Current Immune Systems News and Events

Current Immune Systems News and Events, Immune Systems News Articles.
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Innate immune system worsens the situation in severe COVID-19
In patients with severe COVID-19, the innate immune system overreacts. This overreaction may underlie the formation of blood clots (thrombi) and deterioration in oxygen saturation that affect the patients. This is shown in an Uppsala University study published in the journal Frontiers in Immunology. (2021-02-23)

Scientists identify potential contributor to hyper immune responses in patients with severe COVID-19
Researchers have pinpointed a helper T cell population in the lungs of patients with severe COVID-19 that may be central to the development of hyperinflammation, lung injury, and subsequent acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) during disease (2021-02-23)

Absence of natural killer cell receptor associated with severe Covid-19
The course and severity of COVID-19 in individual patients is largely influenced by the interaction between the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus and the human immune system. The NKG2C receptor communicates with an infected cell via one of its specialised surface structures, HLA-E, which results in the destruction of virus-infected cells. However, due to a genetic variation, approximately 4% of the population naturally lack the this receptor NKG2C, and in 30% of the population this receptor is only partially available. (2021-02-22)

High fructose diets could cause immune system damage
People who consume a diet high in fructose could risk damaging their immune systems. (2021-02-22)

Improving immunotherapies for blood cancers: real-time exploration in the tumor
Monoclonal antibodies are part of the therapeutic arsenal for eliminating cancer cells. Some make use of the immune system to act and belong to a class of treatment called ''immunotherapies.'' But how do these antibodies function within the tumor? And how can we hope to improve their efficacy? Using innovative in vivo imaging approaches, scientists from the Institut Pasteur and Inserm visualized in real time how anti-CD20 antibodies, used to treat B-cell lymphoma, guide the immune system to attack tumor cells. (2021-02-21)

Good cop, bad cop
Serendipitous observation leads to novel insight into how cancer-immune crosstalk can either promote or suppress tumour growth. Ultimately, this study's results may help develop novel cancer therapies as well as an assay to select patients for immunotherapy treatment. (2021-02-19)

Oil spill has long-term immunological effects in dolphins
A study published in Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry has found long-term impacts of the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the northern Gulf of Mexico on bottlenose dolphins' immune function. (2021-02-18)

Genetics may play role in determining immunity to COVID-19
UC San Diego researchers report that individual immune response to SARS-CoV-2 may be limited by a set of variable genes that code for cell surface proteins essential for the adaptive immune system. The finding may help explain why COVID-19 immunity varies by individual. (2021-02-18)

Antibody response may drive COVID-19 outcomes
Researchers at the Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard and Massachusetts General Hospital show that levels of specific antibodies developed in the immune response may influence COVID-19 outcomes in both children and adults. (2021-02-18)

Immune system protects children from severe COVID-19
Children are protected from severe COVID-19 because their innate immune system is quick to attack the virus, a new study has found. (2021-02-17)

Cosmetic laser may boost effectiveness of certain anti-cancer therapies
In mice treated with cancer immunotherapy, shining a cosmetic laser on a tumor boosted the therapy's effectiveness. The strategy stimulated the immune system to attack nonmutated proteins on the tumor. The findings may help investigators make cancer immunotherapy effective against currently incurable cancers. (2021-02-17)

TB study reveals potential targets to treat and control infection
Researchers at the Southwest National Primate Research Center (SNPRC) at Texas Biomedical Research Institute (Texas Biomed) may have found a new pathway to treat and control tuberculosis (TB), the disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Using single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNAseq), a next-generation sequencing technology, scientists were able to further define the mechanisms that lead to TB infection and latency. (2021-02-16)

How the immune system paves the way for SARS-CoV-2
The immune system actually wants to fight SARS-CoV-2 with antiviral signaling molecules. But a research team from Charité and MDC has now shown how such a signaling molecule can promote the replication of the virus. The results have been published in the journal EMBO Molecular Medicine. (2021-02-16)

Asthma may heighten flu risk and cause dangerous mutations
A subtype of asthma in adults may cause higher susceptibility to influenza and could result in dangerous flu mutations. University of Queensland-led animal studies have found that paucigranulocytic asthma (PGA) - a non-allergic form of the condition - allows the flu virus to flourish in greater numbers in sufferers. (2021-02-16)

