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Rumen additive and controlled energy benefit dairy cows during dry period
Getting nutrition right during a dairy cow's dry period can make a big difference to her health and the health of her calf. But it's also a key contributor to her milk yield after calving. New research from the University of Illinois shows diets containing consistent energy levels and the rumen-boosting supplement monensin may be ideal during the dry period. (2021-01-28)

"Smiling eyes" may not signify true happiness after all
A smile that lifts the cheeks and crinkles the eyes is thought by many to be truly genuine. But new research at Carnegie Mellon University casts doubt on whether this joyful facial expression necessarily tells others how a person really feels inside. (2021-01-20)

Damage to brain cells reverberates to 'bystander' cells, study finds
Injury or disease that afflicts a relatively small number of brain cells causes a chain reaction that stops activity across a vast network of neural circuits, according to new research. The study may help to explain why people can suffer from temporary but severe loss of cognitive function in cases of traumatic brain injury or disease. (2020-12-08)

Babies' random choices become their preferences
When a baby reaches for one stuffed animal in a room filled with others just like it, that random choice is very bad news for those unpicked toys: the baby has likely just decided she doesn't like what she didn't choose. Researchers have known that adults build unconscious biases over a lifetime of choosing between things that are essentially the same, but finding that even babies do it demonstrates this way of justifying choice is fundamental to the human experience. (2020-10-02)

Expert opinion: COVID-19 vaccine rollout unlikely before fall 2021
Experts working in the field of vaccine development tend to believe that an effective vaccine is not likely to be available for the general public before the fall of 2021. In a paper published this week in the Journal of General Internal Medicine, a McGill-led team published the results of a recent survey of 28 experts working in vaccinology. (2020-10-01)

Scientists predict potential spread, habitat of invasive Asian giant hornet
Researchers at Washington State University have predicted how and where the Asian giant hornet, an invasive newcomer to the Pacific Northwest, popularly dubbed the ''murder hornet,'' could spread and find ideal habitat, both in the United States and globally. (2020-09-22)

Scientists discover what happens in our brains when we make educated guesses
Researchers have identified how cells in our brains work together to join up memories of separate experiences, allowing us to make educated guesses in everyday life. By studying both human and mouse brain activity, they report that this process happens in a region of the brain called the hippocampus. (2020-09-17)

Can a quantum strategy help bring down the house?
Now researchers at MIT and Caltech have shown that the weird, quantum effects of entanglement could theoretically give blackjack players even more of an edge, albeit a small one, when playing against the house. (2020-08-03)

"Knock codes" for smartphone security are easily predicted, researchers say
Smartphone owners who unlock their devices with knock codes aren't as safe as they think, according to new research. (2020-07-14)

Simple interventions can help people spot false headlines
A team of researchers found that after being exposed to Facebook's tips on how to spot misinformation, people in the United States and India were less likely to say a false headline was true. However, this ability weakened over time, suggesting that digital literacy needs to be taught with regularity. (2020-06-22)

Giving people 'digital literacy' tips can help them spot dubious information online
Giving people 'digital literacy' tips can help them identify dubious information online, a new study shows. (2020-06-22)

Older children's brains respond differently to rewarding vs. negative experiences late in day
Older children respond more strongly to rewarding experiences and less strongly to negative experiences later in the day, which may lead to poor decision-making at night, according to research from Binghamton University, State University of New York. (2020-03-11)

How secure are four and six-digit mobile phone PINs?
A German-American team of IT security researchers has investigated how users choose the PIN for their mobile phones and how they can be convinced to use a more secure number combination. They found that six-digit PINs actually provide little more security than four-digit ones. They also showed that the blacklist used by Apple to prevent particularly frequent PINs could be optimised and that it would make even greater sense to implement one on Android devices. (2020-03-11)

Exposure to 'fake news' during the 2016 US election has been overstated
Since the 2016 US presidential election, debates have raged about the reach of so-called 'fake news' websites and the role they played during the campaign. A study published in Nature Human Behaviour finds that the reach of these untrustworthy websites has been overstated. (2020-03-02)

