Current Infectious Diseases News and Events | Page 25

Current Infectious Diseases News and Events, Infectious Diseases News Articles.
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Opioid use increases risk of serious infections
Opioid users have a significantly increased risk of infections severe enough to require treatment at the hospital, such as pneumonia and meningitis, as compared to people who don't use opioids. (2018-02-12)

OHSU, CDC unravel mysterious eye infection
A 26-year-old Oregon woman was the first known case of a human being infected with the cattle eyeworm Thelazia gulosa, which normally affects large animals. She was likely infected while being around cows near her rural home, experts conclude in a paper published in the American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. (2018-02-12)

NIH scientists adapt new brain disease test for Parkinson's, dementia with Lewy bodies
NIH scientists have modified a test for early diagnosis of prion diseases with the goal of improving early diagnosis of Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. The NIAID-led group tested cerebral spinal fluid samples from people with Parkinson's disease; people with dementia with Lewy bodies; and controls, some of whom had Alzheimer's disease. The test correctly excluded all the controls and diagnosed both Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies with 93 percent accuracy. (2018-02-09)

Ebola virus infects reproductive organs in monkeys
Ebola virus can infect reproductive organs of male and female macaques, according to a new study, suggesting humans could be similarly infected. Prior studies have revealed sexual transmission of Ebola virus, and viral RNA persisting in semen following recovery. While little is known about viral persistence in female reproductive tissues, pregnant women with Ebola virus disease have a maternal death rate of more than 80 percent and a fetal death rate of nearly 100 percent. (2018-02-08)

Multiple chronic diseases leave patients with adversely high costs
Current strategies for treating patients with several chronic diseases are putting an unnecessary financial burden on countries' health systems and individuals, a global study has found. Experts say that the current clinical practice of tackling each disease in isolation may lead to the prescription of unnecessary medicines, resulting in patient expenses that are disproportionate to the number of conditions they have. (2018-02-07)

Study identifies how to improve WHO eradication strategy for skin disease
An international research collaboration published in The Lancet has found crucial evidence that could help to improve the current World Health Organization (WHO) strategy to eradicate yaws -- a chronic disfiguring and debilitating infectious disease affecting the skin, bones and joints. (2018-02-07)

UNC researchers identify patterns of HIV risk among people who inject drugs in Vietnam
In an effort to combat HIV infections among men who inject drugs in Vietnam, researchers at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill conducted the first study to explore how this population mixes together. Their results were published in the Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. (2018-02-06)

New research calls for rethink on approach to treating NTDs in urban areas
New research published today in The Lancet Infectious Diseases, suggests the effectiveness of large-scale distribution of medication (known as Mass Drug Administration or MDA) to treat lymphatic filariasis (LF) in urban areas needs to be re-examined. (2018-02-05)

New research suggests your immune system can protect against MRSA infections
After years of investigation, researchers at Johns Hopkins, the University of California, Davis, and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases have discovered how the immune system might protect a person from recurrent bacterial skin infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus (staph). (2018-02-05)

Mini-primaquine does help stop people infecting mosquitoes with malaria
A single dose of primaquine is thought to stop people with P. falciparum malaria infecting mosquitoes, which could help bring down malaria transmission. In this Cochrane Review update co-ordinated through the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group, researchers added recent data to examine this question. Their findings are relevant to the global recommendation by the WHO that mini-primaquine be given to all people unwell with malaria in areas where transmission is low to reduce transmission further. (2018-02-02)

Increasing public awareness is vital in the fight against infectious diseases
Public awareness campaigns on spotting the signs and symptoms of infectious diseases and how to prevent them, play a key role in helping to stop the spread of such infections, a new study in the journal Epidemiology and Infection reports. (2018-01-29)

tRNA fragments in mosquitos may play role in spreading disease
tRNA fragments -- small sections of transfer RNA molecules -- have recently been discovered to play active roles in the biology of diverse organisms. Now, these tRNA fragments (tRFs) have been found to have important functions in the mosquito Aedes aegypti, according to a new paper published this week in PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases. (2018-01-24)

Link found between genes in mosquitos and the spread of diseases
Researchers at the University of Missouri have found a link between genetic molecules in mosquitos and dengue fever. The results of the study, conducted by Susanta K. Behura and his colleagues, could lead to future breakthroughs in combating destructive tropical diseases like dengue fever, Zika virus and yellow fever. The researchers focused their efforts on a single species of mosquito, Aedes aegypti, a key player in the spread of such diseases in animals and humans around the world. (2018-01-24)

Flu infection study increases understanding of natural immunity
People with higher levels of antibodies against the stem portion of the influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) protein have less viral shedding when they get the flu, but don't have fewer or less severe signs of illness, according to a new study. This NIAID study is the first of its kind to evaluate pre-existing levels of these antibodies as a predictor of protection against influenza. The findings could have implications for flu vaccine development. (2018-01-23)

