Current Hippocampus News and Events

Current Hippocampus News and Events, Hippocampus News Articles.
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Immune-compromised people with HIV, APOE4 gene may have a compounded risk for Alzheimer's
People living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who have a history of severe immunosuppression and at least one copy of the Alzheimer's disease-related gene variant APOE4, might see a compounded adverse effect on the circuitry that impacts memory. This could eventually lead to an increased risk for dementia after age 65, according to Georgetown University Medical Center investigators and colleagues. (2021-02-22)

Deep brain stimulation prevents epileptic seizures in mouse model
Scientists led by neurobiologist Prof. Dr. Carola Haas, head of the research group at the Department of Neurosurgery at Medical Center - University of Freiburg and the BrainLinks-BrainTools research center, have investigated a new therapeutic approach to prevent epileptic seizures in temporal lobe epilepsy. They showed in mice that low-frequency stimulation of specific brain areas could completely stop epileptic activity. (2021-02-19)

Mimicking a chronic immune response changes the brain
Abnormal production of Inflammatory cytokines by the immune system is responsible for a host of autoimmune disorders. One important cytokine is IL-17A, which is also involved in neurological diseases. Researchers at Tsukuba University in Japan made a mouse model of chronically high IL-17A and to study its effect on the brain. They show that it leads to reduced activity and density of microglia in the brain's hippocampus, but no obvious memory deficits. (2021-02-17)

Peeking at the pathfinding strategies of the hippocampus in the brain
The Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST) announced that the research team led by Sebastien Royer uncovered that place cells in the hippocampus encode spatial information using interchangeably two distinct information processing mechanisms referred to as a rate code and a phase code, somewhat analogue to the number and spatial arrangement of bars in bar codes. In addition, the research team found that parallel neural circuits and information processing mechanisms are used depending on the complexity of the landmarks along the path. (2021-02-15)

Traumatic stress in childhood can lead to brain changes in adulthood: study
A new study has shown that traumatic or stressful events in childhood may lead to tiny changes in key brain structures that can now be identified decades later. The study is the first to show that trauma or maltreatment during a child's early years--a well-known risk factor for developing mental health conditions such as major depressive disorder in adulthood--triggers changes in specific subregions of the amygdala and the hippocampus. (2021-02-09)

Scientists find promising avenue to restore cognitive function impaired by Alzheimer's disease
A team of neuroscientists has identified a potential means to address the loss of cognitive function due to Alzheimer's disease by targeting protein synthesis in mice. Their findings reveal that synthetic pharmaceuticals could rescue the activity of brain cells needed for memory formation. (2021-02-02)

Prenatal BPA exposure may contribute to the male bias of autism spectrum disorder
Autism has a higher prevalence in males than females. Bisphenol A (BPA) is a common chemical found in plastics, our food, and even the human placenta. Higher prenatal exposure to BPA is thought to increase the risk of autism. Researchers have, for the first time, identified autism candidate genes that may be responsible for the sex-specific effects of BPA. (2021-01-19)

USC study measures brain volume differences in people with HIV
With access to treatment, HIV has become a lifelong chronic condition for the majority of 38 million people living with it. Understanding how it affects the brain over time is increasingly important for improving both treatment and quality of life. A new study of brain scans of 1,203 HIV-infected adults across 5 continents found that with people with lower white blood cell counts also had less brain volume in the hippocampus and thalamus. (2021-01-15)

Neuroscientists identify brain circuit that encodes timing of events
MIT neuroscientists shed new light on how the timing of a memory is encoded in the hippocampus, and suggest that time and space are encoded separately. (2021-01-11)

Intelligence deficit: Conclusion from the mouse to the human being
Impaired intelligence, movement disorders and developmental delays are typical for a group of rare diseases that belong to GPI anchor deficiencies. Researchers now used genetic engineering methods to create a mouse that mimics these patients very well. Studies in this animal model suggest that in GPI anchor deficiencies, a gene mutation impairs the transmission of stimuli at the synapses in the brain. The results are published in the journal PNAS. (2021-01-07)

Brain stem cells divide over months
For the first time, scientists at the University of Zurich have been able to observe the way stem cells in the adult brains of mice divide over the course of months to create new nerve cells. Their study shows that brain stem cells are active over a long period, and thus provides new insights that will feed into stem cell research. (2020-12-21)

