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Current Macrophages News and Events, Macrophages News Articles.
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New therapeutic approach identified for kidney disease associated with lupus
Investigators led by Hospital for Special Surgery have identified a new disease mechanism and therapeutic approach for a type of advanced kidney disease that is a common cause of complications in patients with lupus. (2010-01-25)

Tobacco smoke causes lung inflammation, promotes lung cancer growth
Repeated exposure to tobacco smoke makes lung cancer much worse, and one reason is that it steps up inflammation in the lung. Scientists at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine have found that mice with early lung cancer lesions that were repeatedly exposed to tobacco smoke developed larger tumors -- and developed tumors more quickly -- than unexposed animals. The key contributing factor was lung tissue inflammation. (2010-01-19)

Cellular communication in the cancer microenvironment
In the Feb. 1 issue of G&D, Dr. Johanna Joyce and colleagues at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center lend new insight into the mechanism by which tumor-associated macrophages promote malignant progression. (2010-01-15)

Dual role for immune cells in the brain
We all have at one time or another experienced the typical signs of an infection: the fever, the listlessness, the lack of appetite. They are orchestrated by the brain in response to circulating cytokines, the signaling molecules of the immune system. But just how cytokines' reach extends beyond the almost impenetrable blood-brain barrier has been the topic of much dispute. (2010-01-13)

Protein central to being male plays key role in wound healing
A molecular receptor pivotal to the action of male hormones such as testosterone also plays a crucial role in the body's ability to heal. In studies in mice, scientists found that the androgen receptor delays wound healing. When scientists used an experimental compound to block the receptor, wounds healed much more quickly. (2010-01-04)

Researchers discover gene therapy to prevent progression of emphysema
Researchers from Boston University School of Medicine have discovered a new gene therapy that may prevent the progression of emphysema. The study, which appears on-line in the Journal of Clinical Investigation, describes a method to express therapeutic genes in lung tissue for a lifetime after only a single treatment. (2009-12-21)

Gene therapy makes mice breath easier
Individuals with single-gene mutations that decrease levels of the protein alpha-1 antitrypsin are highly susceptible to emphysema, a progressive lung disease that causes severe shortness of breath. Previous attempts to correct these mutations by gene transfer failed to achieve sustained gene expression in the mouse lung. However, researchers have now developed an approach that enabled them to attain sustained in vivo expression of normal human alpha-1 antitrypsin at levels able to improve emphysema in mice. (2009-12-21)

Mechanism discovered by which body's cells encourage tuberculosis infection
Tuberculosis bacteria use a signaling pathway to coerce disease fighting cells to switch allegiance and work on their behalf. Scientists have discovered a molecular mechanism by which TB bacteria prod epithelial cells to help produce tubercles. Instead of protecting the body, the tubercles act as hubs for production and dissemination of TB bacteria. The same signal pathway may also occur in noninfectious inflammatory conditions like arthritis, heart disease and cancer. (2009-12-10)

JCI online early table of contents: Nov. 9, 2009
This release contains summaries, links to PDFs, and contact information for the following newsworthy papers to be published online, Nov. 9, 2009, in the JCI, including: (2009-11-09)

Interstitial macrophages: immune cells that prevent asthma
The continual presence in the air of the microbe-derived molecule LPS promotes asthma in some individuals. What prevents inhalation of LPS from promoting asthma in most individuals is not well understood. However, researchers have now ascribed this function in mice to a population of lung immune cells known as lung interstitial macrophages (IMs); this is the first in vivo function described for these cells. (2009-11-09)

How saturated fatty acids 'anger' the immune system (and how to stop them)
Researchers have new evidence to explain how saturated fatty acids, which soar in those who are obese, can lead the immune system to respond in ways that add up to chronic, low-grade inflammation. The new results could lead to treatments designed to curb that inflammatory state, and the insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes that come with it. (2009-11-03)

New genetic cause of a fatal immune disorder
Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL) is an inherited, fatal, immune disorder. Disease-causing mutations have been identified in several genes. Now, researchers have added a new gene to this list by determining that two distinct mutations in the gene that generates syntaxin-binding protein 2 cause disease in a subset of patients with FHL. (2009-11-02)

New insight in the fight against the Leishmania parasite
Professor Albert Descoteaux's team at Centre INRS -- Institut Armand-Frappier has gained a better understanding of how the Leishmania donovani parasite manages to outsmart the human immune system and proliferate with impunity, causing visceral leishmaniasis, a chronic infection that is potentially fatal if left untreated. This scientific breakthrough was recently published in PLoS Pathogens. (2009-10-23)

Tips from the journals of the American Society for Microbiology
The following are tips from the Journals of the American Society for Microbiology: (2009-10-23)

Damaging inflammatory response could hinder spinal cord repair
The inflammatory response following a spinal cord injury appears to be set up to cause extra tissue damage instead of promoting healing, new research suggests. Scientists analyzing this inflammatory response in mice discovered that the types of cells recruited to the site of the injury are dominated within a week by those that promote inflammation. When chronic, inflammation can prevent healing, and these inflammatory cells are believed to remain at the injury site indefinitely. (2009-10-21)

Stanford study identifies cellular mechanism that causes lupuslike symptoms in mice
Macrophages, the scavenger cells of the body's immune system, are responsible for disposing of dying cells. Stanford University School of Medicine researchers have identified one pathway in this important process in mice that, if disrupted, causes a lupuslike autoimmune disease. (2009-10-18)

