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Current Immune Response News and Events, Immune Response News Articles.
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One dose of COVID-19 vaccine provokes strong immune response in those previously infected
Researchers report preliminary evidence that people previously infected with COVID-19 responded very strongly to one dose of the Pfizer vaccine, regardless of when they were infected and whether or not they had detectable antibodies against COVID-19 prior to receiving the vaccine. The response was so effective that it opens the debate as to whether one dose of the vaccine may suffice. The research also provided evidence that immune response was similar across multi-ethnic groups. (2021-02-11)

How research on chronic illnesses will improve COVID-19 treatment
A new paper in Oxford Open Immunology, published by Oxford University Press, examines prior findings in the field of neuroimmunology that suggest potential treatment strategies for patients suffering long-term symptoms from COVID-19. (2021-02-10)

Why Black men's prostate cancer may be more responsive to immunotherapy
Black men die more often of prostate cancer yet have greater survival benefits from immunotherapy treatment. A new study discovered the reason appears to be an increase of a surprising type of immune cell in the tumor. The findings could lead to immune-based precision medicine treatment for men of all races with localized aggressive and advanced prostate cancer. (2021-02-10)

Response to cancer immunotherapy may be affected by genes we carry from birth
For all their importance as a breakthrough treatment, the cancer immunotherapies known as checkpoint inhibitors still only benefit a small minority of patients, perhaps 15 percent across different types of cancer. Moreover, doctors cannot accurately predict which of their patients will respond. (2021-02-10)

Earliest signs of an immune response found in developing embryos
Researchers at the Centre for Genomic Regulation reveal that newly formed embryos clear dying cells to maximise their chances of survival. It is the earliest display of an innate immune response found in vertebrate animals to date. The findings may aid future efforts to understand why some embryos fail to form in the earliest stages of development, and lead to new clinical efforts in treating infertility or early miscarriages. (2021-02-10)

Scientists uncover four new facts about early SARS-CoV-2 infections
University of Minnesota Medical School researchers studied SARS-CoV-2 infections at individual cellular levels and made four major discoveries about the virus, including one that validates the effectiveness of remdesivir - an FDA-approved antiviral drug - as a form of treatment for severe COVID-19 disease. (2021-02-10)

Substance in the blood of pregnant women fights pathological immune reaction
Scientists studied the effect of trophoblastic β1-glycoprotein in the blood of pregnant women on pro-inflammatory immune cells. Thanks to trophoblastic β1-glycoprotein, a woman's body does not adversely react to the fetus and supports its normal development until birth. It turned out that trophoblastic β1-glycoproteins also suppressed the development of pro-inflammatory lymphocytes and reduced their activity. (2021-02-10)

Scientists switch on tissue repair in inflammatory bowel disease
Researchers have developed a method that instructs immune system cells to help repair damaged tissue in the intestine. The finding opens the way for more effective treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. (2021-02-08)

The genetic susceptibility of people with Down's syndrome to COVID-19
A study reveals the genetic factors that may expose or protect people with Down syndrome from SARS-CoV-2. TMPRSS2, a gene that codes for an enzyme critical for aiding the entry of SARS-CoV-2 in human cells, had 60% higher levels of expression in Down syndrome. The researchers also found higher expression levels for CXCL10, a gene that can trigger cytokine storms. The authors call to vaccinate people with Down syndrome against COVID-19 as a priority. (2021-02-08)

Some types of coronavirus steal the hosts' genes to elude their immune system
Researchers discovered this while analysing pathogens found in European hedgehogs that present the same strain of Beta-CoV responsible for both COVID-19 and MERS but without evidence of human transmissibility. It is the first time this ability is observed in coronaviruses (2021-02-08)

STINGing tumors with nanoparticles
DALLAS - Feb. 8, 2021 - A new nanoparticle-based drug can boost the body's innate immune system and make it more effective at fighting off tumors, researchers at UT Southwestern have shown. Their study, published in Nature Biomedical Engineering, is the first to successfully target the immune molecule STING with nanoparticles about one millionth the size of a soccer ball that can switch on/off immune activity in response to their physiological environment. (2021-02-08)

Immune response to insulin could identify, help treat those at risk for Type 1 Diabetes
Researchers from the Barbara Davis Center for Childhood Diabetes at the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus have found that immune responses to insulin could help identify individuals most at risk for developing Type 1 diabetes. (2021-02-08)

What happens in the mouth ... doesn't stay in the mouth
The healthy human oral microbiome consists of not just clean teeth and firm gums, but also energy-efficient bacteria living in an environment rich in blood vessels that enables the organisms' constant communication with immune-system cells and proteins. A growing body of evidence has shown that this system that seems so separate from the rest of our bodies is actually highly influential on, and influenced by, our overall health. (2021-02-08)

