsy therapy. In the current edition of the Journal of Neuroscience, they describe that astrocytes might be a potential new target to better treat this disease. (2021-01-25)

New approach emerges to better classify, treat brain tumors
A look at RNA tells us what our genes are telling our cells to do, and scientists say looking directly at the RNA of brain tumor cells appears to provide objective, efficient evidence to better classify a tumor and the most effective treatments. (2021-01-19)

Brain cell network supplies neurons with energy
Until recently, oligodendrocytes were primarily thought to be a kind of cellular insulating tape that accelerates the transmission of electrical signals in the brain. A study by the University of Bonn (Germany) now shows that they are also important for the energy supply of neurons in some brain regions. The findings are published in the journal Cell Reports. (2021-01-19)

Tracking the formation of the early heart, cell by cell
Richard Tyser and colleagues have mapped the origins of the embryonic mouse heart at single-cell resolution, helping to define the cell types that make up the heart in the earliest days of development. (2021-01-07)

Astrocytes eat connections to maintain plasticity in adult brains
Developing brains constantly sprout new neuronal connections called synapses as they learn and remember. Important connections -- the ones that are repeatedly introduced, such as how to avoid danger -- are nurtured and reinforced, while connections deemed unnecessary are pruned away. Adult brains undergo similar pruning, but it was unclear how or why synapses in the adult brain get eliminated. Now, a team of researchers based in Korea has found the mechanism underlying plasticity and, potentially, neurological disorders in adult brains. (2020-12-23)

Eavesdropping on the pH levels inside the brain
Researchers at Tohoku University have developed the first all-in-one miniature pH probe for real-time investigations of intrinsic extracellular pH dynamics in the deep brain structures. (2020-12-23)

Brain stem cells divide over months
For the first time, scientists at the University of Zurich have been able to observe the way stem cells in the adult brains of mice divide over the course of months to create new nerve cells. Their study shows that brain stem cells are active over a long period, and thus provides new insights that will feed into stem cell research. (2020-12-21)

Neuroregenerative gene therapy
Spinal cord injury (SCI) often causes disability and seriously compromises quality of life. The major reasons for the difficulty of treatment for SCI might be due to the fact that many neurons are lost during the injury, leading to permanent loss of neural functions. An innovative gene therapy approach regenerated functional new neurons using local glial cells in the injured spinal cord, bringing new hope to millions of SCI patients worldwide. (2020-12-16)

Damage to brain cells reverberates to 'bystander' cells, study finds
Injury or disease that afflicts a relatively small number of brain cells causes a chain reaction that stops activity across a vast network of neural circuits, according to new research. The study may help to explain why people can suffer from temporary but severe loss of cognitive function in cases of traumatic brain injury or disease. (2020-12-08)

Astrocytes improve decision-making
A study led by researchers from the Cajal Institute of the Spanish Research Council (CSIC) has demonstrated the relevance of the astrocytes (a cell type present in the Nervous System) in the decision-making process. Data published in Nature Neuroscience journal, indicate that these glial cells favor those decisions with higher etiological value for individuals. (2020-12-07)

Customized programming of human stem cells
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) have the potential to convert into a wide variety of cell types and tissues. However, the ''recipes'' for this conversion are often complicated and difficult to implement. Researchers at TU Dresden, Harvard University (USA) and the University of Bonn have found a way to systematically extract hundreds of different cells quickly and easily from iPS using transcription factors. Researchers can use this transcription factor source through the non-profit organization Addgene. (2020-11-30)

New mechanism of pain control revealed
Researchers have identified a unique population of astrocytes in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord of mice that produces pain hypersensitivity when activated by neurons carrying signals down from the brain. The findings indicate that the role of descending neurons in controlling spinal pain transmission is not limited to suppression and point to this group of astrocytes as a new target for enhancing the effect of chronic pain treatments. (2020-11-25)

Early trial hints CAR T cells may combat solid tumors in children with neuroblastoma
A phase 1 trial involving 12 children with relapsed neuroblastoma - a hard-to-treat pediatric cancer - shows that anticancer CAR T cells displayed signs of efficacy against these tumors while avoiding damage to nerve tissue. (2020-11-25)

