Current Infectious Diseases News and Events | Page 24

Current Infectious Diseases News and Events, Infectious Diseases News Articles.
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BU study: Diagnosing Ebola before symptoms arrive
Boston University researchers studied data from 12 monkeys exposed to Ebola virus, and discovered a common pattern of immune response among the ones that got sick. This response occurred four days before the onset of fever -- the first observable symptom of infection. The work, published in the journal Science Translational Medicine, suggests a possible biomarker for early diagnosis of the disease. (2018-03-28)

Decline in deaths from most infectious diseases in US, large differences among counties
Deaths due to most infectious diseases decreased in the United States from 1980 to 2014, although there were large differences among counties. (2018-03-27)

Despite reductions in infectious disease mortality in US, diarrheal disease deaths on the rise
Deaths from infectious diseases have declined overall in the United States over the past three decades. However, the rates of decline varied significantly by counties, according to a new scientific study. (2018-03-27)

Are antibiotic courses prescribed for sinus infection too long?
Most antibiotic courses to treat an acute sinus infection in adults were 10 days or longer, even though the Infectious Diseases Society of America recommends five to seven days for uncomplicated cases. (2018-03-26)

For patients with drug-resistant infections, infectious diseases experts may be lifesaving
Researchers analyzed records for approximately 4,200 patients with infections resistant to multiple antibiotics from 2006 to 2015 at one academic medical center. Thirty-day mortality rates were about 50 percent lower among patients with certain multidrug-resistant infections who had infectious diseases (ID) specialists involved in their care. Among patients with Enterobacteriaceae infections resistant to several antibiotics, an ID consultation was associated with a 59 percent reduction in 30-day mortality. (2018-03-23)

Antibiotics often inappropriately prescribed for hospitalized kids, global study suggests
Nearly a third of all antibiotics prescribed for hospitalized children globally were intended to prevent potential infections rather than to treat disease, according to the results of a worldwide survey published in the Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society. (2018-03-22)

North and south cooperation to combat tuberculosis
Tuberculosis can be cured and could be eradicated. For this to happen, however, patients have to receive the right treatment. Researchers at the Makerere University and the University of Zurich were able to demonstrate that the levels of medication used are often too low. As a result, patients remained contagious with the dangerous disease for longer than necessary. (2018-03-22)

NIH scientists say advanced vaccines could limit future outbreaks
Novel vaccine technologies are critical to improving the public health response to infectious disease threats that continually emerge and re-emerge, according to scientists at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health. In a perspective in The Journal of the American Medical Association, the experts highlight innovations that could significantly shorten the typical decades-long vaccine development timeline. (2018-03-22)

Microorganisms can escape from a dead end by swimming
Researchers have shown that microorganisms can ingeniously escape from a dead end by swimming.The results pave the way to understanding the spread of infectious diseases. (2018-03-22)

Sustained bacterial outbreak in mosquitoes limits spread of life-threatening diseases
Certain strains of the Wolbachia bacterium inhibit the transmission of disease-inducing pathogens to humans. Unfortunately, it is not naturally found in mosquitoes that are the primary transmitters of mosquito-borne illnesses. In an article publishing next week in the SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics, Zhuolin Qu, Ling Xue, and James Mac Hyman use a mathematical model to calculate the most effective method of introducing a self-sustaining Wolbachia infection to a wild mosquito population. (2018-03-20)

A method for predicting the impact of global warming on disease
Scientists have devised a new method that can be used to better understand the likely impact of global warming on diseases mediated by parasites, such as malaria. The method uses the metabolic theory of ecology to understand how temperature affects the host-parasite relationship, and has been proofed using a model system. (2018-03-20)

Women with food insecurity less likely to breastfeed: U of T study
Researchers from the University of Toronto have shown that women who struggle to afford food are less able to sustain breastfeeding than those who are food-secure -- even though women in both groups start the practice at about the same rate. (2018-03-19)

Newly described human antibody prevents malaria in mice
Scientists have discovered a human antibody that protected mice from infection with the deadliest malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. The research findings provide the basis for future testing in humans to determine if the antibody can provide short-term protection against malaria, and also may aid in vaccine design. NIAID investigators led the research with colleagues at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center. Currently, there is no highly effective, long-lasting vaccine to prevent malaria. (2018-03-19)

Large racial and ethnic disparity in world's most common STI
In a new Johns Hopkins study, researchers have added to evidence that Trichomonas vaginalis (TV), the world's most common curable sexually transmitted infection (STI), disproportionately affects the black community. (2018-03-15)