Testing during studying improves memory and inference
A new study by the Human Memory and Cognition Laboratory at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, led by psychology professor Aaron Benjamin, has found that learning by testing yourself improves your ability to make inferences about the subject matter as compared to rote restudy. The study ''Long-term Inference and Memory Following Retrieval Practice'' was published in Memory & Cognition. (2020-02-17)

Cooperation after eye contact: Gender matters
Researchers from the UB published an article in the journal Scientific Reports which analyses, through the prisoner's dilemma game, the willingness of people to cooperate when in pairs. A total of 374 people took part in this activity, which was carried out in FiraTàrrega 2017, an international performing arts market. The results show each gender keeps a different cooperation pattern after making visual contact. (2020-01-30)

The wisdom of crowds: What smart cities can learn from a dead ox and live fish
Antonie J. Jetter, associate professor of Engineering and Technology Management at Portland State University, studied the wisdom of crowds theory. Jetter found diverse crowds of local natural resource stakeholders can collectively produce complex environmental models very similar to those of trained experts. ''I am excited about the possibilities for other complex systems,'' Jetter said. (2020-01-14)

From as young as 4, children see males as more powerful than females
As early as 4 years old, children associate power and masculinity, even in countries considered to be more egalitarian like Norway. This is what scientists at the Institut des Sciences Cognitives Marc Jeannerod (CNRS/UCBL1) report, in collaboration with the universities of Oslo (Norway), Lausanne and Neuchâtel (Switzerland), in a study published on Jan. 7, 2020, in Sex Roles. They also show that in some situations the power-masculinity association does not manifest in girls. (2020-01-09)

BU study finds celebrity disclosures increase discussion of miscarriage on twitter
A new Boston University School of Public Health (BUSPH) study characterizes how Twitter users discuss miscarriage and preterm birth. Published in Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, the study finds that miscarriage disclosures by Michelle Obama and other public figures prompted spikes in discussion, and in other people sharing their own experiences of miscarriage. The study also gathered thousands of individuals' tweeted experiences with miscarriage, showing gaps in knowledge and support. (2020-01-08)

Stanford scientists reliably predict people's age by measuring proteins in blood
Protein levels in people's blood can predict their age, a Stanford study has found. The study also found that aging isn't a smoothly continuous process. (2019-12-05)

How 'knowing less' can boost language development in children
Children may learn new words better when they learn them in the context of other words they are just learning -- according to new research from the University of East Anglia. Researchers investigated how 18- to 24-month-olds learn new words -- in the context of words they already know well and those they don't. The findings help explain how children learn new words and suggest a new way that parents and carers could help boost language development. (2019-10-29)

Political affiliation may help drive and shape a person's morals
While it may seem intuitive that a person's beliefs or moral compass may steer them toward one political party over another, a new Penn State study suggests it may be the other way around. (2019-10-24)

How do children express their state of knowledge of the world around them?
A study published in Journal of Language, Learning and Development by researchers with the Prosodic Studies Group led by Pilar Prieto, ICREA research professor with the Department of Translation and Language Sciences, reveals for the first time that three-year-olds use gestural and prosodic precursors in the expression of uncertainty, which they will express after five years of age through lexical cues. (2019-10-09)

Male Trinidad guppies find food thanks to females
For male Trinidad Guppies applies: if you are hungry, seek female company. A recent study led by scientists of the the Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries (IGB) and the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research (IZW) together with other research institutions provides evidence that male guppy fish in the presence of females more often ended up at novel food patches. In contrast, female food discovery was independent of male presence. (2019-09-13)

Community size matters when people create a new language
Why do some languages have simpler grammars than others? Researchers from the Netherlands and the UK propose that the size of the community influences the complexity of the language that evolves in it. When small and large groups of participants played a 'communication game' using only gibberish words they had to invent, the languages invented by larger groups were more systematic than languages of smaller groups, showing that community size is important for shaping grammar. (2019-07-17)