Vaccines not protecting farmed fish from disease
The vaccines used by commercial fish farmers are not protecting fish from disease, according to a new study. (2018-01-22)

Flu may be spread just by breathing, new UMD-led study shows
It is easier to spread the influenza virus (flu) than previously thought, according to a new study released today. People commonly believe that they can catch the flu by exposure to droplets from an infected person's coughs or sneezes or by touching contaminated surfaces. But, new information about flu transmission reveals that we may pass the flu to others just by breathing. (2018-01-18)

NIH scientists find microbes on the skin of mice promote tissue healing, immunity
Beneficial bacteria on the skin of lab mice work with the animals' immune systems to defend against disease-causing microbes and accelerate wound healing, according to new research from scientists at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, part of the National Institutes of Health. Researchers say untangling similar mechanisms in humans may improve approaches to managing skin wounds and treating other damaged tissues. The study was published online today in Cell. (2018-01-18)

Genetic sequencing points to endemic origin of monkeypox virus outbreak in Nigeria
Scientists working to control a human outbreak of monkeypox virus (MXPV) in Nigeria performed genetic sequencing of patient samples, revealing that the outbreak likely originated from a source within the country. Their results emphasize the value of local surveillance for the early detection of viral spillovers and the need for advanced genetic characterization to help determine the origins of outbreaks. (2018-01-18)

HIV-1 genetic diversity is higher in vaginal tract than in blood during early infection
A first-of-its-kind study has found that the genetic diversity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is higher in the vaginal tract than in the blood stream during early infection. This finding, published in PLOS Pathogens, supports the existence of a genetic bottleneck between the vaginal tract and the bloodstream. (2018-01-18)

Are amoebae safe harbors for plague?
Amoebae, single-celled organisms common in soil, water and grade-school science classrooms, may play a key role in the survival and spread of deadly plague bacteria. New Colorado State University research shows that plague bacteria, Yersinia pestis, not only survive, but thrive and replicate once ingested by an amoeba. The discovery could help scientists understand why plague outbreaks can smolder, stay dormant for years, and re-emerge with a vengeance. (2018-01-16)

Re-programming innate immune cells to fight tuberculosis
Tuberculosis (TB), an infectious disease which attacks the lungs, claims someone's life every 20 seconds and 1.5 million lives worldwide every year. A cure has eluded scientists for more than a century but, now, a Montreal team of researchers may have discovered a new weapon to combat this global killer. The team is re-programing - or 'training' - immune cells to kill TB. These groundbreaking findings are published online today in the journal Cell. (2018-01-11)

NIH study supports use of short-term HIV treatment interruption in clinical trials
A short-term pause in HIV treatment during a carefully monitored clinical trial does not lead to lasting expansion of the HIV reservoir nor cause irreversible damage to the immune system, new findings suggest. (2018-01-11)

Incorporating social media reviews can improve surveillance of restaurant health problems
A recent paper published in JAMIA, Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, illustrates the success of an improved system that tracks foodborne illness via online Yelp restaurant reviews developed by the Columbia University Department of Computer Science. Since 2012 this system has been used by the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene to identify instances of foodborne illness in NYC restaurants. (2018-01-10)

Biofilm buster treats drug-resistant infections
Scientists have created a potent antibacterial agent that killed drug-resistant microbes and even eradicated stubborn pathogens growing in biofilms, which can be 10 to 1,000 times more tolerant to antibiotics than free-living bacteria. (2018-01-10)

Public health-primary care testing has high uptake, doesn't identify hidden Hepatitis C
Public health-primary care testing has high uptake, doesn't identify hidden Hepatitis C. (2018-01-09)

MERS antibodies produced in cattle safe, treatment well tolerated in phase 1 trial
An experimental treatment developed from cattle plasma for Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus infection shows broad potential, according to a small clinical trial led by National Institutes of Health scientists and their colleagues. The treatment, SAB-301, was safe and well tolerated by healthy volunteers, with only minor reactions documented. (2018-01-09)

Feel anxious? Have trouble sleeping? You may be traveling for business too often
People who travel for business two weeks or more a month report more symptoms of anxiety and depression and are more likely to smoke, be sedentary and report trouble sleeping than those who travel one to six nights a month.  Among those who consume alcohol, extensive business travel is associated with symptoms of alcohol dependence.  Poor behavioral and mental health outcomes significantly increased as the number of nights away from home for business travel rose.  (2018-01-08)

