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Covid-19: Social distancing is more effective than travel bans
Travel bans will delay the peak of infection with days, while social distancing has a much stronger impact, amounting in up to 4 weeks delay, scientists report. (2020-09-28)

How the brain balances emotion and reason
Navigating through life requires balancing emotion and reason, a feat accomplished by the brain region ''area 32'' of the anterior cingulate cortex. The area maintains emotional equilibrium by relaying information between cognitive and emotional brain regions, according to new research in monkeys published in JNeurosci. (2020-09-28)

Evolutionary and heritable axes shape our brain
Every region has its place in the brain. However, it has been unclear why brain regions are located where they are. Now, scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences have defined two main axes along which brain regions are genetically organized, stretching from posterior to anterior and inferior to superior in the brain. These axes are mainly shaped by genes and evolution. (2020-09-28)

Live imaging method brings structural information to mapping of brain function
Neuroscientists distinguish brain regions based on what they do, but now have a new way to overlay information about how they are built, too. (2020-09-17)

Targeting 'cost-effective zones' to protect global biodiversity could help balance conservation goals and political priorities
Scientists have identified regions of land around the world with both high conservation value and low levels of human impact. These cost-effective zones (CEZs) - only 24% of which are currently covered by protected areas - could be incorporated into a post-2020 international biodiversity framework that balances conservation imperatives with political. (2020-09-09)

As information flows through brain's heirarchy, higher regions use higher frequency waves
New study by MIT neuroscientists also finds specific frequency bands associated with encoding, or inhibiting encoding, of sensory information across the cortex. (2020-09-08)

Has Earth's oxygen rusted the Moon for billions of years?
To the surprise of many planetary scientists, the oxidized iron mineral hematite has been discovered at high latitudes on the Moon, according to a study led by University of Hawaii researchers. (2020-09-02)

Scientists show how brain flexibility emerges in infants
Cognitive flexibility, which refers to the brain's ability to switch between mental processes in response to external stimuli and different task demands, seems to begin developing during the first two years of life, which is much earlier than previously thought. UNC BRIC researchers led by Weili Lin, PhD, used magnetic resonance imaging techniques to show the emergence of a functional flexible brain during early infancy. (2020-08-31)

Revealed: How billions in EU farming subsidies are being misspent
A unique study has analyzed in detail how EU agricultural subsidies flow down to the local level. The new data show that most income support payments go to intensively farmed regions already above median EU income, while climate-friendly and biodiverse farming regions, as well as poorer regions, are insufficiently funded. Consequently, the majority of payments are going to the regions causing the most environmental damage and the farmers in the least need of income support. (2020-08-21)

Abrupt global climate change events occurred synchronously during last glacial period
The abrupt climate warming events that occurred in Greenland during the last glacial period occurred very close in time to other rapid climate change events seen in paleoclimate records from lower latitudes, according to a new study, which reveals a near-synchronous teleconnection of climate events spanning Earth's hemispheres. (2020-08-20)

Heating our climate damages our economies - study reveals greater costs than expected
Rising temperatures due to our greenhouse gas emissions can cause greater damages to our economies than previous research suggested, a new study shows. Scientists from the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK) and the Mercator Research Institute for Global Commons and Climate Change (MCC) took a closer look at what climate change does to regions at the sub-national level, such as US states, Chinese provinces or French départments, based on a first-of-its-kind dataset. (2020-08-19)

The missing piece of the brain's multitasking network
Multitasking performance stems from the speed of information exchange between inner and outer regions of the brain, according to new research in eNeuro. (2020-08-17)

Recalling memories from a third-person perspective changes how our brain processes them
Adopting a third-person, observer point of view when recalling your past activates different parts of your brain than recalling a memory seen through your own eyes, according to a new paper. (2020-08-13)

Impact of climate change on tropical fisheries would create ripples across the world
Seafood is the most highly traded food commodity globally, with tropical zone marine fisheries contributing more than 50% of the global fish catch, an average of $USD 96 billion annually. Available scientific evidence consistently shows that tropical marine habitats, fish stocks and fisheries are most vulnerable to oceanic changes associated with climate change. However, telecoupling, or linkages between distant human-natural systems, could generate cascades of climate change impacts from the tropics that propagate to other 'extra-' tropical natural systems and human communities globally. (2020-08-06)

