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Current Human Brain News and Events, Human Brain News Articles.
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Untangling the where and when of walking in the brain
How do our brains know when and where to place our feet in order to prevent us from tripping each time we find ourselves on a new terrain such as a icy path, or a sandy beach? In an innovative study, scientists in Lisbon, Portugal, find remarkable similarities between the way humans and mice learn to adapt their manner of walking and pinpoint a site in the brain that controls two components crucial for mastering this task -- space and time. (2019-02-19)

Scientists create new map of brain's immune system
A team of researchers under the direction of the Medical Center -- University of Freiburg has created an entirely new map of the brain's own immune system in humans and mice. (2019-02-19)

Visualizing mental valuation processes
Rafael Polanía and his team of ETH researchers have developed a computer model capable of predicting certain human decisions. With it, researchers can predict for example which food someone in a supermarket will choose to buy -- valuable information for marketing and health. (2019-02-19)

Potential link between vitamin D deficiency and loss of brain plasticity
University of Queensland research may explain why vitamin D is vital for brain health, and how deficiency leads to disorders including depression and schizophrenia. Associate Professor Thomas Burne at UQ's Queensland Brain Institute led the studies, which provide the groundwork for research into better prevention and treatments. 'Over a billion people worldwide are affected by vitamin D deficiency, and there is a well-established link between vitamin D deficiency and impaired cognition,' Dr. Burne said. (2019-02-19)

Brain represents optical illusion as delayed reality
A study of humans and monkeys published in JNeurosci has found the same subset of neurons encode actual and illusory complex flow motion. This finding supports, at the level of single neurons, what the Czech scientist Jan Purkinje surmised 150 years ago: 'Illusions contain visual truth.' (2019-02-18)

Mapping brain circuits in newborns may aid early detection of autism
A new map of newborn babies' brains offers details of structure that will provide a new reference for researchers studying both typical brain development and neurological disorders. Using noninvasive, 20-minute MRI scans, researchers have revealed some of the complex and precisely organized brain architecture that emerges as the brain reshapes itself during the third trimester of pregnancy. (2019-02-18)

Trinity College Dublin researchers describe the first model of mitochondrial epilepsy
Researchers from Trinity College Dublin have become the first to describe a model of mitochondrial epilepsy which raises hope for better therapies for patients with this incapacitating condition.Despite the severity of this epilepsy, up to now there have been no animal models available to provide a mechanistic understanding of the condition. That is set to change though as researchers at Trinity can now explain the important role that astrocytes play in seizure generation. (2019-02-15)

Breaks in the blood-brain barrier can cause brains to get old before their time
Daniela Kaufer, a professor at UC Berkeley and fellow in the CIFAR Child & Brain Development program, has discovered one of the biological pathways that lead to age-related cognitive decline, and has found clues on how to reverse the aging process in the brain. (2019-02-14)

Brain pathways of aversion identified
What happens in the brain when we feel discomfort? Researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden are now one step closer to finding the answer. In a new study published in the journal Molecular Psychiatry they identify which pathways in the mouse brain control behaviour associated with aversion. (2019-02-14)

Exercise gives older men a better brain boost
New research suggests that the relationship between physical and brain fitness varies in older adults by virtue of their sex. The study is published ahead of print in the Journal of Applied Physiology. (2019-02-13)

Consciousness rests on the brain's ability to sustain rich dynamics of neural activity
Consciousness, from the moment we go to sleep until we wake up, seems to come and go every day. Consciousness can be temporarily abolished by pharmacological agents or more permanently by brain injury. Each of these departures from conscious wakefulness brings about different changes in brain function, behaviour and in the brain's neurochemistry. However, they all share a common feature: the lack of reported subjective experience. (2019-02-12)

Uncovering the evolution of the brain
What makes us human, and where does this mysterious property of 'humanness' come from? Humans are genetically similar to chimpanzees and bonobos, yet there exist obvious behavioral and cognitive differences. Now, researchers from the Salk Institute, in collaboration with researchers from the anthropology department at UC San Diego, have developed a strategy to more easily study the early development of human neurons compared with the neurons of nonhuman primates. (2019-02-12)

