Current Immune Responses News and Events

Current Immune Responses News and Events, Immune Responses News Articles.
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Early trial hints CAR T cells may combat solid tumors in children with neuroblastoma
A phase 1 trial involving 12 children with relapsed neuroblastoma - a hard-to-treat pediatric cancer - shows that anticancer CAR T cells displayed signs of efficacy against these tumors while avoiding damage to nerve tissue. (2020-11-25)

Severe infections wreak havoc on mouse blood cell production
Severe infections like malaria cause short and long-term damage to precursor blood cells in mice, but some damage could be reversed, find researchers. (2020-11-23)

Boosting stem cell activity can enhance immunotherapy benefits
Immune-system T cells have been reprogrammed into regenerative stem cell-like memory (TSCM) cells that are long-lived, highly active ''super immune cells'' with strong antitumor activity, according to new research from Georgetown Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center. (2020-11-23)

New insight into the effect of hydroxychloroquine undermines its use in COVID-19
Researchers at Radboud university medical center have discovered an as yet unknown effect of hydroxychloroquine. It inhibits the action of a type of white blood cells important in the first line of defense against infections. Based on this research, hydroxychloroquine is unlikely to be beneficial in clearing viral infections including the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, they write in their publication in Cell Reports Medicine. (2020-11-23)

Scientists identify brain cells that help drive bodily reaction to fear, anxiety
UNC School of Medicine discovered that artificially forcing the activity of BNST cells in mice produced an arousal response in the form of dilated pupils and faster heart rate, and worsened anxiety-like behaviors. This helps illuminate the neural roots of emotions, and point to the possibility that the human-brain counterpart of the newly identified population of arousal-related neurons might be a target of future treatments for anxiety disorders and other illnesses involving abnormal arousal responses. (2020-11-23)

New type of immunotherapy may pave the way for better cancer treatments
Immunotherapy for cancer has made great advances and many patients can now receive effective treatments that were not available ten years ago. However, there are certain types of cancer that do not respond to existing immunotherapy. A study from Karolinska Institutet in Sweden published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) reports on a new kind of immunotherapy that gives hope of more treatment options for cancer in the future. (2020-11-23)

T-cell abnormalities in severe COVID-19 cases
There appears to be some kind of T cell abnormality in critically ill COVID-19 patients but specific details are unclear. To shed some light on the problem, researchers performed a genetic analysis of T cells from lung tissue of COVID-19 patients. They found abnormalities that resulted in T cell overreaction that may cause severe pneumonia. The research is expected to lead to new methods for avoiding severe pneumonia caused by coronavirus infections. (2020-11-20)

Gut-brain axis influences multiple sclerosis
A Basel-led international research team has discovered a connection between the intestinal flora and sites of inflammation in the central nervous system in multiple sclerosis. A specific class of immune cell plays a central role in this newly identified gut-brain axis. The discovery could pave the way for new treatments for MS that target the intestinal flora. (2020-11-20)

Gut immune cells may help send MS into remission
An international research team led by UCSF scientists has shown, for the first time, that gut immune cells travel to the brain during multiple sclerosis (MS) flare-ups in patients. These gut cells seem to be playing a protective role, helping drive MS symptoms back into remission. (2020-11-20)

The Lancet: Phase 2 trial of Oxford COVID-19 vaccine in healthy older adults finds it is safe and provokes immune response
The UK's vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 shows similar safety and immunogenicity results in healthy older adults (aged 56 years and over) to those seen in adults aged 18-55 years. The promising early stage results are published in The Lancet. (2020-11-19)

Study of 'exceptional responders' yields clues to cancer and potential treatments
In a comprehensive analysis of patients with cancer who had exceptional responses to therapy, researchers have identified molecular changes in the patients' tumors that may explain some of the exceptional responses. The results demonstrate that genomic characterizations of cancer can uncover genetic alterations that may contribute to unexpected and long-lasting responses to treatment, according to the researchers. The results appeared in Cancer Cell on Nov. 19, 2020. (2020-11-19)

Link between periodontitis and cardiovascular disease in individuals with rheumatoid arthritis
Rates of both periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease are elevated in individuals with rheumatoid arthritis. New research published in Arthritis & Rheumatology suggests that immune responses to certain bacteria that cause periodontal disease may play a role in patients' higher cardiovascular disease risk. (2020-11-18)

