Current Lung Function News and Events

Current Lung Function News and Events, Lung Function News Articles.
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How reducing body temperature could help a tenth of all ICU patients
ROCKVILLE, MD - A tenth of all intensive care unit patients worldwide, and many critical patients with COVID-19, have acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). (2021-02-23)

Innate immune system worsens the situation in severe COVID-19
In patients with severe COVID-19, the innate immune system overreacts. This overreaction may underlie the formation of blood clots (thrombi) and deterioration in oxygen saturation that affect the patients. This is shown in an Uppsala University study published in the journal Frontiers in Immunology. (2021-02-23)

Scientists identify potential contributor to hyper immune responses in patients with severe COVID-19
Researchers have pinpointed a helper T cell population in the lungs of patients with severe COVID-19 that may be central to the development of hyperinflammation, lung injury, and subsequent acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) during disease (2021-02-23)

Targeting the SARS-CoV-2 main protease yields promise in transgenic mouse model
Inhibitors based on approved drugs and designed to disrupt the SARS-CoV-2 viral protein Mpro display strong antiviral activity both in vitro and in a transgenic mouse model, a new study reports. (2021-02-18)

Researchers develop algorithm to find possible misdiagnosis
Researchers from the University of Copenhagen have developed an algorithm that can identify patients who may have been wrongly diagnosed. With the help of digital disease history, the algorithm is able to register disease trajectories that differ so much from normal trajectories that there may be a misdiagnosis. The algorithm has been developed on the basis of data from several hundreds of thousands of COPD patients. (2021-02-15)

Enormous ancient fish discovered by accident
Fossilised remains of a fish that grew as big as a great white shark and the largest of its type ever found have been discovered by accident. (2021-02-15)

Oncotarget: Hemoglobin increases the effectiveness of chemotherapy in lung cancer
Additional animal studies revealed that co-administration of PolyHb with cisplatin attenuated tumor growth without alleviating hypoxia (2021-02-15)

Lung ultrasound helps predict COVID-19 patient outcomes
Brazilian researchers applied an examination protocol based on an analysis of 12 lung regions to 180 severe patients and found that the higher the lung ultrasound score the greater the risk of ICU admission, intubation and death. (2021-02-10)

The genetic susceptibility of people with Down's syndrome to COVID-19
A study reveals the genetic factors that may expose or protect people with Down syndrome from SARS-CoV-2. TMPRSS2, a gene that codes for an enzyme critical for aiding the entry of SARS-CoV-2 in human cells, had 60% higher levels of expression in Down syndrome. The researchers also found higher expression levels for CXCL10, a gene that can trigger cytokine storms. The authors call to vaccinate people with Down syndrome against COVID-19 as a priority. (2021-02-08)

Bernese researchers create sophisticated lung-on-chip
In collaboration with clinical partners from the Inselspital, researchers from the ARTORG Center for Biomedical Research of the University of Bern have developed a second-generation lung-on-chip model with life-size dimension alveoli in a stretchable membrane, made of purely biological material. The new model reproduces key aspects of the lung tissue architecture not found in previous lungs-on-chip. This opens up new possibilities for basic pneumological research, understanding lung pathologies, drug screening and precision medicine. (2021-02-08)

Raised mortality from cardiac arrest in people with COVID-19
Sudden cardiac arrest is more often fatal in people with COVID-19, a new study shows. Those responsible for the research see the results as a wake-up call for the public and care providers alike. (2021-02-05)

COVID-19: Schools urgently need guidelines on improving ventilation in classrooms
There is an urgent need for guidelines on how schools can use ventilation to reduce the risk of COVID-19 transmission in the classroom, according to doctors at Imperial College London and the headteacher of a secondary school in Pinner, Middlesex. (2021-02-05)

Surprising new research: We're more like primitive fishes than once believed
People traditionally think that lungs and limbs are key innovations that came with the vertebrate transition from water to land. But in fact, the genetic basis of air-breathing and limb movement was already established in our fish ancestor 50 million years earlier. This, according to a recent genome mapping of primitive fish conducted by the University of Copenhagen, among others. The new study changes our understanding of a key milestone in our own evolutionary history. (2021-02-04)

Using Artificial Intelligence to prevent harm caused by immunotherapy
Until recently, researchers and oncologists had placed these lung cancer patients into two broad categories: those who would benefit from immunotherapy, and those who likely would not. Now, researchers at Case Western Reserve University, using artificial intelligence (AI) to analyze simple tissue scans, say they have discovered biomarkers that could tell doctors which lung cancer patients might actually get worse from immunotherapy. (2021-02-04)

