Current Human Genome News and Events

Current Human Genome News and Events, Human Genome News Articles.
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Oncotarget: Prognostic biomarker for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma
Reduced expression of TBX15 in tumor tissue represents a potential biomarker for predicting poor survival of patients with HCC (2021-01-25)

Meta-Apo supports cheaper, quicker microbiome functional assessment
A new algorithm called Meta-Apo, developed by researchers led by JING Gongchao of the Qingdao Institute of BioEnergy and Bioprocess Technology (QIBEBT) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) may reduce the need for expensive, time-consuming whole-genome sequencing computations to understand how a microbiome functions. (2021-01-22)

University of Cincinnati student uses zebrafish to study spinal deformities
Oriana Zinani, a doctoral student in molecular developmental biology at the University of Cincinnati, is part of a team of researchers using zebrafish embryos to study a gene mutation that causes scoliosis, a sideways curvature of the spine that typically occurs in humans just before puberty. (2021-01-22)

UMD researcher expands plant genome editing with newly engineered variant of CRISPR-Cas9
Recently named a Web of Science 2020 Highly Cited Researcher, Yiping Qi of the University of Maryland already has a new high-profile publication in 2021 introducing SpRY, a newly engineered variant of the famed gene editing tool CRISPR-Cas9. SpRY removes the barriers of what can and can't be targeted for gene editing, making it possible for the first time to target nearly any genomic sequence in plants for potential mutation. (2021-01-22)

Getting under your skin: Molecular research builds new understanding of skin regeneration
New research from Northwestern University has found new evidence deep within the skin about the mechanisms controlling skin repair and renewal. (2021-01-19)

Why remdesivir does not fully stop the coronavirus
Their results explain why the drug has a rather weak effect (2021-01-18)

What the lungfishes' genome teaches us about the vertebrates' conquest of land
The genome of the Australian lungfish is the largest sequenced animal genome and helps us to better understand the conquest of land by vertebrates - study led by evolutionary biologists from the University of Konstanz (2021-01-18)

CCNY's David Lohman finds Asian butterfly mimics different species as defense mechanism
Many animal and insect species use Batesian mimicry - mimicking a poisonous species - as a defense against predators. The common palmfly, Elymnias hypermnestra (a species of satyrine butterfly), which is found throughout wide areas of tropical and subtropical Asia, adds a twist to this evolutionary strategy: the females evolved two distinct forms, either orange or dark brown, imitating two separate poisonous model species, Danaus or Euploea. (2021-01-14)

Ukraine genome survey adds missing pieces to human diversity puzzle
The largest study of genetic diversity in Ukraine was published in the open science journal GigaScience. Led by researchers at Uzhhorod National University and Oakland University in the US, the work provides genetic understanding of the historic and pre-historic migration settlements in one of the key intersections of human trade and migration between the Eurasian peoples and identifies genetic variants of medical interest in the Ukrainian population that differ from other European populations. (2021-01-13)

New molecular structures associated with ALS
Researchers from the University of Seville and the University of Pavia have identified a link between Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and the accumulation of DNA-RNA hybrids in the genome. The accumulation of these hybrids causes increased genomic damage and boosts genetic instability. This finding will make it possible to better understand the molecular basis of the disease, as well as to propose new solutions to curb it. (2021-01-13)

Inferring human genomes at a fraction of the cost promises to boost biomedical research
A new method, developed by Olivier Delaneau's group at the SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics and the University of Lausanne, offers game-changing possibilities for genetic association studies and biomedical research. For less than $1 in computational cost, GLIMPSE is able to statistically infer a complete human genome from a very small amount of data. It offers a first realistic alternative to current approaches, and so allows a wider inclusion of underrepresented populations. (2021-01-13)

A bucket of water can reveal climate change impacts on marine life in the Arctic
We know very little about marine life in the Arctic. Now researchers from the University of Copenhagen, among others, are trying to change that. They have shown that a simple water sample makes it possible to monitor the presence, migration patterns and genetic diversity of bowhead whales in an otherwise hard-to-reach area. The method can be used to understand how climate changes and human activities impact life in the oceans. (2021-01-12)

Chloroplasts on the move
How different plants can share their genetic material with each other (2021-01-11)

Breakthrough on diarrhea virus opens up for new vaccines
Researchers at Umeå University in Sweden have for the first time at the atomic level succeeded in mapping what a virus looks like that causes diarrhea and annually kills about 50,000 children in the world. The discovery may in the long run provide the opportunity for completely new types of treatments for other viral diseases such as COVID-19. (2021-01-11)