AI may predict response to immune checkpoint blockade in patients with metastatic melanoma
A computational method that combines clinicodemographic variables with deep learning of pre-treatment histology images could predict response to immune checkpoint blockade among patients with advanced melanoma. (2020-11-18)

Many unresolved questions remain regarding T cell immunity to SARS-CoV-2
T cell responses are critical for providing early control and clearance of many viral infections, but there remain many unknowns concerning T cell immunity in COVID-19. Some T cell responses may even have a detrimental impact on the clinical outcome and contribute to long COVID, a phenomenon that affects roughly 10% of COVID-19 patients, causing them to experience an array of symptoms for a month or longer. (2020-11-18)

Antiviral defense from the gut
The study demonstrates how a subset of common gut bacteria renders mice resistant to viral infections. Experiments identify a specific bacterial population sharing a common molecule on their surface that is responsible for triggering natural antiviral immunity The work sets stage for development of preventive treatments that boost resistance to viruses in humans (2020-11-18)

Bacteria convince their squid host to create a less hostile work environment
Bacteria living symbiotically within the Hawaiian bobtail squid can direct the host squid to change its normal gene-expression program to make a more inviting home, according to a new study by researchers at the University of Hawai'i. (2020-11-18)

Metabolic signaling plays a crucial role in regulating specialized T cells
Scientists at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital have identified how metabolic signaling pathways influence key immune cells with implications for treating autoimmune disorders and cancer. (2020-11-17)

Immunological memory after cured Sars-CoV-2 infection
After recovery from SARS-CoV-2 infection, immune cells are formed which remain in the body and could mediate a rapid immune response in case of re-infection. The Freiburg study was published in the online edition of Nature Medicine on November 12, 2020 and gives hope for vaccine development. (2020-11-17)

Are e-cigarette users at greater risk of poor immune response to flu, COVID?
In a controlled study of smokers, nonsmokers, and e-cigarette users, University of North Carolina School of Medicine researchers found that e-cigarette users exhibited significantly altered immune responses to a model of influenza virus infection, suggesting increased susceptibility to disease, including possibly COVID-19. (2020-11-17)

Comprehensive safety testing of COVID-19 vaccines based on experience with prior vaccines
'The urgent need for COVID-19 vaccines must be balanced with the imperative of ensuring safety and public confidence in vaccines by following the established clinical safety testing protocols throughout vaccine development, including both pre- and post-deployment,' write David M. Knipe and colleagues in this Perspective. (2020-11-17)

Kids mount a COVID-19 immune response without detection of the SARSCoV- 2 virus
Children in an Australian family developed a COVID-19 immune response after chronic exposure to the SARS-CoV-2 virus from their parents, a new case report has found. (2020-11-17)

The Lancet Infectious Diseases: Chinese vaccine candidate based on inactivated SARS-CoV-2 virus appears safe and induces an immune response in healthy volunteers, preliminary study finds
Results from an early-phase randomised clinical trial of a Chinese vaccine candidate based on the inactivated whole SARS-CoV-2 virus (CoronaVac) are published today in The Lancet Infectious Diseases journal, finding the formulation appears safe and induces an antibody response in healthy volunteers aged 18 to 59 years. (2020-11-17)

Study identifies patients with lung cancer most likely to respond to immunotherapy
In a new study, researchers at UCLA found patients with a particular type of HLA, a protein scaffold involved in presenting pieces of proteins described as peptides to the immune system, were particularly likely to benefit from immunotherapy. (2020-11-16)

Parasite infection discovery could assist mental health treatments
New research into how a common parasite infection alters human behaviour could help development of treatments for schizophrenia and other neurological disorders. T. gondii currently infects 2.5 billion people worldwide and causes the disease Toxoplasmosis. (2020-11-16)

A new diagnostic method predicts which cancer patients will respond to immunothe
An international group led by Dr Banafshe Larijani, an Ikerbasque researcher seconded to the Biofisika Institute (UPV/EHU-University of the Basque Country, CSIC), has developed a new diagnostic method making it possible to accurately predict which cancer patients will respond positively to immunotherapy. This method will allow oncologists to tailor treatment to each patient and avoid therapies that are not going to be successful. (2020-11-16)

