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Current Infection News and Events, Infection News Articles.
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Zika infection of placental macrophages in culture
In this issue of JCI Insight, Erol Fikrig and colleagues at Yale University examined Zika virus infection of different cell types of the placenta, including cytotrophoblasts, placental macrophages, and fibroblasts. (2016-08-18)

Researchers find prenatal infection may create risk for later disorders
A University of Delaware researcher is looking into whether prenatal and postnatal infections can be a risk factor for developmental disorders years later. A five-year, $1.8 million grant from the National Institutes of Health will support her research on infections that occur either before or shortly after birth. (2016-08-18)

New clues found to how 'cruise-ship' virus gets inside cells
Researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have identified the protein that norovirus uses to invade cells. Norovirus is the most common viral cause of diarrhea worldwide, but scientists still know little about how it infects people and causes disease because the virus grows poorly in the lab. The discovery, in mice, provides new ways to study a virus notoriously hard to work with and may lead to treatments or a vaccine. (2016-08-18)

Yale study identifies how Zika virus infects the placenta
In a new study, Yale researchers demonstrate Zika virus infection of cells derived from human placentas. The research provides insight into how Zika virus may be transmitted from expectant mother to fetus, resulting in infection of the fetal brain. (2016-08-18)

Time of day influences our susceptibility to infection, study finds
We are more susceptible to infection at certain times of the day as our body clock affects the ability of viruses to replicate and spread between cells, suggests new research from the University of Cambridge. The findings, published today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, may help explain why shift workers, whose body clocks are routinely disrupted, are more prone to health problems, including infections and chronic disease. (2016-08-15)

How antiviral antibodies become part of immune memory
Emory scientists probe activated B cells, important for forming immune memory, during flu vaccination and infection and Ebola infection in humans. Understanding how to elicit these cells is critical for designing effective vaccines. (2016-08-15)

Increased risk suicide death associated with hospitalization for infection
Being hospitalized with infection was associated with an increased risk of suicide death and the highest risk of suicide was among those individuals with hepatitis and HIV or AIDS, according to a study published online by JAMA Psychiatry. (2016-08-10)

New model sheds light on secondary bacterial pneumonia
For years, researchers have known that the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus can trigger severe, sometimes deadly secondary bacterial pneumonia, in some people who are subsequently infected with influenza A virus, but scientists have not known exactly how this happens. Now, scientists have developed a new model for studying this phenomenon, which could lead to new treatments designed to prevent secondary bacterial infections. (2016-08-09)

Getting it 'just right' in the immune system
Two Oxford University scientists have proposed a solution to the puzzle of how our immune system scales its response to any threat to our health to make it 'just right.' Their ideas, published in Trends in Immunology, could support a range of medical research. While T-cells usually move around the body, when an infection occurs, they slow down and accumulate around the dendritic cells that help the T cells read the severity of the infection. (2016-08-09)

Study provides details of possible link between Zika and severe joint condition at birth
A study published by The BMJ today provides more details of an association between Zika virus infection in the womb and a condition known as arthrogryposis, which causes joint deformities at birth, particularly in the arms and legs. (2016-08-09)

Preclinical evaluation of a vaccine against herpes viruses
In this issue of JCI Insight, researchers from the Albert Einstein College of Medicine report a promising vaccine strategy for immunizing against both HSV-1 and HSV-2 infections. (2016-08-04)

Susceptibility and resistance to the Ascaris round worm which infects 1 billion people
Approximately one billion people worldwide are estimated to be infected with the roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides, an intestinal parasite of humans. Some of them, especially children who carry high parasite loads, suffer from severe health consequences, including growth retardation and impaired cognitive development. A study published in PLOS NTDs examines the difference between mice that are susceptible to Ascaris infection and those that are resistant. (2016-08-04)

New research points to novel approach to tackling Ascaris roundworm
Scientists have shed new light on Ascaris infection, which affects 1 billion people worldwide. Targeting specific liver proteins may offer new preventative options against an infection that kills around 60.000 people each year. (2016-08-04)

HIV/AIDS: Filarial worm infections double the risk of infection
Since the start of the HIV epidemic, there have been speculations as to why HIV and the immunodeficiency syndrome it causes have spread so much more in Africa than in other countries around the world. Scientists from the German Center for Infection Research (DZIF) have now, for the first time, confirmed one reason for this: in a cohort study conducted in Tanzania, they discovered that an infection with the filarial nematode Wuchereria bancrofti increases the risk of HIV infection by two to three fold. (2016-08-03)