Blink! The link between aerobic fitness and cognition
Researchers from the University of Tsukuba have found evidence that spontaneous eye blink activity, which reflects activity in the dopaminergic system, explains the connection between fitness and cognitive function. This is the first study to indicate that dopamine has an essential role in linking aerobic fitness and cognition. These findings open the door to new research regarding the mechanisms by which exercise improves brain function, and may lead to novel fitness strategies for enhancing cognition. (2021-02-03)

Study finds recommended ICU sedatives equally safe, effective
A study published today in the New England Journal of Medicine provides the most definitive evidence to date that, of the two drugs recommended for light sedation of patients receiving mechanical ventilation in the ICU, one is as effective and safe as the other. (2021-02-02)

Combining PD-1inhibitor with VEGF inhibitor in chemotherapy of cholangiocarcinoma patient
Cholangiocarcinoma is the second most frequent liver cancer. Many patients miss the opportunity of having a surgery performed on them and its control has always been considered difficult. Here, doctors from The Affiliated Brain Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University (Guangzhou Huiai Hospital), Guangzhou, China, present a case of stage 4 cholangiocarcinoma. (2021-02-02)

Minority patients miss out on cystic fibrosis drugs due to genetic test limitations
There is an impassioned debate taking place in medicine on whether race-based considerations should be a factor in research, diagnoses, or treatments. (2021-02-02)

Asian-relevant lung cancer research presented at Global Lung Cancer Conference hosted in Singapore
-Lung cancer continues to be the leading cause of cancer death in Singapore and the world. -The World Conference on Lung Cancer, the largest international gathering of clinicians, researchers and scientists in the field of lung cancer - with more than 6,000 participants - was held from 28 January to 31 January 2021 as a worldwide virtual event hosted by Singapore. -A group of Singapore clinicians and scientists presented new data to enhance understanding and treatment of lung cancer in the Asian population at the conference. (2021-02-01)

Patients with lung cancer reduce smoking rate after enrollment in phase III clinical trial
The first comprehensive, prospective study of smoking habits in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who were enrolled in a phase III early-stage trial revealed that there was a high rate of smoking reduction and cessation following study entry, according to research published today in the Journal of Thoracic Oncology. (2021-02-01)

NIH study shows hyaluronan is effective in treating chronic lung disease
Researchers at the National Institutes of Health and their collaborators found that inhaling unfragmented hyaluronan improves lung function in patients suffering from severe exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Hyaluronan, a sugar secreted by living tissue that acts as a scaffold for cells, is also used in cosmetics as a skin moisturizer and as a nasal spray to moisturize lung airways. Utilized as a treatment, hyaluronan decreased the number of days in the hospital. (2021-02-01)

Patient-reported outcomes from the randomized phase III CROWN study of first-line Lorlatinib versus in ALK+ NSCLC
Patient-reported outcomes from the phase III CROWN study showed that time to treatment deterioration (TTD) in pain in chest, dyspnea, and cough was comparable between those who received lorlatinib and patients who took crizotinib. The research was presented today at the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer's 2020 World Conference on Lung Cancer Singapore. (2021-01-31)

Host immune classifier HIC assays may predict treatment response
Using a host immune classifier (HIC) test for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) may provide better predictors of treatment response and improve outcomes, according to research presented today at the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer's 2020 World Conference on Lung Cancer Singapore. (2021-01-30)

Nivolumab effective treatment for malignant mesothelioma
Nivolumab monotherapy is an effective treatment option for relapsed malignant mesothelioma (MM), according to research presented today at the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer World Conference on Lung Cancer. (2021-01-30)

Selected gene mRNA expression is not predictive of improved overall survival
)-- A phase III study examining whether messenger (m)RNA expression correlated with sensitivity or resistance to chemotherapy did not confer a statistically significant advantage in overall survival for patients with resected stage II-III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), according to research presented at the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer World Conference on Lung Cancer. (2021-01-30)

LCMC3: Neoadjuvant atezolizumab safe, meets primary endpoint of pathologic response rate
Primary analysis of the Lung Cancer Mutation Consortium (LCMC) 3 study revealed that neoadjuvant atezolizumab prior to lung cancer surgery was well tolerated by patients and met its primary endpoint of 20% major pathologic response rate, according to research presented today at the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer's World Conference on Lung Cancer. (2021-01-30)

TALENT study supports NLCST and NELSON trial results
A study presented today by researchers with the Ministry of Health and Welfare in Taiwan confirmed the effectiveness of low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening in a pre-defined, never-smoker, high-risk population. The research was presented today at the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer 2021 World Conference on Lung Cancer. (2021-01-30)