Epstein-Barr virus rewires host epigenomes to drive stomach cancer
Researchers in Japan and Singapore have discovered a molecular mechanism that explains how Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection alters a host's epigenome to promote tumorigenesis (the transformation of normal cells into cancer cells) in certain types of stomach cancer. The findings suggest that EBV infection plays an important role in the development of EBV-associated stomach cancers, and provide fresh insights that may lead to new therapies for stomach and other virus-related malignancies. (2020-07-27)

New approach simultaneously measures EEG and fMRI connectomes
Researchers have developed a new approach to compare changes in neural communication using electroencephalography and functional magnetic resonance imaging simultaneously. The approach allows them to assess the association between the two measurements and better understand neural connectivity changes over time. (2020-07-23)

Participants in CPC+ are diverse but not representative of all primary care practices
This study analyzes patterns of participation in the Comprehensive Primary Care Plus initiative which is the largest voluntary primary care payment and delivery reform model tested to date. (2020-07-14)

How to map brain connections using DNA barcodes
Detailed wiring diagrams--connectomes--for the brain are critical for understanding brain development, function, and disease. CSHL scientists found a way to use a large set of short snippets of DNA to label neurons, increasing the number of paths that can be traced in a single experiment versus other brain mapping techniques. (2020-07-14)

Climate change will cause more extreme wet and dry seasons, researchers find
The world can expect more rainfall as the climate changes, but it can also expect more water to evaporate, complicating efforts to manage reservoirs and irrigate crops in a growing world, according to a Clemson researcher whose latest work has been published in the journal Nature Communications. (2020-07-13)

How fear transforms into anxiety
University of New Mexico researchers identify for the first time the brain-wide neural correlates of the transition from fear to anxiety. (2020-07-09)

1.5 billion people will depend on water from mountains
Global water consumption has increased almost fourfold in the past 100 years, and many regions can only meet their water demand thanks to essential contributions from mountain regions. In 30 years, almost a quarter of the world's lowland population will strongly depend on runoff from the mountains. Only sustainable development can ensure the important function of mountain areas as Earth's ''water towers''. (2020-07-07)

Economic and social consequences of human mobility restrictions under COVID-19
A paper published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences by the research group coordinated by professor Fabio Pammolli at Politecnico di Milano analyzes the steep fall on the Italian mobility network during the pandemic and reveals a counterintuitive and somehow paradoxical result, since the contraction of mobility, in relative terms, has been more intense in the Regions where the diffusion of the virus has been negligible. (2020-06-22)

Half of the world's population exposed to increasing air pollution, study shows
Half of the world's population is exposed to increasing air pollution, new research has shown. (2020-06-17)

New method to identify genes that can drive development of brain tumors
Researchers at Uppsala University have developed a method for identifying functional mutations and their effect on genes relevant to the development of glioblastoma. The results show that a specific, evolutionarily conserved, mutation in the vicinity of SEMA3C disrupts the binding of certain proteins whose task is to bind genes and regulate their activity. (2020-06-09)

Scientists made a single-cell-resolution map of brain genes in humans and other primates
A group of scientists led by Philipp Khaitovich, a professor at Skoltech, conducted a large-scale study of gene expression in 33 different brain regions of humans, chimpanzees, macaques and bonobos using the single-cell-resolution transcriptomics technologies and made a map of the different brain regions with their specific cell structures. Such maps are highly valuable for the human evolution research (2020-06-04)

Ancient genomes link subsistence change and human migration in northern China
Northern China is among the first centers in the world where agriculture developed, but its genetic history remains largely unknown. In a new study published in Nature Communications, the eurasia3angle research group analyses 55 ancient genomes from China, finding new correlations between the intensification of subsistence strategies and human migration. This work provides a comprehensive archaeogenetic overview of northern China and fuels the debate about the archaeological and linguistic signatures of past human migration. (2020-06-01)

Latest climate models show more intense droughts to come
An analysis of new climate model projections by Australian researchers from the ARC Centre of Excellence for Climate Extremes shows southwestern Australia and parts of southern Australia will see longer and more intense droughts due to a lack of rainfall caused by climate change. But Australia is not alone. Across the globe, several important agricultural and forested regions in the Amazon, Mediterranean and southern Africa can expect more frequent and intense rainfall droughts. (2020-06-01)