How does the brain project manage its learning?
In a paper published today in the prestigious journal Science, a collaboration between University of Ottawa and Humbolt University of Berlin reveals a critical role for a brain area called the perirhinal cortex in managing this learning process. (2020-12-18)

Stress in adolescence leads to learning and memory difficulties and increased anxiety in adulthood
Stress experienced around puberty (peripubertal) worsens learning and memory in adulthood, as well as anxiety related behavior, as shown by a study led by Dr Cristina Márquez, from the Neuronal Circuits of Social Behavior laboratory at the Neuroscience Institute in Alicante (Spain). (2020-12-14)

How childhood brain function and memory skills shape each other
In early childhood, memory skills predict the strength of future brain connections, and conversely, the strength of early brain connections predict future memory acuity. New research published in JNeurosci highlights the complex, bidirectional relationship between brain function and ability during development. (2020-12-14)

How neurons form long-term memories
Harvard Medical School neuroscientists have identified genes that memory neurons use to rewire connections after new experiences. The findings shed light on the biology of long-term memory, with implications for future approaches to intervene when memory deficits occur with age or disease. (2020-12-09)

Anxiety associated with faster Alzheimer's disease onset
Anxiety is associated with an increased rate of progression from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's disease, according to a study being presented at the annual meeting of the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA). (2020-11-24)

DNA repair supports brain cognitive development
Researchers at Osaka University showed that the enzyme Polβ functions in genome maintenance by preventing double-stranded breaks in DNA during brain development in mice. In mice lacking Polβ, these breaks occurred during epigenetic regulation of gene expression in the developing hippocampus, peaking two weeks after birth. The increased breaks were associated with abnormal neuronal dendrites and poor memory ability. (2020-11-11)

Using light to reprogramme the brain's GPS
Neuroscientists at UCL have used laser beams to ''switch on'' neurons in mice, providing new insight into the hidden workings of memory and showing how memories underpin the brain's inner GPS system. (2020-11-06)

Human intelligence just got less mysterious says Leicester neuroscientist
NEUROSCIENCE EXPERTS from the University of Leicester have released research that breaks with the past fifty years of neuroscientific opinion, arguing that the way we store memories is key to making human intelligence superior to that of animals. (2020-11-05)

New method shows great potential for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease
In Alzheimer's disease, a protein (peptide) forms clumps in the brain and causes sufferers to lose their memory. In a recently published article, a research group at Uppsala University described a new treatment method that increases the body's own degradation of the building blocks that lead to these protein clumps. (2020-11-03)

Remembering novelty
The brain and its functions still pose many open questions. One of them is how exactly we form long-term memories about the environment. In a new study Ryuichi Shigemoto and his group from the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria) together with researchers from Aarhus University and the National Institute for Physiological Sciences in Japan discovered a new signaling pathway in the hippocampus area of the brain that regulates how information about new environments is transferred into long-term memory. (2020-10-15)

Deep-brain imaging at synaptic resolution with adaptive optics 2-photon endomicroscopy
Recognizing the need for improved imaging capabilities, a group of scientists from the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST) focused their sights on achieving brain imaging at synaptic resolution. (2020-10-06)

Neuroscientists discover a molecular mechanism that allows memories to form
Encoding memories in engram cells is controlled by large-scale remodeling of the proteins and DNA that make up cells' chromatin, according to an MIT study. This chromatin remodeling, which allows specific genes involved in storing memories to become more active, takes place in multiple stages spread out over several days. (2020-10-05)

Could a poo transplant one day be the secret of eternal youth?
Poo transplants could one day be used to restore cognitive decline among the elderly - according to new research. A new study published today shows how faecal transplants from older to younger mice altered their gut microbiome, which in turn impacted their spatial learning and memory. The research team hope the reverse could also be true, and one day used as a therapy to restore cognitive function in older people. (2020-10-02)

Social novelty has a special place in the brain
Researchers at the RIKEN Center for Brain Science (CBS) in Japan report that a part of the mouse brain called the SuM is specialized for detecting new experiences. Within the SuM, responses to experiences related to unknown individuals--called social novelty--were segregated from those related to unfamiliar places--called context novelty. This discovery can help us understand conditions in which recognizing and reacting to new information is impaired. (2020-09-30)

Research confirms link between sleep apnea and Alzheimer's disease
New research shows damage in the brain starts in the same place and spreads in the same way in sleep apnea, as in Alzheimer's disease. The study is the first to find Alzheimer's-like amyloid plaques in the brains of people with clinically-verified obstructive sleep apnea, a condition that affects more than 936 million people worldwide. (2020-09-28)