Two ADAURA analyses support use of Osimertinib for patients with surgically resected, Stage IB to IIIA non-small cell lung cancer
Two presentations from the ADAURA clinical trial advanced previous research that demonstrated improved disease-fee survival (DFS) outcomes for patients with surgically resected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving osimertinib. The data were reported today at the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer's 2020 World Conference on Lung Cancer (WCLC) Singapore. (2021-01-29)

Researchers probe new territory in treating patients with lung cancer during pandemic
On February 27, 2020, the flagship journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, the Journal of Thoracic Oncology, published a case study that described two patients from Wuhan, China who recently underwent lung lobectomies for adenocarcinoma and were retrospectively found to have had COVID-19 at the time of surgery. (2021-01-29)

Adding ipilimumab to pembrolizumab does not improve efficacy in patients with NSCLC
Adding ipilimumab to pembrolizumab does not improve efficacy and is associated with greater toxicity than pembrolizumab alone as first-line therapy for metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) for patients with a PD-L1 tumor proportion score of greater than or equal to 50% and no targetable EGFR or ALK aberrations. (2021-01-29)

Radiation Oncology trials using PET with FDG uptake among NSCLC patients
Two radiation oncology trials presented at the IALSC World Conference on Lung Cancer Singapore highlight how some researchers are exploring use of higher radiation boost doses to only PET-positive regions in locally-advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A previous large RTOG phase III trial revealed that the unform delivery of a high dose to the entire tumor led to poorer survival. (2021-01-29)

Sotorasib provides durable clinical benefit for patients with NSCLC and KRAS mutations
In the phase II CodeBreak 100 trial, sotorasib provided durable clinical benefit with a favorable safety profile in patients with pretreated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and who harbor KRAS p.G12C mutations, validating CodeBreak 100's phase I results, according to research presented today at the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer World Conference on Lung Cancer. (2021-01-28)

Vaccine delivered via skin could help in fight against respiratory diseases
Brigham's Thomas Kupper, MD, and co-authors present results from preclinical studies suggesting skin scarification may help generate lung T cells and provide protection against infectious diseases, with implications for prevention of COVID-19. (2021-01-27)

Lung-MAP translational discoveries shared at 2020 World Conference on Lung Cancer
Investigators leading the Lung Cancer Master Protocol, or Lung-MAP trial, will present findings from three translational medicine studies at the 2020 World Conference on Lung Cancer, to be held online January 28-31, 2021. (2021-01-27)

Germline whole exome sequencing reveals the potential role of hereditary predisposition and therapeutic implications in small cell lung cancer, a tobacco-related cancer
A study presented today by Dr. Nobuyuki Takahashi of the Center for Cancer Research (CCR), National Cancer Institute (NCI), Bethesda, Md. at the IASLC World Conference on Lung Cancer Singapore demonstrates that small cell lung cancer (SCLC) may have an inherited predisposition and lays the foundation for understanding the interaction between genotype and tobacco exposure in exacerbating SCLC risk as well as potential therapeutic implications (2021-01-27)

Potential combined drug therapy for lung cancer
Researchers at Kanazawa University report in Clinical Cancer Research that in the most common type of lung cancer, certain secondary mutations occurring with another gene alteration known as ALK make the efficacy of alectinib, an otherwise commonly used drug for treating lung cancer, become unfavorable. Combining alectinib with another kind of drug can overcome this adverse effect, however. (2021-01-22)

New study on the role of monocytes in sarcoidosis
The cause of the inflammatory lung disease sarcoidosis is unknown. In a new study, researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden have investigated whether a type of immune cell called a monocyte could be a key player in sarcoidosis pathogenesis and explain why some patients develop more severe and chronic disease than others. The study, which is published in The European Respiratory Journal, opens new possibilities for future diagnostic and therapeutic methods. (2021-01-21)

Study defines small-cell lung cancer subtypes and distinct therapeutic vulnerabilities for each type
Researchers from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center have developed the first comprehensive framework to classify small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) into four unique subtypes, based on gene expression, and have identified potential therapeutic targets for each type in a study published today in Cancer Cell. (2021-01-21)

New combination of immunotherapies shows great promise for treating lung cancer
McMaster University researchers have established in lab settings that a novel combination of two forms of immunotherapy can be highly effective for treating lung cancer, which causes more deaths than any other form of cancer. (2021-01-21)

Scientists discover link between nicotine and breast cancer metastasis
Scientists at Wake Forest School of Medicine have found that nicotine promotes the spread of breast cancer cells into the lungs. (2021-01-20)

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