Genomes reveal insights into much-loved Aussie animals
Researchers have brought together expertise in bioinformatics, cytogenetics, developmental and molecular biology to produce and analyse the first ever echidna genome and a greatly improved, high quality platypus genome sequence. (2021-01-07)

NHGRI proposes an action agenda for building a diverse genomics workforce
The National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) within the National Institutes of Health (NIH) has released a new action agenda for a diverse genomics workforce. This ambitious set of goals, objectives, and implementation strategies details NHGRI's plans for enhancing the diversity of the genomics workforce by 2030. (2021-01-07)

Unusual sex chromosomes of platypus, emu and duck
Three studies uncovered the unusual sex chromosomes of platypus, emu and Peking duck. Platypus have five pairs of sex chromosomes forming an unusual chain shape, while the sex chromosomes of emu and duck are not as different between sexes as those of human. The studies were led or co-led by Qi Zhou's group at the University of Vienna and Zhejiang University of China and are published as research papers in the journals Nature, Genome Research and GigaScience. (2021-01-07)

Long-term study finds dozens of new genetic markers associated with lifetime bone growth
A multidisciplinary team of researchers has discovered several genetic markers associated with bone mineral accrual, which could ultimately help identify causes of eventual osteoporosis earlier in life through genetic testing. (2021-01-06)

Integrator: A guardian of the human transcriptome
In a joint collaboration, Danish and German researchers have characterized a cellular activity that protects our cells from potentially toxic by-products of gene expression. This activity is central for the ability of multicellular organisms to uphold a robust evolutionary 'reservoir' of gene products. (2021-01-05)

New mammal reference genome helps ID genetic variants for human health
A new reference genome assembly identified more than 85 million genetic variants in the rhesus macaque, the largest database of genetic variation for any one nonhuman primate species to date. (2020-12-23)

Fungal RNA viruses: Unexpected complexity affecting more than your breakfast omelet
Traditional approaches for studying fungal RNA viruses have relied upon sequence similarity, resulting in an underestimation of RNA viral genome diversity. Researchers from the University of Tsukuba used an advanced technological approach called Fragmented and Primer Ligated Double Stranded RNA sequencing, or FLDS, to identify viral sequences that were previously overlooked. They identified novel viruses and viral genome structures and show that FLDS is a powerful tool for understanding RNA viral genome diversity. (2020-12-21)

Corona: How the virus interacts with cells
Scientists from Würzburg and the US have charted the first global atlas of direct interactions between SARS-CoV-2 RNA and human host cells. This may provide a starting point for novel treatments. (2020-12-21)

The far-reaching effects of mutagens on human health
Mutagenic threats to a cell's subtle machinery may be far more widespread than previously appreciated. In a new study, Michael Lynch and his colleagues demonstrate that DNA mutation itself may represent only a fraction the health-related havoc caused by mutagens. The study highlights the ability of mutagenic compounds to also affect the process of transcription, during which a DNA sequence is converted (or transcribed) to mRNA, an intermediary stage preceding translation into protein. (2020-12-21)

HSE researchers use neural networks to study DNA
HSE scientists have proposed a way to improve the accuracy of finding Z-DNA, or DNA regions that are twisted to the left instead of to the right. To do this, they used neural networks and a dataset of more than 30,000 experiments conducted by different laboratories around the world. Details of the study are published in Scientific Reports. (2020-12-17)

Improved macaque genome enhances biomedical utility
Using advanced sequencing technology, researchers present a new, improved and far more complete reference genome for the rhesus macaque - one of the most important animal models in biomedical research. (2020-12-17)

The DNA regions in our brain that contribute to make us human
With only 1% difference, the human and chimpanzee protein-coding genomes are remarkably similar. Understanding the biological features that make us human is part of a fascinating and intensely debated line of research. Researchers at the SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics and the University of Lausanne have developed a new approach to pinpoint, for the first time, adaptive human-specific changes in the way genes are regulated in the brain. (2020-12-16)

Whole genomes map pathways of chimpanzee and bonobo divergence
Chimpanzees and bonobos are sister species that diverged around 1.8 million years ago as the Congo River formed a geographic boundary and they evolved in separate environments. Now, a whole-genome comparison of bonobos and chimpanzees reveals the gene pathways associated with the striking differences between the two species' diets, sociality and sexual behaviors. (2020-12-16)

Scientists found out genes involved in a compound in lichens with antiviral activity
Lichens are of great importance both ecologically and as a biological model. These organisms produce a wide range of secondary metabolites, including usnic acid, a compound with unknown biological function but which in-vitro studies have found to present antiviral, neuroprotective and anti-cancer activity. An international research team led by the Complutense University of Madrid has identified the cluster of biosynthetic genes involved in the production of this compound. (2020-12-11)