Novel immunotherapy approach to treat cat allergy
Researchers from the Department of Infection and Immunity of the Luxembourg Institute of Health (LIH) brought forward the potential of high doses of a specific adjuvant molecule, namely CpG oligonucleotide, in successfully modulating the immune system's allergic response to the main cat allergen Fel d 1, thereby inducing a tolerance-promoting reaction and reverting the main hallmarks of cat allergy. (2021-02-05)

Fungi in the gut prime immunity against infection
Common fungi, often present in the gut, teach the immune system how to respond to their more dangerous relatives, according to new research from scientists at Weill Cornell Medicine. Breakdowns in this process can leave people susceptible to deadly fungal infections. (2021-02-05)

New biomarker may predict which pancreatic cancer patients respond to CD40 immunotherapy
Inflammation in the blood could serve as a new biomarker to help identify patients with advanced pancreatic cancer who won't respond to the immune-stimulating drugs known as CD40 agonists, suggests a new study from researchers in the Abramson Cancer Center of the University of Pennsylvania published in JCI Insight. (2021-02-04)

COVID-19 vaccine from new vaccine platform effective in mice
It is necessary to develop additional COVID-19 vaccines, as different vaccine approaches have their advantages and disadvantages and may work synergistically. Researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden now report that they have developed a prototype vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 using a DNA vaccine platform that is inexpensive, stable, easy to produce, and shows a good safety profile. A study published in Scientific Reports shows that the vaccine induces potent immune responses in mice. (2021-02-04)

Mast cells: Sentinels and high-speed messengers of the immune defense
A team of scientists at the Institute for Molecular and Clinical Immunology at the Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg unravels a crucial mechanism of cell-cell-communication during the defense against pathogens. (2021-02-04)

New technique rapidly quantifies immune response following vaccination
A global team of researchers has developed a new strategy for fast and reliable antibody tests, which can quantify the immune response induced by vaccination and reveal the timeline and stage of pathogen infection. The team's one-step quantitative antibody tests are conducted using (blood) serum and are on a par with the gold-standard, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. (2021-02-04)

'Stealthy' stem cells better for treating tendon injuries in horses
Treating equine donor stem cells with a growth factor called TGF-β2 may allow them to avoid ''tripping'' the immune response in recipients, according to new research. (2021-02-04)

Uncovering a link between inflammation and heart disease
Patients with cardiac disease often have chronic inflammation that damages their hearts, even with no infection present. A new study published in Circulation reveals a mechanism that is activating T cells, a type of immune cell, and causing inflammation in the heart. (2021-02-04)

Fecal microbiota transplants help patients with advanced melanoma respond to immunotherapy
For patients with cancers that do not respond to immunotherapy drugs, adjusting the composition of microorganisms in the intestines--known as the gut microbiome--through the use of stool, or fecal, transplants may help some of these individuals respond to the immunotherapy drugs, a new study suggests. Researchers at the NCI, part of the National Institutes of Health, conducted the study in collaboration with investigators from UPMC Hillman Cancer Center at the University of Pittsburgh. (2021-02-04)

Duration of antibody response varies among adults naturally reinfected with RSV
Researchers at Baylor College of Medicine found that while most individuals responded to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) natural reinfection with a typical sustained antibody response associated with protection, a few individuals surprisingly responded atypically, not being able to sustain the antibody response, which declined to levels that made the individuals susceptible to RSV reinfection. (2021-02-04)

European hibernating bats cope with white-nose syndrome which kills North American bats
Fungal diseases are a major threat to wildlife, sometimes resulting in significant population declines or even causing the extirpation of populations or species. White-nose syndrome, caused by the cold-loving fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans, has become a major cause of death for millions of hibernating bats in North America. European bats survive when infected by the same fungus during hibernation. (2021-02-03)

Intranasal influenza vaccine spurs strong immune response in Phase 1 study
An experimental single-dose, intranasal influenza vaccine was safe and produced a durable immune response when tested in a Phase 1 study published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation. The investigational vaccine, called Ad4-H5-VTN, is a recombinant, replicating adenovirus vaccine designed to spur antibodies to hemagglutinin, a protein found on the surface of influenza viruses that attaches to human cells. (2021-02-03)

Moffitt researchers discover mechanism that regulates anti-tumor activity of immune cells
In a new article published in Nature, Moffitt Cancer Center researchers demonstrate why some ovarian cancer patients evolve better than others and suggest possible approaches to improve patient outcomes. (2021-02-03)

