Current HIV Infection News and Events

Current HIV Infection News and Events, HIV Infection News Articles.
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Immune-compromised people with HIV, APOE4 gene may have a compounded risk for Alzheimer's
People living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who have a history of severe immunosuppression and at least one copy of the Alzheimer's disease-related gene variant APOE4, might see a compounded adverse effect on the circuitry that impacts memory. This could eventually lead to an increased risk for dementia after age 65, according to Georgetown University Medical Center investigators and colleagues. (2021-02-22)

What is COVID-19's impact on Black and Latino persons living with HIV?
Study looks at COVID-19 effects on engagement in HIV care, HIV medication use, and overall well-being among low-income Black and Latino individuals who have lived with HIV for many years. (2021-02-22)

West Virginia's enduring, intertwined epidemics: Opioids and HIV
In a paper for The Lancet, West Virginia University Drs. Sally Hodder and Judith Feinberg state that the opioid and HIV epidemics are intertwined in West Virginia, and therefore should be treated together. (2021-02-22)

To end HIV epidemic, we must address health disparities
despite coordinated national efforts to implement HIV services, the epidemic persists, especially in the South. It also disproportionately impacts marginalized groups, such as Black/African-American and Latinx communities, women, people who use drugs, men who have sex with men, and other sexual and gender minorities. researchers, advocates, and other stakeholders reported on the HIV epidemic response in The Lancet HIV in the USA Series, published online today (https://www.thelancet.com/series/HIVinUSA). (2021-02-19)

The Lancet: USA failing to reach populations most in need of HIV prevention and treatment services as epidemic grows in the South and rural areas
The USA continues to lag behind other G-7 nations when it comes to controlling its HIV epidemic and is the only high-income country among the top 10 most HIV-affected countries worldwide. The majority of HIV infections are now concentrated in the South and rural areas, where women and minorities are disproportionately affected; a disparity that has also been seen in the COVID-19 pandemic which has disproportionately affected African Americans, Latinx Americans, Native Americans, and prisoners and detainees. (2021-02-19)

A new piece of the HIV infection puzzle explored
Researchers from the European Molecular Biology Laboratory and Heidelberg University Hospital combine high-resolution imaging to observe the infection process in cell nuclei, opening the door for new therapeutics. (2021-02-18)

Hospital hygiene: A closer look reveals realistic frequency of infection
A research team led by Inselspital, Bern University Hospital and the University of Bern found a correlation between the frequency of infections after surgery and performance in quality audits. Lower surgical site infection rates correlate with a lower audit score. In other words, looking more closely reveals more reported infections. Recommendations for possible correction are presented. (2021-02-18)

Older adults and antibiotics: Study shows healthy attitudes but unhealthy practices
While most adults over 50 understand that overuse of antibiotics is a problem, and say they're cautious about taking the drugs, a sizable minority have used antibiotics for something other than their original purpose, and appear to think the drugs could help treat colds, which are caused by viruses not bacteria. (2021-02-18)

Targeting the SARS-CoV-2 main protease yields promise in transgenic mouse model
Inhibitors based on approved drugs and designed to disrupt the SARS-CoV-2 viral protein Mpro display strong antiviral activity both in vitro and in a transgenic mouse model, a new study reports. (2021-02-18)

Immune system protects children from severe COVID-19
Children are protected from severe COVID-19 because their innate immune system is quick to attack the virus, a new study has found. (2021-02-17)

A peptide that inhibits virus transmission among ferrets may point to a promising treatment
An engineered peptide given to ferrets two days before they were co-housed with SARS-CoV-2-infected animals prevented virus transmission to the treated ferrets, a new study shows. (2021-02-17)

Researchers find diverse supportive partnerships among older gay men with and without HIV
Recent data reveals that gay men living with HIV report having supportive relationships with family, friends, or in informal relationships rather than with primary romantic partners, while gay men who are HIV negative report having relationships mainly with primary partners. Additionally, gay men living with HIV were more likely to report no primary or secondary supportive partnerships compared to men who are HIV negative. (2021-02-17)

TB study reveals potential targets to treat and control infection
Researchers at the Southwest National Primate Research Center (SNPRC) at Texas Biomedical Research Institute (Texas Biomed) may have found a new pathway to treat and control tuberculosis (TB), the disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Using single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNAseq), a next-generation sequencing technology, scientists were able to further define the mechanisms that lead to TB infection and latency. (2021-02-16)

Radiomics shows cocaine fuels coronary artery disease risk
Radiomics--the extraction of very detailed quantitative features from medical images--provides a refined understanding of how cocaine use and other risk factors affect the course of coronary artery disease, according to a new study. Researchers said the study shows the power of radiomics to improve understanding of not just cardiovascular disease, but cancer and other conditions as well. (2021-02-16)