Antibody-based COVID-19 treatments work best in concert with immune cells
Antibody-based drugs have been authorized for emergency use in COVID-19 patients by the Food and Drug Administration. Researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have discovered that the ability to interact with other elements of the immune system is an indispensable part of the effectiveness of such antibodies. The findings could help improve the design of the next generation of antibody-based COVID-19 drugs. (2021-02-16)

Suppressive immune cells' metabolic vulnerability may be targeted for cancer immunotherapy
A Ludwig Cancer Research study has identified a novel mechanism by which a type of cancer immunotherapy known as CTLA-4 blockade can disable suppressive immune cells to aid the destruction of certain tumors. (2021-02-16)

Let the immune cell see the virus: Scientists discover unique way to target common virus
Scientists at Cardiff University have discovered a unique way to target a common virus that affects one in 200 newborn babies in the UK but for which there is only limited treatments available. (2021-02-15)

New study identifies the main genetic causes of autoimmune Addison's disease
Scientists from the University of Bergen (Norway) and Karolinska Institutet (Sweden) have discovered the genes involved in autoimmune Addison's disease. (2021-02-12)

Antitumoral effects of LXR activation
Tumor cells are able to avoid the attack of the immune system through several mechanisms. For instance, these can secrete factors that turn macrophages -cells in the immune system- into dual action agents that contribute to the tumor progress and will protect it from immune body defences: these become, thus, the tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). (2021-02-12)

Get a load of ZIF! Better delivery of cancer immunotherapy
An antibody loaded onto a porous metal organic framework is released by the acidic environment that surrounds tumors, avoiding the adverse effects of administering the antibody alone. (2021-02-11)

SRC-3 is a novel regulator of human immune T regulatory cells
SRC-3, a prognostic marker for aggressive human breast and other cancers, also regulates human immune T regulatory cells (Tregs), which are involved in fighting cancer. (2021-02-11)

STING activation reduces graft-versus-host disease in a mouse model
MUSC Hollings Cancer Center researcher Yongxia Wu, Ph.D., identified a new target molecule in the fight against graft-versus-host disease. (2021-02-11)

How research on chronic illnesses will improve COVID-19 treatment
A new paper in Oxford Open Immunology, published by Oxford University Press, examines prior findings in the field of neuroimmunology that suggest potential treatment strategies for patients suffering long-term symptoms from COVID-19. (2021-02-10)

Why Black men's prostate cancer may be more responsive to immunotherapy
Black men die more often of prostate cancer yet have greater survival benefits from immunotherapy treatment. A new study discovered the reason appears to be an increase of a surprising type of immune cell in the tumor. The findings could lead to immune-based precision medicine treatment for men of all races with localized aggressive and advanced prostate cancer. (2021-02-10)

Response to cancer immunotherapy may be affected by genes we carry from birth
For all their importance as a breakthrough treatment, the cancer immunotherapies known as checkpoint inhibitors still only benefit a small minority of patients, perhaps 15 percent across different types of cancer. Moreover, doctors cannot accurately predict which of their patients will respond. (2021-02-10)

Earliest signs of an immune response found in developing embryos
Researchers at the Centre for Genomic Regulation reveal that newly formed embryos clear dying cells to maximise their chances of survival. It is the earliest display of an innate immune response found in vertebrate animals to date. The findings may aid future efforts to understand why some embryos fail to form in the earliest stages of development, and lead to new clinical efforts in treating infertility or early miscarriages. (2021-02-10)

Substance in the blood of pregnant women fights pathological immune reaction
Scientists studied the effect of trophoblastic β1-glycoprotein in the blood of pregnant women on pro-inflammatory immune cells. Thanks to trophoblastic β1-glycoprotein, a woman's body does not adversely react to the fetus and supports its normal development until birth. It turned out that trophoblastic β1-glycoproteins also suppressed the development of pro-inflammatory lymphocytes and reduced their activity. (2021-02-10)