Glucose transporters blocked in bacterial meningitis
CHLA researchers report that glucose transporters, which transfer glucose from the blood to the brain, are inhibited by E. coli K1 during bacterial meningitis, leaving insufficient fuel for immune cells to fight off infection. Their findings may lead to a novel way of treating children with meningitis and reducing long-term neurological problems. (2016-08-02)

One of the most common viruses in humans may promote breast cancer development
New research reveals that infection with the Epstein-Barr virus may put some women at increased risk for developing breast cancer. The findings, published online in the July issue of the journal EBioMedicine, may have important implications for breast cancer screening and prevention. (2016-08-01)

Confronted with sepsis, key immune mechanism breaks, Indiana University scientists find
When the body encounters an infection, a molecular signaling system ramps up the body's infection-fighting system to produce more white blood cells to attack invading bacteria. Now researchers have discovered that when facing a massive bacterial infection resulting in sepsis, that same signaling system malfunctions, damaging the body's ability to fight the invaders. (2016-07-28)

Pneumonia discovery may offer way to boost body's defenses
The finding may offer a new way for doctors to boost patients' ability to fight off the life-threatening infection as bacteria become more and more resistant to antibiotics. (2016-07-28)

Russian scientists discover how certain proteins may help fight chlamydia
Scientists from MIPT in collaboration with researchers from other institutions have made an interesting discovery, which may help fight chlamydia infection -- one of the most widespread STDs in the world.  In their research they studied interaction of peptidoglycan recognition proteins with bacteria of chlamydias. In a series of experiments they have shown that these proteins are capable of killing harmful bacteria cells by shutting down their stress response system. (2016-07-28)

Zika virus challenges for neuropsychiatry recently published by Dove Medical Press
The Zika virus led the World Health Organization to declare the outbreak a global public health emergency in February 2016, but how much is really known about its neurobiology and potential neuropsychiatric manifestations? (2016-07-27)

Penn study models how the immune system might evolve to conquer HIV
In a new paper in PLOS Genetics, University of Pennsylvania professor Joshua Plotkin, along with postdoctoral researcher Jakub Otwinowski and Princeton University research scholar Armita Nourmohammad, mathematically modeled the coevolutionary processes that describe how antibodies and viruses interact and adapt to one another over the course of a chronic infection, such as HIV/AIDS. (2016-07-21)

DNA-modulating drug attenuates lung inflammation in mice
In this issue of JCI Insight, Jay Kolls and colleagues at the University of Pittsburgh demonstrate that bromodomain and extraterminal domain (BET) inhibitors, a class of drugs that alter DNA architecture and change gene expression, attenuate cystic fibrosis lung inflammation. (2016-07-21)

Opened up new channels for antibacterial therapies to combat respiratory infections
A piece of research led by the Agrobiotechnology Institute (IdAB) used a pioneering methodology to identify bacterial components involved in the infection caused by a pathogen that colonises the respiratory tracts of people with COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). This discovery, which is the outcome of work in collaboration with three North American universities, will enable new channels to be opened up to develop antibacterial therapies that can be applied in respiratory infections. (2016-07-20)

Infections, antibiotic use linked to manic episodes in people with serious mental illness
In research using patient medical records, investigators from Johns Hopkins and Sheppard Pratt Health System report that people with serious mental disorders who were hospitalized for mania were more likely to be on antibiotics to treat active infections than a group of people without a mental disorder. (2016-07-19)

Researchers map Zika's routes to the developing fetus
Zika virus can infect numerous cell types in the human placenta and amniotic sac, according to researchers at UC San Francisco and UC Berkeley who show in a new paper how the virus travels from a pregnant woman to her fetus. They also identify a drug that may be able to block it. (2016-07-18)

New in the Hastings Center Report: Research on nonhuman primates
During the recent Ebola outbreak, scientific developments involving infection challenge experiments on nonhuman primates (NHPs) sparked hope that successful treatments and vaccines may soon become available. Yet these studies intentionally expose sophisticated animals to severe suffering and a high risk of death. Should research on NHPs other than great apes be subject to tighter restrictions than it currently is? (2016-07-18)

Is the Zika epidemic in Latin America at its peak?
In this Policy Forum, Neil Ferguson et al. use results from a model of virus transmission to analyze the current Zika epidemic in Latin America, suggesting that it may have already peaked. (2016-07-14)