Finding coronavirus's helper proteins
A group of scientists led by EMBL's Mikhail Savitski, Nassos Typas, and Pedro Beltrao, and collaborator Steeve Boulant at Heidelberg University Hospital, have analysed how the novel coronavirus affects proteins in human cells. They identified several human proteins as potential drug targets to prevent viral replication. (2021-02-16)

First test for all known human coronaviruses, including new SARS-CoV-2 variants
Scientists at the Center for Infection and Immunity (CII) at Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health and SunYat-Sen University in China have set the stage for the development of highly sensitive antibody tests for infection with all known human coronaviruses, including new variants of SARS-CoV-2. These tests should also allow differentiation of immune responses due to infection and vaccination. The research is published in Communications Biology, a Nature journal. (2021-02-16)

COVID-19 infection rates high in pregnant women
The study also showed that the number of COVID-19 infections in pregnant patients from nearly all communities of color in Washington was high. There was a twofold to fourfold higher prevalence of pregnant patients with COVID-19 infections from communities of color than expected based on the race-ethnicity distribution of pregnant women in Washington in 2018. (2021-02-16)

Let the immune cell see the virus: Scientists discover unique way to target common virus
Scientists at Cardiff University have discovered a unique way to target a common virus that affects one in 200 newborn babies in the UK but for which there is only limited treatments available. (2021-02-15)

T cells depressed
In chronic infections, the immune system can become exhausted. Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich researchers have looked into how this works. (2021-02-12)

Scientists identify how harmless gut bacteria "turn bad"
An international team of scientists has determined how harmless E. coli gut bacteria in chickens can easily pick up the genes required to evolve to cause a life-threatening infection. Their study, published in Nature Communications, warns that such infections not only affect the poultry industry but could also potentially cross over to infect humans. (2021-02-12)

Self-testing trebles HIV testing rate amongst trans people in randomised trial
HIV self-testing could reduce the time between HIV infection and HIV diagnosis amongst trans people when compared to standard testing services, suggests new research in EClinicalMedicine. The project was a collaboration between the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine (LSHTM), University College London (UCL), and the Medical Research Council Clinical Trials Unit. It involved more than 100 trans men and trans women in England and Wales, and is the largest HIV self-testing trial in this community to be reported. (2021-02-11)

Researchers find delirium in hospitalized patients linked to mortality, disability
Delirium, a form of acute brain dysfunction, is widespread in critically ill patients in lower resourced hospitals, and the duration of delirium predicted both mortality and disability at six months after discharge, according to a study published in PLOS ONE. (2021-02-11)

New study gives hope of eliminating mother-to-baby transmission of HIV
Anti-retroviral drugs are a vital tool in the prevention and treatment of HIV. A new study of pregnant women in Tanzania shows that life-long antiviral treatment also seems to prevent viral transmission from mother to baby. The results of the study, which was conducted in part by researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden and published in Lancet HIV, make a promising contribution to the WHO's work with HIV prevention in low and middle-income countries. (2021-02-11)

Researchers unravel what makes someone a COVID-19 super-spreader
Researchers at Tulane University, Harvard University, MIT and Massachusetts General Hospital have learned that obesity, age and COVID-19 infection correlate with a propensity to breathe out more respiratory droplets -- key spreaders of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. Their findings were published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. (2021-02-10)

HIV research yields potential drug target
Understanding the mechanism of activation of a protein called SAMHD1 could be a step forward in the fight against HIV/AIDS. ''If we are able to increase SAMHD1 activity using a specific drug, that could potentially have anti-HIV activity,'' said Corey H. Yu, PhD, postdoctoral fellow in the laboratory of Dmitri Ivanov, PhD, at UT Health San Antonio. (2021-02-10)

Universal access to preventive drugs could reduce HIV incidence in sub-Saharan Africa
Universal HIV testing with linkage to treatment and prevention may be a promising approach to accelerate reductions in new infections in generalized epidemic settings, according to a study published February 9th, 2021 in the open-access journal PLOS Medicine by Catherine Koss of the University of California, San Francisco, and colleagues. (2021-02-09)

Racism and anti-gay discrimination heighten risk for arrest and incarceration
New research by Morgan Philbin, PhD, at Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health and colleagues looks at why Black young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are disproportionately subject to high rates of arrest and incarceration. They find that perceived racial discrimination, sexual orientation discrimination, and HIV-status discrimination are all associated with risk for criminal justice involvement in this population. (2021-02-09)