Spanish scientists identify a mechanism through which dendritic cells improve their antiviral and immunotherapy strategies
Researchers at the Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares (CNIC) have discovered that dendritic cells, which initiate specific immune responses, can reprogram their genes to improve their immune response (2021-02-03)

Study examines role of biomarkers to evaluate kidney injury in cancer patients
A study by Mayo Clinic researchers published in Kidney International Reports finds that immune checkpoint inhibitors, may have negative consequences in some patients, including acute kidney inflammation, known as interstitial nephritis. Immune checkpoint inhibitors are used to treat cancer by stimulating the immune system to attack cancerous cells. (2021-02-03)

Liver cancer 'signature' in gut holds clues to cancer risk
People with non-alcohol-related liver cancer have a unique gut microbiome profile which could help predict disease risk, a new UNSW Sydney study has found. (2021-02-03)

Stopping intestinal bacteria in their tracks
POSTECH Professor Seung-Woo Lee's research team identifies the mechanism behind the differentiation of intestinal epithelial lymphocytes. (2021-02-03)

Surgery to heal inflamed gut may create new target for disease
A surgical procedure meant to counter ulcerative colitis, an immune disease affecting the colon, may trigger a second immune system attack, a new study shows. (2021-02-02)

Breast cancer-on-a-chip for testing immunotherapy drugs
A collaborative team from the Terasaki Institute for Biomedical Innovation (TIBI) successfully designed and tested a breast cancer-on-a-chip and rapid assay for screening immunotherapy drugs. (2021-02-02)

When hyperactive proteins trigger illnesses
Autoimmune diseases, in which the body's own immune system attacks healthy tissue, can be life-threatening and can impact all organs. A research team at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) has now found a possible cause for these self-destructive immune system attacks: a hyperactive RANK protein on the surface of B cells. The research opens the door to new therapeutic possibilities. (2021-02-02)

Moffitt researchers identify why CAR T therapy may fail in some lymphoma patients
In a new study published in Blood, the official journal of the American Society of Hematology, Moffitt researchers show that immune dysregulation can directly affect the efficacy of CAR T therapy in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. (2021-02-02)

Cancer research expands body's own immune system to kill tumors
Scientists are hoping advances in cancer research could lead to a day when a patient's own immune system could be used to fight and destroy a wide range of tumors. Cancer immunotherapy has some remarkable successes, but its effectiveness has been limited to a relatively small handful of cancers. In APL Bioengineering, researchers describe how advances in engineering models of tumors can greatly expand cancer immunotherapy's effectiveness to a wider range of cancers. (2021-02-02)

Early functional SARS-COV-2 specific T cell response may prevent severe infection
Antibodies and T cells are components of the human immune system that directly act against viral infections and eliminate infected cells. A new study by scientists from Duke-NUS Medical School, provides evidence that an early presence of SARS-CoV-2 specific T cells in COVID-19 is likely to prevent severe disease. The study, published in Cell Reports, has important implications for the clinical management of COVID-19 patients. (2021-02-01)

Origami with DNA
To study the behaviour of T-cells, an unusual method was used at TU Wien: DNA molecules were folded in an ingenious way, similar to the paper folding art origami. In this way, not just a double helix is created, but a rectangular ''molecular raft'' that floats across a cell membrane and serves as a tool for novel measurements. (2021-02-01)

Holonyak lab team creates fast, cheap, accessible COVID-19 antibody test
When COVID-19 began developing into a global crisis in early 2020, this research group was already working on an NIH-funded project to develop a ''flu chip'' that would rapidly determine the most likely cause of a fever by measuring several proteins within a droplet of blood. They decided to pivot their efforts to detect COVID-19 antibodies instead. (2021-02-01)

Study identifies noncoding RNA involved in immune response and sepsis
When the body's immune response to an infection gets out of control, the result can be sepsis, a life-threatening condition in which an overwhelming inflammatory response can lead rapidly to failure of multiple organs and death. In a new study, researchers at UC Santa Cruz have identified a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) molecule that regulates the expression of pro-inflammatory genes in immune system cells called macrophages and affects the susceptibility of mice to septic shock. (2021-02-01)

Mathematical method developed to predict cancer and drug-specific immunotherapy efficacy
Houston Methodist researchers have developed a mathematical model to predict how specific cancers will respond to immunotherapy treatments, thus enhancing chances for successful treatments from a wide variety of cancer-immunotherapy drug combinations. The results were recently published in Nature Biomedical Engineering in collaboration with researchers at MD Anderson Cancer Center. (2021-02-01)

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