Biomaterials could mean better vaccines, virus-fighting surfaces
Advances in the fields of biomaterials and nanotechnology could lead to big breakthroughs in the fight against dangerous viruses like the novel coronavirus that causes COVID-19. In APL Bioengineering, researchers from the Indian Institute of Science describe possibilities being explored by scientists, combining biomaterials and nanotechnology, to make vaccines more effective and build surfaces that could fight and kill viruses on their own. (2021-02-09)

Scientists switch on tissue repair in inflammatory bowel disease
Researchers have developed a method that instructs immune system cells to help repair damaged tissue in the intestine. The finding opens the way for more effective treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. (2021-02-08)

Some types of coronavirus steal the hosts' genes to elude their immune system
Researchers discovered this while analysing pathogens found in European hedgehogs that present the same strain of Beta-CoV responsible for both COVID-19 and MERS but without evidence of human transmissibility. It is the first time this ability is observed in coronaviruses (2021-02-08)

STINGing tumors with nanoparticles
DALLAS - Feb. 8, 2021 - A new nanoparticle-based drug can boost the body's innate immune system and make it more effective at fighting off tumors, researchers at UT Southwestern have shown. Their study, published in Nature Biomedical Engineering, is the first to successfully target the immune molecule STING with nanoparticles about one millionth the size of a soccer ball that can switch on/off immune activity in response to their physiological environment. (2021-02-08)

Immune response to insulin could identify, help treat those at risk for Type 1 Diabetes
Researchers from the Barbara Davis Center for Childhood Diabetes at the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus have found that immune responses to insulin could help identify individuals most at risk for developing Type 1 diabetes. (2021-02-08)

Fungi in the gut prime immunity against infection
Common fungi, often present in the gut, teach the immune system how to respond to their more dangerous relatives, according to new research from scientists at Weill Cornell Medicine. Breakdowns in this process can leave people susceptible to deadly fungal infections. (2021-02-05)

New biomarker may predict which pancreatic cancer patients respond to CD40 immunotherapy
Inflammation in the blood could serve as a new biomarker to help identify patients with advanced pancreatic cancer who won't respond to the immune-stimulating drugs known as CD40 agonists, suggests a new study from researchers in the Abramson Cancer Center of the University of Pennsylvania published in JCI Insight. (2021-02-04)

Fossil pigments shed new light on vertebrate evolution
This new paper shows that melanin is more than just something that gives colour to the body. It played an important role in the evolution of warm-blooded animals and helped defined what birds and mammals look like today. By studying where melanin occurs in the body in fossils and modern animals researchers have produced the first model for how melanin has evolved over the last 500 million years. (2021-02-04)

Mast cells: Sentinels and high-speed messengers of the immune defense
A team of scientists at the Institute for Molecular and Clinical Immunology at the Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg unravels a crucial mechanism of cell-cell-communication during the defense against pathogens. (2021-02-04)

New technique rapidly quantifies immune response following vaccination
A global team of researchers has developed a new strategy for fast and reliable antibody tests, which can quantify the immune response induced by vaccination and reveal the timeline and stage of pathogen infection. The team's one-step quantitative antibody tests are conducted using (blood) serum and are on a par with the gold-standard, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. (2021-02-04)

Uncovering a link between inflammation and heart disease
Patients with cardiac disease often have chronic inflammation that damages their hearts, even with no infection present. A new study published in Circulation reveals a mechanism that is activating T cells, a type of immune cell, and causing inflammation in the heart. (2021-02-04)

Duration of antibody response varies among adults naturally reinfected with RSV
Researchers at Baylor College of Medicine found that while most individuals responded to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) natural reinfection with a typical sustained antibody response associated with protection, a few individuals surprisingly responded atypically, not being able to sustain the antibody response, which declined to levels that made the individuals susceptible to RSV reinfection. (2021-02-04)

Modern anti-cancer drugs work via tiny molecular motions
Modern immunotherapeutic anti-cancer drugs support a natural mechanism of the immune system to inhibit the growth of cancer cells. They dock onto a specific receptor of the killer cell and prevent it from being switched off by the cancer cells. In a molecular dynamics study scientists from MedUni Vienna and the University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences (Boku) Vienna, have analysed this mechanism for the drugs nivolumab and pembrolizumab. (2021-02-03)

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