Researchers uncover the arks of genetic diversity in terrestrial mammals
Mapping the distribution of life on Earth, from genes to species to ecosystems, is essential in informing conservation policies and protecting biodiversity. Researchers from the University of Copenhagen and the University of Adelaide developed models based on long-standing evolutionary and ecological theories to explain and map genetic diversity globally, a basal, but up-to-now hidden dimension of biodiversity. (2020-05-22)

Social isolation linked to more severe COVID-19 outbreaks
Regions of Italy with higher family fragmentation and a high number of residential nursing homes experienced the highest rate of COVID-19 infections in people over age 80, according to a new study published May 21, 2020 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Giuseppe Liotta of the University of Rome, Italy, and colleagues. (2020-05-21)

Climate change will bring bigger swings in European summer temperatures
Global average temperatures are set to increase under climate change, but temperature deviations in relation to this average will not be affected in the same way. Instead, hotter or colder deviations will become more or less likely in different regions in different seasons. This study fills in some of the gaps about how climate change will affect summer and winter temperatures in the northern hemisphere. (2020-05-18)

Contrasting trends of PM2.5 and surface ozone in China
In a paper published online in National Science Review, an international team of scientists led by Dr. Yuesi Wang (Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing) and Dr.Yuanhang Zhang (College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Peking University) present contrasting variation trends of PM2.5 and surface ozone concentrations in China from 2013 to 2017. (2020-05-13)

Scientists show MRI predicts the efficacy of a stem cell therapy for brain injury
Scientists at Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute and Loma Linda University Health have demonstrated the promise of applying magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to predict the efficacy of using human neural stem cells to treat a brain injury -- a first-ever 'biomarker' for regenerative medicine that could help personalize stem cell treatments for neurological disorders and improve efficacy. The study was published in Cell Reports. (2020-05-12)

Defining geographic regions with commuter data
A new mathematical approach uses data on people's commutes between and within US counties to identify important geographic regions. Mark He of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and colleagues present this work in the open-access journal PLOS ONE on April 29, 2020. (2020-04-30)

Rapid evolution in fish: genomic changes within a generation
Researchers from Basel have identified the genetic basis of rapid adaptation using a native fish species. They compared threespine stickleback fish from different habitats in the Lake Constance region. Their study reveals that changes in the genome can be observed within a single generation. The results were published in the journal Nature Communications. (2020-04-27)

Corona and air pollution: How does nitrogen dioxide impact fatalities?
Elevated levels of nitrogen dioxide in the air may be associated with a high number of deaths from COVID-19. A new study by Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg (MLU) provides concrete data that back this assumption for the first time. The paper combines satellite data on air pollution and air currents with confirmed deaths related to COVID-19 and reveals that regions with permanently high levels of pollution have significantly more deaths than other regions. (2020-04-20)

Link between air pollution and corona mortality in Italy could be possible
A group of scientists from Aarhus University in Denmark and University of Siena in Italy has found another small piece in the puzzle of understanding COVID-19. Looking for reasons why the mortality rate is up to 12% in the northern part of Italy and only approx. 4.5% in the rest of the country, they found a probable correlation between air pollution and mortality in two of the worst affected regions in northern Italy. (2020-04-06)

International borders continue to hinder cross-border cooperation
Cross-border regions have great potential for cooperation, yet very few border regions are integrated, a new study from the University of Eastern Finland shows. In the border region of Cascadia that connects Seattle in the US with Vancouver in Canada, economic cooperation has been modest despite local decision-makers' high regard of it. (2020-03-31)

Surprise! Ammonia emitted from fertilized paddy fields mostly doesn't end up in the air
A new study indicates that ammonia deposition in the neighborhood of sources can largely reduce the amount of emitted ammonia entering the atmosphere, and thus can reduce atmospheric ammonia pollution. (2020-03-20)

Why monkeys choose to drink alone
Why do some people almost always drop $10 in the Salvation Army bucket and others routinely walk by? One answer may be found in an intricate and rhythmic neuronal dance between two specific brain regions, finds a new Yale University study published Feb. 24, 2020 in the journal Nature Neuroscience. (2020-02-24)

Mediterranean rainfall immediately affected by greenhouse gas changes
Mediterranean-type climates face immediate drops in rainfall when greenhouse gases rise, but this could be interrupted quickly if emissions are cut. (2020-02-17)

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