Sport and memory go hand in hand
If sport is good for the body, it also seems to be good for the brain. By evaluating memory performance following a sport session, neuroscientists from the University of Geneva demonstrate that an intensive physical exercise session improves memory. How? Through the action of endocanabinoids, molecules known to increase synaptic plasticity. School programmes and strategies aimed at reducing the effects of neurodegeneration on memory could benefit from the study. (2020-09-23)

Scientists discover what happens in our brains when we make educated guesses
Researchers have identified how cells in our brains work together to join up memories of separate experiences, allowing us to make educated guesses in everyday life. By studying both human and mouse brain activity, they report that this process happens in a region of the brain called the hippocampus. (2020-09-17)

Risk gene for Alzheimer's has early effects on the brain
A genetic predisposition to late-onset Alzheimer's disease affects how the brains of young adults cope with certain memory tasks. Researchers from the DZNE and the Ruhr-Universität Bochum report on this in the scientific journal 'Current Biology'. Their findings are based on studies with magnetic resonance imaging in individuals at the age of about 20 years. The scientists suspect that the observed effects could be related to very early disease processes. (2020-09-15)

Research unravels what makes memories so detailed and enduring
In years to come, our personal memories of the COVID-19 pandemic are likely to be etched in our minds with precision and clarity, distinct from other memories of 2020. (2020-09-08)

Using magnetic resonance elastography to detect epilepsy
A new study from the Beckman Institute used magnetic resonance elastography to compare the hippocampal stiffness in healthy individuals with those who have epilepsy. (2020-09-02)

Tel Aviv University study sheds light on brain mechanism activated by uncertainty
A new Tel Aviv University study examined the brain's reactions in conditions of uncertainty and stressful conflict in an environment of risks and opportunities. The researchers identified the areas of the brain responsible for the delicate balance between desiring gain and avoiding loss along the way. (2020-09-01)

Brain protein linked to seizures, abnormal social behaviors
A team led by a biomedical scientist at the University of California, Riverside has found a new mechanism responsible for the abnormal development of neuronal connections in the mouse brain that leads to seizures and abnormal social behaviors. (2020-08-31)

Female chromosomes offer resilience to Alzheimer's
Women live longer than men with Alzheimer's because their sex chromosomes give them genetic protection from the ravages of the disease. Women get two ''doses'' of a gene that only exists on the X chromosome. And some people, both male and female, have an especially potent variant of this gene. Long-term studies of older people, many of whom already had mild cognitive impairment, showed women with one or two copies of the variant progressed more slowly toward Alzheimer's. (2020-08-26)

Brain remapping dysfunction causes spatial memory impairment in Alzheimer's disease
A research group elucidated the brain circuit mechanism that cause of spatial memory impairment in Alzheimer's disease.In the future, improving brain remapping function may reverse spatial memory impairment in patients with Alzheimer's disease. (2020-08-19)

Recalling memories from a third-person perspective changes how our brain processes them
Adopting a third-person, observer point of view when recalling your past activates different parts of your brain than recalling a memory seen through your own eyes, according to a new paper. (2020-08-13)

Impact of family income on learning in children shaped by hippocampus in brain
A new study by a team of researchers at the University of Toronto identifies the region of the brain's hippocampus that links low income with decreased memory and language ability in children. The research shows it is the anterior hippocampus that is associated with differences in cognition related to income. (2020-08-12)

Aging memories may not be 'worse, 'just 'different'
A study from the Department of Psychological & Brain Sciences in Arts & Sciences adds nuance to the idea that an aging memory is a poor one and finds a potential correlation between the way people process the boundaries of events and episodic memory. (2020-08-11)

Detailed molecular workings of a key system in learning and memory formation
UMass Amherst biochemist Margaret Strattob and colleagues report how they used advanced sequencing technology to clear up uncertainty and determine all variants of a single protein/enzyme known as calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) in the hippocampus, the brain's memory center. (2020-08-10)

The bouncer in the brain
How do you keep orientation in a complex environment, like the city of Vienna? You can thank your brain's ''global positioning system'' (GPS), the hippocampus, for this sense of orientation. To further understand its functions, scientists at the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria) analyzed single neurons of this GPS in mice. They discovered that so-called granule cells filter and sharpen spatial information. The researchers recently published their findings in Neuron. (2020-08-06)

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