Chronic alcohol use reshapes the brain's immune landscape, driving anxiety and addiction
Deep within the brain, a small almond-shaped region called the amygdala plays a vital role in how we exhibit emotion, behavior and motivation; it's also strongly implicated in alcohol abuse. Now, for the first time, a Scripps Research team has identified important changes to anti-inflammatory mechanisms and cellular activity in the amygdala that drive alcohol addiction. (2020-11-16)

Study pinpoints target for managing inflammation, promoting tissue repair
Drugs that can manage the activity of a protein called BCAP could help the body repair IBD-related tissue damage caused by inflammation, according to experts at Cincinnati Children's. (2020-11-16)

Pharmacology - An unconventional ion channel
Scientists at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich have identified the first mechanosensitive ion channel to be found in an intracellular vesicle system. It responds to concentration changes within the vesicle, and probably controls the initiation of immune reactions. (2020-11-13)

Dissecting the immune characteristics of severe COVID-19 responses
A team of immunology experts from research organisations in Belgium and the UK have come together to apply their pioneering research methods to put individuals' COVID-19 response under the microscope. Published today in the journal Clinical and Translational Immunology, their research adds to the developing picture of the immune system response and our understanding of the immunological features associated with the development of severe and life-threatening disease following COVID-19. (2020-11-13)

Be mindful: Study shows mindfulness might not work as you expect
If dispositional mindfulness can teach us anything about how we react to stress, it might be an unexpected lesson on its ineffectiveness at managing stress as it's happening, according to new research from the University at Buffalo. When the goal is ''not to sweat the small stuff,'' mindfulness appears to offer little toward achieving that end. (2020-11-13)

Antibody evolution may predict COVID-19 outcomes
For COVID-19, the difference between surviving and not surviving severe disease may be due to the quality, not the quantity, of the patients' antibody development and response, suggests a new study. (2020-11-13)

Cytokine storms play a limited role in moderate-to-severe COVID-19
St. Jude and Washington University researchers have discovered new characteristics that differentiate the response of COVID-19 from flu. (2020-11-13)

Parasitic worms offer 'the missing link' on the dual nature of a key immune regulator
By studying two models of parasite infection, the University of Pennsylvania's De'Broski Herbert and colleagues filled in crucial gaps about the activity of the signaling molecule IL-33 that is critical to asthma, allergies, and other diseases. (2020-11-13)

Re-mapping taste in the brain
A new study from Stony Brook University found that the map of neural responses mediating taste perception does not involve, as previously believed, specialized groups of neurons in the brain, but rather overlapping and spatially distributed populations. (2020-11-12)

Mimicking SARS-CoV-2 nasal infection in monkeys
A new rhesus macaque animal model recapitulates the clinical and pathological manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) observed in humans by mimicking natural infection via the nasal route, according to a study published November 12 in the open-access journal PLOS Pathogens by Longding Liu, Qihan Li, Zhanlong He, and colleagues. As noted by the authors, the new animal model could lead to effective treatments or vaccines for COVID-19, which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). (2020-11-12)

Uracil switch in SARS-CoV-2 genome alters innate immune responses
Our bodies could be inducing mutations in the COVID-19 virus that activate immune cells to increase the production of pro-inflammatory molecules. (2020-11-11)

New prognostic markers for colon cancer identified
The study recently published by MedUni Vienna and collaborative partners nominates ILSs as novel prognostic players orchestrating the pathobiology of metastatic colorectal cancer. (2020-11-11)

MD Anderson researchers present immunotherapy advances at Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer Annual Meeting
Promising clinical results with combination treatments for patients with melanoma and lung cancer highlight immunotherapy advances being presented by researchers from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center at The Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC) 35th Anniversary Annual Meeting & Pre-Conference Programs (SITC 2020) . (2020-11-11)

Researchers discover enzyme suppressing immune response to viral infections
Viruses such as HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C evade or disrupt the immune system to create persistent infections. These viruses remain a serious health threat, but researchers from the University of Missouri School of Medicine have discovered how an enzyme that regulates several cellular processes might be a key target to preventing viruses from disarming the human immune response. (2020-11-10)

A viable vaccine for tough tumors
While immunotherapies work well for some cancers, others are immune-resistant and condemn patients to the severe side effects of long-term chemo treatment. A new cancer vaccine successfully treated immune-resistant breast cancer in mice, 100% of which survived a second injection of cancer cells, indicating long-term immunity with no side effects. (2020-11-10)

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