Brain clock ticks differently in autism
The neural 'time windows' in certain small brain areas contribute to the complex cognitive symptoms of autism, new research suggests. In a brain imaging study of adults, the severity of autistic symptoms was linked to how long these brain areas stored information. The differences in neural timescales may underlie features of autism like hypersensitivity and could be useful as a future diagnostic tool. (2019-02-12)

Researchers closer to new Alzheimer's therapy with brain blood flow discovery
By discovering the culprit behind decreased blood flow in the brain of people with Alzheimer's, biomedical engineers at Cornell University have made possible promising new therapies for the disease. (2019-02-11)

Heavy drinking in teens causes lasting changes in emotional center of brain
Lasting changes in the brain caused by drinking that starts in adolescence are the result of epigenetic changes that alter the expression of a protein crucial for the formation and maintenance of neural connections in the amygdala -- the part of the brain involved in emotion, fear and anxiety. (2019-02-06)

Brain patterns indicative of consciousness, in unconscious individuals
Amid longstanding difficulties distinguishing consciousness in humans in unconscious states, scientists report fMRI-based evidence of distinct patterns of brain activity they say can differentiate between consciousness or unconsciousness. Detecting these patterns in real-time could allow for externally induced manipulations that noninvasively restore consciousness. (2019-02-06)

Body building supplement could be bad for the brain
L-norvaline is an ingredient widely used in body building supplements and is promoted as a compound that can boost workouts and aid recovery. Similar compounds have been linked to neurodegenerative diseases and a study on human cells, by scientists from the University of Technology Sydney, suggests L-norvaline may also cause damage to brain cells. (2019-02-06)

A breakthrough for brain tumor drug development
Glioblastoma is a devastating disease with poor survival stats due in part to a lack of preclinical models for new drug testing. To address these challenges a multidisciplinary team of researchers have developed a human relevant 3D model containing tumor and normal cells and a platform for accurate drug efficacy measurements. An experimental therapy doxorubicin (DOX) was tested and found to be more active in the model than the existing therapy. (2019-02-05)

A new culprit of cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease
Scientists at the Gladstone Institutes, led by Senior Investigator Katerina Akassoglou, Ph.D., showed for the first time that a blood-clotting protein called fibrinogen is responsible for a series of molecular and cellular events that can destroy connections between neurons in the brain and result in cognitive decline. (2019-02-05)

Biggest ever map of human Alzheimer's brain published
A study of the differences between healthy brains and those with Alzheimer's disease has produced largest dataset of its type ever. And the data, developed by a team of researchers led by Dr. Richard Unwin at the University of Manchester, is now freely available online for any scientist to use. (2019-02-04)

Boosting glutamate reduces anxiety in monkeys
Researchers studying male and female marmosets have homed in on the primate brain circuitry responsible for individual differences in overall anxiety. Their findings, published in JNeurosci, show that increasing levels of the neurotransmitter glutamate in the hippocampus normalizes anxious monkeys' 'fight or flight' response. (2019-02-04)

Women's brains appear three years younger than men's
Women's brains appear to be three years younger than men's of the same age, according to a new study on brain metabolism from researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis. The findings could explain why women maintain their cognitive skills longer than men. (2019-02-04)

Fight or flight: Serotonin neurons prompt brain to make the right call
Known for its role in relieving depression, the neurochemical serotonin may also help the brain execute instantaneous, appropriate behaviors in emergency situations, according to a new Cornell study published Feb. 1 in Science. (2019-01-31)

Difference in brain connectivity may explain autism spectrum disorder
Researchers have identified a possible mechanism of human cognition that underlies autism spectrum disorders, or ASD. They found there was brain overconnectivity in the unimodal-subcortical connections and brain underconnectivity in the supramodal-subcortical connections for ASD individuals, as compared to the typically developing control group, suggesting a relationship between connectivity and the expression of ASD. (2019-01-30)

Stress and dream sleep are linked to pathways of brain cell death and survival
The first and most distinct consequence of daily mild stress is an increase in rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, a new study in the journal PNAS reports. The research also demonstrated that this increase is associated with genes involved in cell death and survival. (2019-01-28)

What you eat could impact your brain and memory
High levels of a satiety hormone could decrease a person's likelihood of developing Alzheimer's disease. For individuals who have higher levels of the hormone, their chance of having mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer's disease decreased by 65 percent, according to an Iowa State University study. (2019-01-28)