Unique Schwann cells: the eyes have it
Neuroscience researchers at UConn Health are finding genetic properties of Schwann cells in the cornea that may unlock a better understanding of their role in healing, sensory function, preserving vision, and even nerve regeneration. (2020-11-23)

Stem cell transplantation: undesirable rejection mechanism identified
In the treatment of leukaemia, stem cell transplantation subsequent to chemotherapy and radiation can often engender severe adverse inflammatory reactions - especially in the skin or in the gut, since these so-called barrier organs are more frequently affected. Up until now, the reason for this was unclear. A team of researchers in Vienna has now identified an immune mechanism that is partially responsible for this. (2020-11-19)

Researchers improve neuronal reprogramming by manipulating mitochondria
Researchers at Helmholtz Zentrum München and Ludwig Maximilians University Munich (LMU) have identified a hurdle towards an efficient conversion: the cell metabolism. By expressing neuron-enriched mitochondrial proteins at an early stage of the direct reprogramming process, the researchers achieved a four times higher conversion rate and simultaneously increased the speed of reprogramming. (2020-11-17)

Reversal of glial scar tissue back to neuronal tissue through neuroregenerative gene therapy
Brain or spinal cord injury often results in glial scar tissue that is correlated to neural functional loss. Glial scar is a well-known obstacle for neural regeneration. A research team led by Prof. Gong Chen at Jinan University, Guangzhou, published an article in the current issue of Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience, demonstrating that glial scar tissue can be reversed back to neuronal tissue through NeuroD1-based neuroregenerative gene therapy. (2020-11-16)

First non-human primate study showing promise of gene therapy for stroke repair
Stroke is a leading cause of death and severe long-term disability with limited treatment available. A research team led by Prof. Gong Chen at Jinan University, Guangzhou, China recently reported the first non-human primate study demonstrating successful in vivo neural regeneration from brain internal glial cells for stroke repair. This work was published on Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology on November 5th, 2020. (2020-11-13)

Neural stem and progenitor cell diversity in brain development may contribute to cortical complexity
Stem and progenitor cells exhibit diversity in early brain development that likely contributes to later neural complexity in the adult cerebral cortex, this according to a new study published Nov. 6, 2020 in Science Advances. Researchers from the Center for Neuroscience Research (CNR) at Children's National Hospital say this research expands on existing ideas about brain development, and could significantly impact the clinical care of neurodevelopmental diseases in the future. (2020-11-06)

Root bacterium to fight Alzheimer's
A bacterium found among the soil close to roots of ginseng plants could provide a new approach for the treatment of Alzheimer's. Rhizolutin, a novel class of compounds with a tricyclic framework, significantly dissociates the protein aggregates associated with Alzheimer's disease both in vivo and in vitro, as reported by scientists in the journal Angewandte Chemie. (2020-11-02)

Lineage tracing of direct astrocyte-to-neuron conversion for brain repair
A research team led by Prof. Gong Chen at Jinan University (Guangzhou, China) published a work on October 9th in Neural Regeneration Research, providing unambiguous data that brain internal astrocytes are directly converted into neurons through lineage tracing studies. Using brain internal astrocytes, a type of supporting cells to neurons, to directly convert into new neurons is an innovative brain repair technology that may benefit millions of patients worldwide. (2020-10-16)

New study may reveal link to lipids playing a key role in Parkinson's disease
New Parkinson's disease model breaks conventional thinking about the roots of Parkinson's disease and may lead to development of new therapies. (2020-10-16)

College of Medicine researcher makes novel discoveries in preventing epileptic seizures
A team of researchers from the Florida State University College of Medicine has found that an amino acid produced by the brain could play a crucial role in preventing a type of epileptic seizure. (2020-10-13)

Latent lineage potential in neural stem cells enables spinal cord repair in mice
Spinal stem cells in mice can be reprogrammed to generate protective oligodendrocytes after spinal cord injury, enhancing neural repair, according to a new study. (2020-10-01)