HIV vaccine research requires unprecedented path
Because the body does not readily make an adequate immune response to HIV infection, creating a preventive HIV vaccine remains a formidable challenge for researchers. To succeed in this endeavor, scientists have responded with complex, creative and elegant approaches unparalleled in other vaccine research pursuits, according to a new commentary from Anthony S. Fauci, M.D., director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health. (2016-07-12)

Discovery of a new defense system against microbial pathogens
For the first time in the world, a group of researchers discovered a human immune receptor, which detects the invasion of pathogenic microorganisms. They thereby succeeded in identifying a so far unknown host defense mechanism. These results will contribute to future developments in the treatment and prevention of infectious diseases. (2016-07-11)

How tumor necrosis factor protects against infection
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF), a messenger substance in the immune system, plays an important role in triggering chronic inflammatory diseases. For this reason, TNF inhibitors are a standard form of treatment for patients with rheumatoid arthritis and certain inflammatory bowel diseases. However, TNF also protects against infection, which means that inhibiting it can cause latent infections to resurface. Researchers at Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg have now discovered a new mechanism via which TNF protects against intracellular pathogens that cause infection. (2016-07-11)

Early antiretroviral therapy reduces gut inflammation in HIV+ individuals
In this issue of JCI Insight, a research team led by Jacob Estes of the AIDS and Cancer Virus Program at the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research reports on the impact of cART on gut inflammation in acutely infected HIV patients. (2016-07-07)

Malaria study shows how multiple infections make disease worse
Scientists have discovered why infections with the two most common types of malaria parasite combined lead to greater health risks -- because one species helps the other to thrive. (2016-07-05)

Aviragen Therapeutics licenses Georgia State Technology to develop antiviral therapies
The Georgia State University Research Foundation has entered into a licensing and sponsored research agreement with Aviragen Therapeutics, Inc., a Georgia-based pharmaceutical company developing the next generation of antivirals, to develop and commercialize respiratory syncytial virus replication inhibitors. (2016-07-05)

Key difference in immune cells may explain children's increased susceptibility to illness
Schools are commonly known as breeding grounds for viruses and bacteria, but this may not necessarily be linked to hygiene. New research in mice shows that because their immune systems do not operate at the same efficiency as adults, children may not only be more likely to contract a viral infection, but they also take to longer clear it. These findings were reported in the July 2016 issue of the Journal of Leukocyte Biology (http://www.jleukbio.org). (2016-07-01)

Gene amplification -- the fast track to infection
Researchers at Umeå University in Sweden are first to discover that bacteria can multiply disease-inducing genes which are needed to rapidly cause infection. The results were published in Science on June 30, 2016. (2016-06-30)

Baylor College of Medicine awarded more than $1 million from NIH for Zika study
The Vaccine Treatment and Evaluation Unit at Baylor College of Medicine has been awarded funding from the National Institutes of Health to lead a study of people infected with Zika virus to better understand the infection and the immune responses following infection. The study will help inform diagnostic and infection control measures, as well as Zika vaccine development. (2016-06-30)

Allergy-causing 'bad guy' cells unexpectedly prove life-saving in C. difficile
Researchers have identified immune cells vital for protecting us from potentially deadly C. difficile. Surprisingly, those cells are often vilified for their role in causing asthma and allergies. But when it comes to C. difficile, they could be the difference in life and death. (2016-06-29)

The Lancet: Zika virus identified in brain and placenta tissue, strengthening link to birth defects
New research, published today in The Lancet, reveals that Zika virus has been detected in the brain tissue of a deceased two-month-old baby in Brazil who was diagnosed with microcephaly, in the brain tissue of two newborns who died shortly after birth, and in the placenta tissue of two fetuses that were spontaneously aborted. (2016-06-29)

Zika virus infection may be prolonged in pregnancy
Zika virus infection confers protection against future infection in monkeys, but lingers in the body of pregnant animals for prolonged periods of time, according to research funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The findings appear in the June 28 issue of Nature Communications. (2016-06-29)

Zika vaccines protect mice from infection
A single dose of either of two experimental Zika vaccines fully protected mice challenged with Zika virus four or eight weeks after receiving the inoculations. The research, conducted by investigators supported by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health, suggests that similar vaccines for people could be similarly protective. (2016-06-28)

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