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Confused cells lead to genetic disorders like heart problems, premature aging
It has been disorienting to the scientific and medical community as to why different subtle changes in a protein-coding gene causes many different genetic disorders in different patients -- including premature aging, nerve problems, heart problems and muscle problems. no other gene works like this. According to a new study, co-authored by Binghamton University faculty Eric Hoffman, it has to do with cell 'commitment.' (2016-04-21)

Plant signals travel different routes to turn on defense
Faced with a pathogen, important signaling chemicals within plant cells travel different routes to inform the plant to turn on its defense mechanisms, according to a recent University of Kentucky study. (2016-04-21)

Cool combination produces easier carbon bonds
By combining two century-old techniques in organic chemistry, Syuzanna Harutyunyan is able to make organic compounds with greater ease and precision. Such compounds are important for drug discovery and development. Harutyunyan's method is described in a paper that will be published by the journal Science on April 22. (2016-04-21)

Tap water and table salt may be safer and cheaper for milk production cleanup
A safer option for cleaning milking systems on dairy farms may also decrease cleaning time and cost, according to a team of Penn State engineers. (2016-04-20)

Investigational treatment provides hope for some chronic liver disease sufferers
A new study presented today provides hope for a new treatment in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis, a rare condition characterized by inflammation and scarring in the bile ducts of the liver and for which there are currently no medicines. (2016-04-16)

Commonly used reflux and ulcer medication may cause serious kidney damage
Patients who took proton pump inhibitors for heartburn, acid reflux, or ulcers had an increased risk of kidney function decline, chronic kidney disease, and kidney failure. The longer patients took the drugs, the greater their risk. (2016-04-14)

Lowering cholesterol with veg oils may not curb heart disease risk or help you live longer
Replacing saturated fats with vegetable oils rich in linoleic acid lowers blood cholesterol, but doesn't curb heart disease risk or help you live longer, suggests a study published by The BMJ today. (2016-04-12)

Did butter get a bad rap?
New research of old data suggests that using vegetable oils high in linoleic acid failed to reduce heart disease and overall mortality even though the intervention reduced cholesterol levels. And researchers found that consuming vegetable oils might actually be worse for heart health than eating butter. (2016-04-12)

Dressed to kill: Tailoring a suit for tumor-penetrating cancer meds
Tiny capsules, called nanoparticles, are now being used to transport chemotherapy medicine to cancerous tumors. Drexel University researchers believe that the trick to gaining access to the pernicious cellular masses is to give these nanoparticles a new look. (2016-04-08)

Clarified longtime mystery -- transporter protein involved in renal reabsorption of cystine
An international research group clarified that AGT1/SLC7A13, a membrane protein in kidneys, is identified as a transporter protein involved in renal reabsorption of cystine. AGT1 is an unknown factor that binds with the protein rBAT/SLC3A2, whose mutations may cause cystinuria leading to serious kidney failure. The group demonstrated the possibility that changes in AGT1 may contribute to the development of cystinuria. This achievement may lead to the development of new therapeutic methods for cystinuria. (2016-04-04)

SSRI antidepressants promote bone loss during lactation
Antidepressant use with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) during pregnancy and breast-feeding causes decreased bone density in mothers that may put them at higher risk of broken bones later in life, a new study suggests. Researchers will present the results of their animal study Friday at the Endocrine Society's 98th annual meeting in Boston. (2016-04-03)

A Paleolithic-type diet may help reduce future risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease
A Paleolithic-type diet may help obese postmenopausal women lose weight, improve their circulating fatty acid profile and lower their future risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease, new research reports. The study results will be presented in a poster Sunday, April 3, at ENDO 2016, the annual meeting of the Endocrine Society, in Boston. (2016-04-02)

Are we what we eat?
In a new evolutionary proof of the old adage, 'we are what we eat,' Cornell University scientists have found tantalizing evidence that a vegetarian diet has led to a mutation that -- if they stray from a balanced omega-6 to omega-3 diet -- may make people more susceptible to inflammation, and by association, increased risk of heart disease and colon cancer. (2016-03-29)