Cryptococcal meningitis: Validation of new therapeutic regimens
The Advancing Cryptococcal Meningitis Treatment for Africa (ACTA) trial funded by the Medical Research Council (UK) and ANRS (France) has highlighted the benefits of new therapeutic regimens in the treatment of cryptococcal meningitis, a frequent and severe opportunistic disease in patients living with HIV. In light of these findings, reported in the March 15, 2018 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine, the WHO has changed its guidelines regarding treatment of this fungal infection. (2018-03-15)

Bacterial and host cell proteins interact to regulate Chlamydia's 'exit strategy'
Interactions between Chlamydia trachomatis proteins and host cell proteins help determine whether the bacterium leaves an infected cell via breakdown of the cellular membrane (lysis) or in a membrane-bound package, according to new research published in PLOS Pathogens by Phu Hai Nguyen of the National Institutes of Health, US, and colleagues. (2018-03-15)

Prevent antibiotic resistances from spreading: Rapid test helps administering the 'correct' drug
Multi-resistant microbes are a growing danger. The often unnecessary and mass use of antibiotics causes the impassivity of pathogens against drugs. Infections that were easily curable up to now, may become life threatening. A new rapid test will give information on which available antibiotic is still effective. Faster diagnostics allow a personalized therapy and saves lives. A requirement for prevention of spreading antibiotic resistances is a targeted, economical and responsible application of broad-spectrum and last resort antibiotics. (2018-03-13)

NIH experts call for transformative research approach to end tuberculosis
A more intensive biomedical research approach is necessary to control and ultimately eliminate tuberculosis (TB), according to a perspective published in The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. In the article, authors Anthony S. Fauci, M.D., director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, and Robert W. Eisinger, Ph.D., special assistant for scientific projects at NIAID, discuss the need to modernize TB research by applying new diagnostic, therapeutic, and vaccine approaches. (2018-03-09)

Saliva plays a role in the body's defense against traveler's diarrhea
Researchers have identified a protein in saliva (histatin-5) that protects the body from traveler's diarrhea. The findings, available online in the Journal of Infectious Diseases, may lead to the development of new preventive therapies for the disease. (2018-03-08)

How cellular structure orchestrates immunologic memory
With every infection or vaccination, memory cells form that the body uses to remember the pathogen. This has been known for decades -- but the structure of this cellular immunologic memory has previously proven impossible to pin down. Researchers from the University of Basel and University Hospital Basel have now identified a microanatomical region in memory cells that enables them to work rapidly in the first few hours of an immune response, as they report in the journal Immunity. (2018-03-08)

NIAID scientists assess transmission risk of familial human prion diseases to mice
Familial human prion diseases are passed within families and are associated with 34 known prion protein mutations. To determine whether three of the unstudied mutations are transmissible, scientists from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) exposed research mice to brain samples from three people who died from a familial prion disease. After observing the mice for about two years, they found two of the mutations, Y226X and G131V, are transmissible. (2018-03-08)

For nanomedicine, cell sex matmonoclonal antibodies crucial to fighting emerging infectious diseases say NIAID officials
Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) -- preparations of a type of antibody designed to bind to a single target -- have shown promise in the fight against cancer and autoimmune diseases. They also may play a role in future battles against emerging infectious disease outbreaks, according to an NEJM article by NIAID scientists. The article outlines the potential uses for mAbs as treatments for infectious diseases, as prevention for protecting at-risk individuals, and slowing disease outbreaks (2018-03-08)

Mosquito gut may hold the key to preventing Dengue and Zika
A mosquito's ability to replicate and transmit a virus depends on the metabolic environment of tissues in its midgut: the primary site of infection. By targeting the sphingolipid pathway, which links together several pathways important for cell signaling and subcellular structure that are altered by virus infection, researchers could devise strategies that stall viral replication in the mosquito and prevent its transmission to humans. (2018-03-06)

Why the latest shingles vaccine is more than 90 percent effective
A new study has shown how the body's immune system responds to the new shingles vaccine, Shingrix, making it more than 90 percent effective at protecting against the virus. (2018-03-06)

Planning for smallpox outbreak must consider immunosuppression
New research from UNSW Sydney reveals that the number of people living with weakened immune systems must be examined when planning for the real risk of smallpox re-emerging in the world. The research poses a warning after Canadian scientists last year created a smallpox-like virus in a lab using just mail order DNA. (2018-03-01)