Novel role of microglia as modulators of neurons in the brain is discovered
Findings offer potential target for treating behavioral abnormalities associated with neurodegenerative conditions like Alzheimer's Disease. (2020-09-30)

Why do structural differences in α-synuclein aggregates cause different pathologies?
Abnormal α-synuclein aggregation has been implicated in several neurodegenerative diseases and is known to spread in a prion-like manner. There is a relationship between protein aggregate structure (strain) and clinical phenotype in prion diseases, however, whether differences in the strains of α synuclein aggregates account for the different pathologies remained unclear. Researchers in Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science (TMIMS) discovered a possible molecular mechanism to account for the different pathologies induced by different α synuclein strains. (2020-09-29)

Unconventional T cell subset enriched in airways of some patients with severe COVID-19
Unconventional T cells called mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are recruited to the airways and strongly activated in some patients with severe COVID-19, a new study has found, suggesting the cells' possible involvement in the development of disease. (2020-09-28)

Twinkling, star-shaped brain cells may hold the key to why, how we sleep
A new study published today in the journal Current Biology suggests that star-shaped brain cells known as astrocytes could be as important to the regulation of sleep as neurons. The study builds new momentum toward ultimately solving the mystery of why we sleep and how sleep works in the brain. The discovery may also set the stage for potential future treatment strategies for sleep disorders and neurological diseases and other conditions associated with troubled sleep. (2020-09-24)

Decreased protein degradation in cerebellum leads to motor dysfunction
A research team from Kumamoto University, Japan has developed an animal model that reproduces motor dysfunction and cerebellar neurodegeneration similar to that in spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) by inhibiting chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) in cerebellar neurons. Since CMA activity is reduced in cells expressing SCA causing proteins, CMA is expected to become a new therapeutic target for SCA--a disease that currently has no basic treatment. (2020-09-23)

How a single protein in non-neuronal cells controls brain development
Researchers from the University of Tsukuba identified the protein PRMT1 as an important regulator of glial cell function and normal brain development. They found that mice lacking PRMT1 during brain development showed significant inflammation as well as an increase in astrocyte and microglia cells in the postnatal period. These findings help clarify the molecular mechanisms of normal brain development. (2020-09-23)

Cannabinoids decrease the metabolism of glucose in the brain
What happens when THC acts on the glial cells named astrocytes ? This research concludes that the activation of CB1 cannabinoid receptors in tmice astrocytes hampers the metabolism of glucose and the production of lactate in the brain; this alters neuronal function and leads to a deterioration in social interaction behaviours. (2020-09-19)

Potential target identified for migraine therapy
Researchers at Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU) in Japan have identified the protein GLT-1 as the neurotransmitter glutamate transporter in the brain that is related to cortical spreading depression, a pathological condition that underlies migraines. The researchers found that mice lacking GLT-1, but not other glutamate receptors, were more susceptible to cortical spreading depression than were controls. GLT-1 might therefore be a potential target for migraine therapy. (2020-09-17)

Super-potent blood stem cells discovered in human embryos
In research recently published in Stem Cell Reports, Andrejs Ivanovs, Alexander Medvinsky (a.medvinsky@ed.ac.uk) and colleagues from the University of Edinburgh discovered that HSCs from early human embryos, when HSCs are just starting to form, are more robust at expanding than those from the cord blood. (2020-09-17)

Temple researchers discover new path to neuron regeneration after spinal cord injury
The astrocytic glial cell has the unique ability to form scar tissue around damaged neurons. The presence of scar tissue is associated with inhibitory effects on the regrowth of mature neurons that are damaged by spinal cord injury. Recent evidence suggests, however, that these inhibitory effects are reversible, and in new work, Temple and Penn scientists show that astrocytic glial cells can in fact play a major role in facilitating neuron repair. (2020-09-16)

A 'cell-less' therapy may regenerate heart tissue without cell transplant risks
Ling Gao and colleagues have developed a strategy that uses exosomes - tiny membrane-bound sacs secreted by cells - to mimic the heart-regenerating effects of cardiac cell transplants, while potentially avoiding risks associated with whole-cell transplants. (2020-09-16)

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