Restoring the American chestnut
Scientists performed four experiments in which they examined vessel type, hormone, activated charcoal concentrations, and using a vermiculite substrate to improve the post-rooting stage of an American chestnut propagation protocol. They recommended using semisolid post-rooting medium containing activated charcoal and humic acid in disposable fast-food takeout containers. A trend evidenced across the experiments was that activated charcoal enhanced root growth but slightly decreased shoot tip survival. (2016-03-28)

Uric acid, gout and kidney disease: The chicken or the egg?
The increasing prevalence of both gout and chronic kidney disease has led to a growing interest in the association between hyperuricemia (an abnormally high level of uric acid in the blood) and kidney disease. (2016-03-28)

High serum omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations linked to lower risk of type 2 diabetes
A new study from the University of Eastern Finland shows that high serum omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations are linked to a significantly reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. The findings were published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. (2016-03-24)

Microneedle patch delivers localized cancer immunotherapy to melanoma
Biomedical engineering researchers have developed a technique that uses a patch embedded with microneedles to deliver cancer immunotherapy treatment directly to the site of melanoma skin cancer. In animal studies, the technique more effectively targeted melanoma than other immunotherapy treatments. (2016-03-24)

Damage-signalling protein shows parallels between plant and human immune systems
Professor Daniel Klessig and colleagues at the Boyce Thompson Institute have identified a novel 'DAMP' molecule in plants that triggers an immune response after tissue damage. Knowledge of this protein and its human equivalent give us a cross-kingdom understanding of how humans and plants fight off infections. (2016-03-24)

Survival of the hardest working
An engineering team at Washington University in St. Louis developed a cellular kill switch, a sensor that rewards hard working cells and eliminates their lazy counterparts. The high-tech engineering fix could help improve production of biofuels and pharmaceuticals. (2016-03-21)

IU biochemist finds solution to 'acid shock' in craft brewers' sour beer production
Indiana University researchers have found that conditions common in the production of certain types of craft beers can inhibit the successful production of these brews, risking a growing segment of an industry whose economic impact was recently estimated at $55 billion. Sour beers are one of the fastest growing segments of the craft beer industry. The work appears in the journal Food Microbiology. (2016-03-21)

Capturing the acid-base reactions in alcohol
Prof. Kwon's work has been selected to appear on the front cover of the Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters. (2016-03-18)

Researchers refute textbook knowledge on macrophage metabolism in inflammatory diseases
What happens when macrophage immune cells are activated in the course of an inflammation to combat pathogens such as bacteria or viruses? Researchers of the Luxembourg Centre for Systems Biomedicine of the University of Luxembourg pursued this very question. The researchers discovered that the immune cells behave differently from what was previously assumed. Their metabolism upholds the production of antimicrobial substances and fatty acids during activation. In this way, they deliver important resources for the immune responses they trigger. (2016-03-17)

Starvation signals control intestinal inflammation in mice
Intestinal inflammation in mice can be dampened by subjecting them briefly to a diet restricted in amino acids, the building blocks of proteins, researchers have found. (2016-03-16)

Proved the great antitumoral potential of a compound derived from olives
Researchers from the universities of Granada, Barcelona and Jaen prove that maslinic acid, a natural triterpene found in high concentrations in the waxy skin of olives, is effective, in Caco-2 p53-deficient colon adenocarcinoma cells, in just a few hours. (2016-03-10)

Fighting cavities could one day be as easy as taking a pill, research shows
University of Florida Health researchers have identified a new strain of bacteria in the mouth that may keep bad bacteria in check -- and could lead to a way to prevent cavities using probiotics. (2016-03-10)

Compounds restore antibiotics' efficacy against MRSA
Antibiotics rendered useless by the notorious methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, (MRSA) may get a second life, thanks to compounds that can restore the bug's susceptibility to antibiotics, according to a new study in mice. (2016-03-09)

Time to rethink your vegetable oil?
Risk of heart disease and diabetes may be lowered by a diet higher in a lipid found in grapeseed and other oils, but not in olive oil, a new study suggests. (2016-03-07)