Do bigger brains equal smarter dogs? New study offers answers
Larger dogs have better short-term memory and self-control than smaller breeds, according to research led by the Arizona Canine Cognition Center at the University of Arizona. (2019-01-28)

Graphene can hear your brain whisper
A newly developed graphene-based implant can record electrical activity in the brain at extremely low frequencies and over large areas, unlocking the wealth of information found below 0.1 Hz. This technology, which will be showcased in the Graphene Pavilion at Mobile World Congress in Barcelona (25-28 February 2019) was developed by Graphene Flagship partners at the Barcelona Microelectronics Institute (IMB-CNM, CSIC), the Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (ICN2), and ICFO. (2019-01-24)

Lessons learned from the adult neurogenesis debate
Since the 1960s, consensus about whether human adults generate new neurons with age has swayed back and forth from 'yes, at least in some places in the brain' to 'no, not at all.' In a review paper published Jan. 24 in the journal Trends in Neurosciences, University of British Columbia professor Jason Snyder argues that the conflicting reports are reconcilable and reveal issues related to the way we study the brain. (2019-01-24)

New insights into why we crave fatty foods when dieting
Researchers from The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston have identified new brain circuits that may act as a brake on binge eating and junk food craving. In rats who had spent a month eating a low-fat diet, researchers successfully inhibited the fatty food seeking behaviors. (2019-01-24)

With less sleep, tau release in the brain goes up
The sleep-wake cycle affects the levels of a protein in our brain called tau, a new study in animals and humans shows. (2019-01-24)

IUPUI researchers re-create retinal microenvironment in a dish with human stem cells
IUPUI biologists have developed a way to create more-mature models that better mimic the environment in the human retina by creating cells that can be further used to study disease such as glaucoma. (2019-01-24)

Study sheds light on brain cell changes in people with MS
Fresh insights into the types of cells found in the brains of people with multiple sclerosis could help develop improved therapies, research has found. The study from experts at the University of Edinburgh and the Karolinska Institute focused on cells in the brain that help to repair damage to nerve cells caused by the disease. (2019-01-23)

Even in young adults, blood pressure above normal may be linked to brain shrinkage
For people in their 20s and 30s, having blood pressure above normal but below the level considered to be high blood pressure, may be linked to loss of brain volume, according to a study published in the January 23, 2019, online issue of Neurology®, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology. (2019-01-23)

Researchers create road map of care for children with severe head trauma
PEGASUS is the first comprehensive care model for children with head trauma, said lead researcher Monica Vavilala, director of Harborview's Injury Prevention and Research Center in Seattle. (2019-01-23)

Fralin Biomedical Research Institute scientists link concussions to epilepsy development
Experiments by Fralin Biomedical Research Institute scientists show a strong relationship between changes in astrocytes after mild traumatic brain injury and the eventual occurrence of a seizure. (2019-01-22)

All too human
Professor Rony Paz of the Weizmann Institute of Science suggests that our brains are like modern washing machines -- evolved to have the latest sophisticated programming, but more vulnerable to breakdown and prone to develop costly disorders. He and a group of researchers recently conducted experiments comparing the efficiency of the neural code in non-human and human primates, and found that as the neural code gets more efficient, the robustness that prevents errors is reduced. (2019-01-22)

How concussions may lead to epilepsy
Researchers have identified a cellular response to repeated concussions that may contribute to seizures in mice like those observed following traumatic brain injury in humans. The study, published in JNeurosci, establishes a new animal model that could help improve our understanding of post-traumatic epilepsy. (2019-01-21)

How our brains distinguish between self-touch and touch by others
Our brains seem to reduce sensory perception from an area of our skin when we touch it ourselves, according to a new study from Linköping University, Sweden, published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, PNAS. The finding increases our understanding of how the brain distinguishes between being touched by another person and self-touch. (2019-01-21)

Researchers for the first time identify neurons in the human visual cortex that respond to faces
A new study identifies the neurons in the human visual cortex that selectively respond to faces. The researchers showed that the neurons in the visual cortex (in the vicinity of the Fusiform Face Area) responded much more strongly to faces than to city landscapes or objects. In an additional experiment, the neurons exhibited face-selectivity to human and animal faces that appeared within a movie. The results provide unique insights into human brain functioning at the cellular level during face processing. (2019-01-21)

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