NIAID unveils strategic plan for developing a universal influenza vaccine
Developing a universal influenza vaccine -- a vaccine that can provide durable protection for all age groups against multiple strains, including those that might cause a pandemic -- is a priority for the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Writing in the Journal of Infectious Diseases, NIAID officials detail the Institute's new strategic plan for addressing the research areas essential to creating a safe and effective universal influenza vaccine. (2018-02-28)

Novel genome platform reveals new HIV targets
SBP researchers have developed the first ever high-throughput, genome-scale imaging-based approach to investigate protein stability. The method has been used to identify several previously unkown human proteins that HIV degrades to enhance its infection process. (2018-02-27)

Our reactions to odor reveal our political attitudes
People who are easily disgusted by body odors are also drawn to authoritarian political leaders. A survey showed a strong connection between supporting a society led by a despotic leader and being sensitive to body odors like sweat or urine. It might come from a deep-seated instinct to avoid infectious diseases. (2018-02-27)

Children's Colorado doctors conclude EV-D68 likely cause of acute flaccid myelitis
A team of doctors and scientists from the US and Europe led by Kevin Messacar, MD, an infectious disease specialist from Children's Hospital Colorado (Children's Colorado), has found that Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is a likely cause of Acute Flaccid Myelitis (AFM), a rare illness that affects the nervous system of children. The research was published late Friday, Feb. 23 in The Lancet Infectious Diseases. (2018-02-26)

Flu forecasting system tracks geographic spread of disease
Scientists at Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health developed a system to accurately predict the geographic spread of seasonal influenza in the United States, as reported in a paper published in the journal PNAS. (2018-02-26)

Genetics makes Asians and Europeans susceptible to severe dengue
As globalization and climate change spread tropical infectious diseases around the globe, not all populations have the same degree of susceptibility. Researchers from the Institut Pasteur, CNRS and the Institute for Research and Innovation in Health-University of Porto (i3S) identified gene variants common in people of Asian and European ancestry, making them more prone than those of African origin to developing severe dengue, which can lead to potentially fatal dengue shock syndrome. (2018-02-23)

Prevention is better than cure: Targeted vaccination to halt epidemics
Scientists at the Joint Research centre, the European Commission's science and knowledge service, simulated real-world social networks to assess the best strategies for halting epidemics. (2018-02-23)

NYU researchers adapt HIV test in developing rapid diagnostic test for Zika virus
Researchers at New York University College of Dentistry, in collaboration with Rheonix, Inc., are developing a novel test for Zika virus that uses saliva to identify diagnostic markers of the virus in a fraction of the time of current commercial tests. (2018-02-22)

First global estimate finds 1.8 million young people develop TB every year
A total of 1.8 million young people between ten and 24 years of age are estimated to develop tuberculosis (TB) every year, with young adults aged 20 to 24 years at the greatest risk of developing infectious TB, according to research published in the European Respiratory Journal. (2018-02-21)

MicroRNA could help treat cancer and asthma
MiR-223 shows promise for treating inflammatory disease. (2018-02-20)

First multiplex test for tick-borne diseases
A new blood test called the Tick-Borne Disease Serochip (TBD Serochip) promises to revolutionize the diagnosis of tick-borne disease by offering a single test to identify and distinguish between Borrelia burgdorferi, the pathogen responsible for Lyme disease, and seven other tick-borne pathogens. Led by scientists at the Center for Infection and Immunity (CII) at Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health, the research team report details on the new test in the journal Nature: Scientific Reports. (2018-02-16)

Expanding Hepatitis C testing to all adults is cost-effective and improves outcomes
According to a new study, screening all adults for hepatitis C (HCV) is a cost-effective way to improve clinical outcomes of HCV and identify more infected people compared to current recommendations. Using a simulation model, researchers from Boston Medical Center, Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) and Stanford University found that this expanded screening would increase life expectancy and quality of life while remaining cost-effective. (2018-02-16)

Organ-on-chip technology enters next stage as experts test hepatitis B virus
Scientists at Imperial College London have become the first in the world to test how pathogens interact with artificial human organs. (2018-02-14)

Surgical infections linked to drug-resistant bugs, study suggests
People having surgery in low income countries are more likely to develop an infection than those in wealthier nations, which may be linked to drug-resistant bacteria, research led by the University of Edinburgh suggests. (2018-02-13)

When the body attacks the brain: Immune system often to blame for encephalitis, study finds
Encephalitis caused by the immune system attacking the brain is similar in frequency to encephalitis from infections, Mayo Clinic researchers report in Annals of Neurology. (2018-02-12)

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