PGK1 protein promotes brain tumor formation and cancer metabolism
PGK1, a glycolytic enzyme, has been found to play a role in coordinating cellular processes crucial to cancer metabolism and brain tumor formation, according to results published in today's online issue of Molecular Cell. (2016-03-03)

Study: TXA safe and effective to reduce blood loss in joint replacement surgery
Blood loss and the need for a blood transfusion are major concerns in joint replacement surgery, but a new use for an old drug is proving effective in reducing blood loss and transfusion rates, according to a study at Hospital for Special Surgery. The drug, tranexamic acid, or TXA, has been used for decades in heart surgery, to treat hemophilia and to stop excessive uterine bleeding. (2016-03-01)

From backyard pool chemical to nanomaterial
A molecule used to disinfect water could be key to building a new kind of DNA structure. (2016-03-01)

Depression is more than a mental disorder: It affects the whole organism
This work could explain the significant association that depression has with cardiovascular diseases and cancer, and why people with depression die younger. (2016-03-01)

Zolodrenic acid can prevent early bone loss in HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy
A single dose of the drug zoledronic acid was found to inhibit the bone loss that is common in HIV-infected patients and that is increased during the first two years of treatment with antiretroviral therapy. Bone loss also leads to a higher rate of fracture in HIV-infected individuals. (2016-02-23)

Phase 2 clinical trial to treat rare hereditary muscle disease shows promise
Researchers present the first clinical study that provides evidence that an extended-release sialic acid supplement may stabilize muscle strength in patients with GNE myopathy (GNEM), a rare hereditary, progressive, adult-onset muscle disease. (2016-02-22)

Discovery could lead to new treatment strategy against TB
By uncovering the 3-dimensional structure of an enzyme that is critical for the survival of the bacterium that cause tuberculosis, researchers may be one step closer to developing a new strategy to combat TB infections. (2016-02-16)

Absorption of polyphenolic compounds in mangos shows potential benefits to human health
The absorption, metabolism, and excretion of mango galloyl derivatives have not previously been investigated in humans. In this human pilot trial published in the journal of Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, 11 healthy volunteers consumed 400g/day of mango-pulp for 10 days. The results of this research show that mango has the potential to enhance the diet as a source of gallic acid and gallotannins, which may possess anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic properties. (2016-02-16)

Iowa State engineers develop hybrid technology to create biorenewable nylon
Iowa State's Zengyi Shao and Jean-Philippe Tessonnier are combining the tools of biology and chemistry to create new biorenewable products. Their hybrid conversion technology is featured on the cover of the Feb. 12 issue of the journal Angewandte Chemie International Edition. (2016-02-09)

Protein that switches cancers from inflammation to proliferation identified
PAD4 has been observed in cancers but its role was unclear. An Oxford University team have found that PAD4 citrullinates protein E2F-1, which causes it to form a protein complex with BRD4 that drives expression of inflammatory genes. (2016-02-05)

Paper highlights best practices for omega-3 clinical trials with cardiovascular outcomes
A paper published last week in Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids sheds new light on recent neutral studies questioning the benefits of omega-3s for heart health. The paper, 'Conducting Omega-3 Clinical Trials with Cardiovascular Outcomes: Proceedings of a Workshop Held at ISSFAL 2014,' identifies experimental design issues in recent studies that have not demonstrated significant effects of EPA and DHA omega-3s on cardiovascular disease outcomes. (2016-02-02)

Are some people more likely to develop adverse reactions to nanoparticle-based medicines?
The complement system, the human body's first line of defense against blood-borne intruders, is blamed for infusion-related reactions to nanomedicines, but the conventional models used to predict the risk of cardiopulmonary side effects in response to nanopharmaceuticals might not well represent what actually occurs in humans, according to an article in Nucleic Acid Therapeutics. (2016-01-28)

Creating 'greener' wrinkle-resistant cotton fabric
Ironing is a tedious chore, but wearing crumpled clothing is unprofessional. That's why 'wrinkle-resistant' garments have become so popular. But the current methods for making these textiles often release formaldehyde -- a chemical that in large amounts is hazardous to human health -- into the air and water. Now a team reports in ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering a method for making wrinkle-resistant cotton fabrics that is more environmentally friendly and cost effective. (2016-01-27)

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