Using artificial intelligence to detect discrimination
A new artificial intelligence (AI) tool for detecting unfair discrimination -- such as on the basis of race or gender -- has been created by researchers at Penn State and Columbia University. (2019-07-10)

New filter enhances robot vision on 6D pose estimation
Robots are good at making identical repetitive movements, such as a simple task on an assembly line. But they lack the ability to perceive objects as they move through an environment. A recent study was conducted by researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, NVIDIA, the University of Washington, and Stanford University, developed a filter to give robots greater spatial perception so they can manipulate objects and navigate through space more accurately. (2019-07-10)

What we think we know -- but might not -- pushes us to learn more
Our doubts about what we think we know pique our curiosity and motivate us to learn more, according to new research from the University of California, Berkeley. (2019-05-23)

First global tally of an amphibian killer
Chytridiomycosis, a highly virulent fungal amphibian disease, has been linked to the worldwide decline of more than 500 species - including 90 presumed extinctions - over the last 50 years, researchers report. (2019-03-28)

Researchers get humans to think like computers
Computers, like those that power self-driving cars, can be tricked into mistaking random scribbles for trains, fences and even school buses. People aren't supposed to be able to see how those images trip up computers but in a new study, Johns Hopkins University researchers show most people actually can. (2019-03-22)

Electron accelerators reveal the radical secrets of antioxidants
An Osaka University professor has demonstrated for the first time the value of linear particle accelerators for the generation of free radicals inside biological samples. This work will have important applications throughout biochemistry, especially for researchers studying antioxidants and photosynthesis. (2019-03-19)

Brain scans shine light on how we solve clues
Partnered with machine learning, brain scans reveal how people understand objects in our world. (2019-02-25)

Who shared fake news on Facebook during the 2016 US presidential election?
Although most Facebook users did not share any fake news articles during the 2016 US presidential campaign, a new study reveals that the small number who did were mostly Americans over the age of 65. The findings suggest the need for renewed attention to educate particular vulnerable subgroups, such as those over the age of 65, about fake news. (2019-01-09)

Machine learning and quantum mechanics team up to understand water at the atomic level
Why is water densest at around 4 degrees Celsius? Why does ice float? Why heavy water has a different melting point compared to normal water? Why do snowflakes have a six-fold symmetry? A collaborative study, led by researchers in EPFL and just published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, provides physical insights into these questions by marrying data-driven machine learning techniques and quantum mechanics. (2019-01-07)

Distinguishing between students who guess and those who know
Measuring the knowledge of students in online courses poses a number of challenges. Researchers from the Higher School of Economics and the University of Leuven made improvements to the model for assessing academic achievements and published their results in the journal Heliyon. (2018-12-27)

Do you know the carbon footprint of your food choices?
Consumers greatly underestimate the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions associated with their food choices, but they'll favor items with a lower carbon footprint if they're given clear information on the label, according to new research from the University of Technology Sydney and Duke University. (2018-12-17)

Most people overestimate total number of US gun owners
Most people vastly overestimate the population of gun owners in the United States, and it potentially influences how groups approach gun policies, according to a study by two University of Kansas political scientists. (2018-12-10)

Is your office messy? If so, you may be seen as uncaring, neurotic
An extremely messy personal space seems to lead people to believe the owner of that space is more neurotic and less agreeable, say University of Michigan researchers. (2018-11-27)

Songbirds set long-distance migration record
Researchers at Lund University in Sweden have studied flight routes to determine how far willow warblers migrate in the autumn. The results show that the willow warbler holds a long-distance migration record in the 10-gram weight category -- with the small birds flying around 13,000 kilometers or longer to reach their destination. (2018-11-15)

Griffith precision measurement takes it to the limit
Griffith University researchers have demonstrated a procedure for making precise measurements of speed, acceleration, material properties and even gravity waves possible, approaching the ultimate sensitivity allowed by laws of quantum physics. (2018-11-04)

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