Scientists urge for investment now in highly potent vaccines to prevent the next pandemic
In an article that appears in the journal Nature, Dennis Burton, PhD, and Eric Topol, MD, of Scripps Research call for governments to provide significant funding support for rational vaccine design based on broadly neutralizing antibodies. Such antibodies provide broad-spectrum potency against viruses, a valuable characteristic that opens the door to vaccines that could provide immunity against the many variants that might evolve from a fast-mutating virus. They could also be used as drugs to prevent and treat infections. (2021-02-09)

HIV: an innovative therapeutic breakthrough to optimize the immune system
Prompted by the need to improve conventional treatments for people infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), a team from the Institut national de la recherche scientifique (INRS) has identified a therapeutic approach to restore the effectiveness of immune cells. The study, led by doctoral student Hamza Loucif and Professor Julien van Grevenynghe, was published in the journal Autophagy. (2021-02-08)

New drug target for Ebola, Marburg viruses
Researchers have identified a previously unknown site on the filovirus glycoprotein to which small drug molecules can bind and prevent infection -- blocking both sites may be a more effective treatment while reducing the risk of side effects. (2021-02-08)

Spicy perfection isn't to prevent infection
Spicy food is considered an example of ''Darwinian gastronomy'': selection for antimicrobial ingredients to counter infection risk. By analysing over thirty thousand recipes, we show that average number of spices per recipe is more strongly associated with socioeconomic factors than infectious disease. (2021-02-04)

Dialysis patients have 4-fold greater risk of dying from COVID-19
People undergoing long-term dialysis are almost 4 times more likely to die from COVID-19 and should be prioritized for vaccination, found a new Ontario study published in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal). (2021-02-04)

Clients of female sex workers should be targeted for HIV prevention and treatment in South Africa
The researchers found that over a ten-year period (2010-19), sex between female sex workers and their paying clients contributed 6.9 per cent of new HIV infections, while sex between clients with their non-paying partners contributed 41.9 per cent (2021-02-04)

Human immune cells have natural alarm system against HIV
Researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have identified a potential way to eradicate the latent HIV infection that lies dormant inside infected immune cells. Studying human immune cells, the researchers showed that such cells have a natural alarm system that detects the activity of a specific HIV protein. Rather than attack the virus based on its appearance, this strategy is to attack the virus based on what it is doing -- vital activities that are required for the virus to exist. (2021-02-04)

New study examines addiction medicine treatment in Vietnam
A study published in The Lancet HIV marks one of the first scientifically robust assessments of a new model of treating HIV in lower or middle income countries where injection drug use is a major cause of HIV infection. It also suggests the importance of building support for peer and community connections to tackle the opioid epidemic that continues to ravage the United States in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic. (2021-02-04)

BU study: New vaginal film, MB66, is safe
Researchers at Boston University School of Medicine (BUSM), Alpert Medical School of Brown University and Mapp Biopharmaceutical have now found that MB66, a vaginal film product containing monoclonal antibodies against human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) and herpes simplex viruses types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and 2), is safe and effective. (2021-02-03)

First-in-human clinical trial confirms HIV vaccine approach by IAVI and Scripps Research
A phase 1 clinical trial testing a novel vaccine approach to prevent HIV has produced promising results, IAVI and Scripps Research announced today. The vaccine showed success in stimulating production of rare immune cells needed to start the process of generating antibodies against the fast-mutating virus; the targeted response was detected in 97 percent of participants who received the vaccine. (2021-02-03)

Bottoms are up at the HIV Research for Prevention Virtual Conference
Researchers seeking to develop on-demand and behaviorally congruent HIV prevention options for anal sex are reporting the results of three early phase clinical trials of rectal microbicides at the HIV Research for Prevention Virtual Conference. The Phase I studies, led by the National Institutes of Health-funded Microbicide Trials Network, found both of two gel-based products well-tolerated, with higher doses of the active drugs likely required to provide protection from HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. (2021-02-02)

U of M study shows enhanced accuracy of CMV detection method in newborn screening
Mark Schleiss, MD, pediatric infectious disease physician with the University of Minnesota Medical School and M Health Fairview, led a study that used improved techniques to show that the dried blood spot taken at birth can, in fact, find CMV infection in the newborn with almost 90% accuracy. The study was recently published in JAMA Pediatrics. (2021-02-02)

Early functional SARS-COV-2 specific T cell response may prevent severe infection
Antibodies and T cells are components of the human immune system that directly act against viral infections and eliminate infected cells. A new study by scientists from Duke-NUS Medical School, provides evidence that an early presence of SARS-CoV-2 specific T cells in COVID-19 is likely to prevent severe disease. The study, published in Cell Reports, has important implications for the clinical management of COVID-19 patients. (2021-02-01)

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