'Fun size' Cas9 nucleases hold promise for easier genome editing
Researchers from Skoltech and their colleagues from Russia and the US have described two new, compact Cas9 nucleases, the cutting components of CRISPR-Cas systems, that will potentially expand the Cas9 toolbox for genome editing. In vitro studies and experiments in bacteria showed that these two nucleases are efficient at cleaving DNA, and the P. pneumotropica Cas9 nuclease is active in human cells. (2020-12-10)

Deadly, emergent cancer becoming endemic in Tasmanian devils, reducing extinction threat
An emergent transmissible cancer that once threatened Tasmanian devils with extinction appears to be transitioning to a state of endemism, researchers report. (2020-12-10)

Using CRISPR, new technique makes it easy to map genetic networks
UC Berkeley scientists has developed an easy way to genetically profile a cell, including human cells, and rapidly determine all DNA sequences in the genome that regulate expression of a specific gene. This can help track down upstream genes that regulate disease genes, and potentially find new drug targets. The technique involves CRISPRing the entire genome while giving each CRISPR guide RNA a unique barcode. Deep sequencing of pooled cells uniquely identifies control genes. (2020-12-10)

Neuropeptide discoveries could someday help defeat the dreaded cockroach
Cockroaches are notorious for their abilities to survive and reproduce, much to humanity's chagrin. In addition to scurrying around at night, feeding on human and pet food, and generating an offensive odor, the pests can transmit pathogens and cause allergic reactions. Now, researchers reporting in ACS' Journal of Proteome Research have identified neuropeptides produced by the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana) that could someday be targeted by new, more selective and effective pesticides. (2020-12-09)

'Off switch' during error-prone cell cycle phase may fix CRISPR's unwanted changes problem
Turning off gene-editing until it reaches cell cycle phases where more accurate repairs are likely to happen offers a promising fix to CRISPR-Cas9's problem with unwanted genetic changes. (2020-12-04)

Researchers developed a sequence analysis pipeline for virus discovery
A novel bioinformatics pipeline identifies both previously known and novel viruses. (2020-12-03)

Advancing gene editing with new CRISPR/Cas9 variant
Researchers report the ability to improve safety and efficacy using a CRISPR-Cas9 variant known as miCas9. (2020-12-03)

Study highlights strategies for boosting accuracy of personal genetic risk scores
As the consumer genetics industry rapidly expands, more and more people are turning to DNA-based services to learn their risk of developing a wide range of diseases. However, the risk scores from these genetic tests are not always as precise as they could be, according to a new study from Scripps Research. The scientists examine many approaches to calculating the scores and recommend that personal genomics organizations adopt standards that will raise the bar for accuracy. (2020-12-03)

Bluestar Genomics, UChicago publish whole genome map of key biomarker for detecting cancer
Bluestar Genomics, an innovative company leading the development of next-generation epigenomic approaches to cancer detection, and University of Chicago today announce the publication of a genome-wide 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) map across multiple human tissue types. The study, published in the peer-reviewed journal Nature Communications, demonstrated the robust performance of 5hmC as a global biomarker for the detection of multiple serious illnesses, such as cancer and various chronic diseases. (2020-12-02)

New activity found for CHD7, a protein factor vital in embryonic development
Research has yielded fundamental insights into the causes of severe birth defects known as CHARGE syndrome cases. These congenital birth defects include severe and life-threatening heart malformations. Researchers successfully inactivated the gene for CHD7 in the neural crest cells of mouse embryos, and then rigorously probed how this change in developing cardiac neural crest cells caused severe defects in the outflow tract and great arteries, leading to perinatal lethality. (2020-12-02)

Tomato's wild ancestor is a genomic reservoir for plant breeders
Today's tomatoes are larger and easier to farm than their wild ancestor, but they also are less resistant to disease and environmental stresses like drought and salty soil. Researchers from Boyce Thompson Institute created a high-quality genome for the ancestor, discovering structural variants that are involved in fruit flavor, size and ripening, stress tolerance and disease resistance. Plant breeders could use the resource to develop tomatoes that taste better, are more nutritious and more resilient. (2020-12-01)

New DNA scanning method could lead to quicker diagnosis of cancer and rare disease
Scientists at the University of Nottingham have made a major breakthrough in genome sequencing, which will enable them to search for the underlying causes of diseases in human DNA quicker than ever before. (2020-11-30)

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