Study links asthma and allergic rhinitis with cataracts
In a study that investigated the association between allergic diseases and ophthalmologic diseases in 14,776 adults, asthma and allergic rhinitis were each associated with a 50 percent increased likelihood of having cataracts. Atopic dermatitis was not linked with cataracts in the Journal of Dermatology study, however. (2018-01-04)

Hijacker parasite blocked from infiltrating blood
A major international collaboration led by Melbourne researchers has discovered that the world's most widespread malaria parasite infects humans by hijacking a protein the body cannot live without. The researchers were then able to successfully develop antibodies that disabled the parasite from carrying out this activity. (2018-01-04)

Morris Animal Foundation-funded study shows importance of wildlife in controlling ticks
Morris Animal Foundation-funded researchers from the University of California, Santa Barbara, have found that a decrease in wildlife populations causes an upsurge in local tick populations, potentially increasing the threat of infectious diseases globally. The research team published their results in the Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. (2018-01-03)

Statistical test relates pathogen mutation to infectious disease progression
Nucleic acid sequencing methods, which determine the order of nucleotides in DNA, are rapidly progressing. These processes yield large quantities of sequence data that helps researchers understand organism function. Sequencing also benefits epidemiological studies, such as the identification, diagnosis, and treatment of genetic and/or contagious diseases. In a paper published in the SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics, Ryosuke Omori and Jianhong Wu develop an inductive algorithm to study nucleotide frequencies using a multi-strain SIR model. (2017-12-28)

Zika remains a research and public health challenge, say NIAID scientists
The Zika virus has become established in more than 80 countries, infected millions of people, and left many babies with birth defects. Although scientists have made progress in their understanding of the virus, it would be premature to think that the Zika pandemic is now under control and will not reemerge, perhaps more aggressively, say leaders from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases in a Journal of Infectious Diseases special supplement. (2017-12-22)

Using viruses to fight viruses: New approach eliminates 'dormant' HIV-infected cells
Researchers at The Ottawa Hospital and the University of Ottawa have discovered that the Maraba virus, or MG1, can target and destroy the kind of HIV-infected cells that standard antiretroviral therapies can't reach. This laboratory discovery was published in the Journal of Infectious Diseases. If this technique works in humans, it might possibly contribute to a cure for HIV. (2017-12-18)

Nanoparticles as a solution against antibiotic resistance?
Scientists of the Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Germany succeeded in developing an efficient method to treat mucoviscidosis. Crucial are nanoparticles that transport the antibiotics more efficiently to their destination. First of all, the active particles need to have a certain size to be able to reach the deeper airways and not to bounce off somewhere else before. Ultimately, they have to penetrate the thick layer of mucus on the airways as well as the lower layers of the bacteria biofilm. (2017-12-15)

Forty years after first Ebola outbreak, survivors show signs they can stave off new infection
Survivors of the first known Ebola outbreak, which occurred in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 1976, may be key to development of vaccines and therapeutic drugs to treat future outbreaks. UCLA researchers located the 14 Ebola survivors of the 1976 outbreak who, in January 2016, were still living in the same small, remote villages in the forests of the Équateur Province of northwestern Democratic Republic of the Congo. (2017-12-14)

Does Chagas disease present a health risk to Canadians?
Believe it or not, a tropical blood parasite native to Latin America could be harmful to Canadians. Infectious diseases like malaria or Zika may have dominated recent headlines but Chagas -- the 'Kissing Bug' disease -- is in the spotlight following the publication of a new case study in the Canadian Medical Association Journal. Experts from Winnipeg and Montreal warn natives of Latin America and their offspring are at risk of contracting Chagas disease. (2017-12-13)

UTHealth study finds that male virgins can still acquire HPV
Men who have never engaged in sexual intercourse are still at risk for acquiring HPV, according to a study published recently in the Journal of Infectious Diseases by researchers at the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston School of Public Health. (2017-12-13)

Lactic acid bacteria can protect against Influenza A virus, study finds
Lactic acid bacteria, commonly used as probiotics to improve digestive health, can offer protection against different subtypes of influenza A virus, resulting in reduced weight loss after virus infection and lower amounts of virus replication in the lungs, according to a study led by Georgia State University. (2017-12-13)

Immune diseases inflict identical twins differently
A new study by researchers at the Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine reports which epigenetic factors in certain chromosomes that make one twin more at risk for autoimmune thyroid diseases. (2017-12-12)

HIV-1 regulation via protective human leukocyte antigen (HLA) haplotypes
HIV-1 regulation by the HLA-B*52:01 allele has been established for some time. However, evidence of regulation by its companion, the HLA-C*12:02 allele, has been difficult to produce due to the strong linkage. Researchers from the Center for AIDS research in Kumamoto University, Japan have produced the first evidence of HLA-C's control of HIV-1, but they note that it comes with a price. Namely, the possibility of a different autoimmune disease. (2017-12-12)

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