Major discovery opens door to leishmania treatment
Leishmania is a deadly parasitic disease that affects over 12 million people worldwide, with 2 million new cases reported every year. Until recently, scientists were unsure exactly how the parasite survives inside human cells. That mystery has now been solved according to a new study published in Science Signaling by a team led by Dr. Martin Olivier from RI-MUHC/McGill. It is hoped this study will lead to the development of the first prophylactic treatment. (2009-10-06)

Iron regulates the TLR4 inflammatory signaling pathway
Iron is a micronutrient essential to the survival of both humans and disease-causing microbes. Changes in iron levels therefore affect the severity of infectious diseases. New research has now identified an immune pathway affected by changes in iron levels that alter the susceptibility of mice to infection with the bacterium that causes salmonella, leading the researchers to suggest that local manipulation of iron levels might provide a new approach to controlling inflammation. (2009-10-05)

Reactive oxygen in fruit flies acts as a cell signalling mechanism for immune response
For years, health conscious people have been taking antioxidants to reduce the levels of reactive oxygen in their blood and prevent the DNA damage done by free radicals, which are the result of oxidative stress. But could excessive use of antioxidants deplete our immune systems? Research at UCLA's Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center has raised that question. (2009-09-23)

To regenerate muscle, cellular garbage men must become builders
In a study published online this week in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, EMBL scientists provide conclusive proof that, when a muscle is injured, white blood cells called macrophages play a crucial role in its regeneration and uncovered the genetic switch that controls this process and uncovered the genetic switch that controls this process, opening the door for new therapeutic approaches to sports injuries and to diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy. (2009-09-22)

Einstein scientists move closer to a safer anthrax vaccine
Researchers at Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University have identified two small protein fragments that could be developed into an anthrax vaccine that may cause fewer side effects than the current vaccine. (2009-09-04)

From fat to chronic inflammation
Researchers may have found a key ingredient in the recipe that leads from obesity to chronic low-grade inflammation, according to a report in the September issue of Cell Metabolism, a Cell Press publication. (2009-09-01)

Tips from the American Journal of Pathology
These tips provide highlights from the September 2009 issue of the American Journal of Pathology. (2009-08-26)

Pitt study finds molecular link between insulin resistance and inflammation
An exploration of the molecular links between insulin resistance and inflammation may have revealed a novel target for diabetes treatment, say scientists at the John G. Rangos Sr. Research Center, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC. Their findings were published earlier this month in the online version of Diabetes, one of the journals of the American Diabetes Association. (2009-08-26)

Smoking increases risk of developing active TB
Smoking is a risk factor for active tuberculosis disease, according to a new study on TB incidence in Taiwan. (2009-08-24)

Research shows why low vitamin D raises heart disease risks in diabetics
Low levels of vitamin D are known to nearly double the risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes, and researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis now think they know why. (2009-08-21)

Parasites persuade immune cells to invite them in for dinner, says new research
The parasites that cause leishmaniasis use a quirky trick to convince the immune system to effectively invite them into cells for dinner, according to a new study published today in PLoS Pathogens. The researchers, from Imperial College London, say their findings improve understanding of the way Leishmania parasites establish an infection and could aid the search for a vaccine against this neglected tropical disease. (2009-08-20)

American Society for Microbiology honors Tobias M. Hohl for work on Aspergillus fumigatus
The 2009 American Society for Microbiology ICAAC Young Investigator Award will be presented to Tobias M. Hohl, assistant professor, Vaccine and Infectious Diseases Institute, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, and assistant professor, division of allergy and infectious diseases, University of Washington, Seattle. Sponsored by Merck US Human Health, this award recognizes early career scientists for research excellence in microbiology and infectious diseases. (2009-08-19)

MSU scientists: Progesterone leads to inflammation
Scientists at Michigan State University have found exposure to the hormone progesterone activates genes that trigger inflammation in the mammary gland. This progesterone-induced inflammation may be a key factor in increasing the risk of breast cancer. (2009-08-19)

Einstein researchers identify potential target for metastatic cancer
The deadliest part of the cancer process, metastasis, appears to rely on help from macrophages, potent immune system cells that usually defend vigorously against disease, researchers at Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University report. (2009-08-10)

Scientists open doors to diagnosis of emphysema
Chronic inflammatory lung diseases are a major global health problem with smoking accounting for 90 percent of the risk for developing them. Scientists at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory and its Molecular Medicine Partnership Unit with the University of Heidelberg, Germany, have shed new light on the underlying disease process of emphysema using a technique which could in future be adapted for use in diagnosis. The study is published today in Nature Chemical Biology. (2009-08-03)

Stanford scientists discover bladder cancer stem cell
Researchers at Stanford's School of Medicine have identified the first human bladder cancer stem cell and revealed how it works to escape the body's natural defenses. (2009-08-03)

Infiltrating blood-derived macrophages play a role in recovery from spinal cord injury in mice
Although macrophages are known as essential players in wound healing, their contribution to recovery from spinal cord injury is a subject of debate. Using a mouse model of spinal injury, Michal Schwartz and colleagues from the Weizmann institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel tested the effect of macrophages on the recovery process after injury and demonstrate an important anti-inflammatory role for a subset of infiltrating monocyte-derived macrophages that is dependent upon their expression of the anti-inflammatory molecule interleukin-10. (2009-07-27)

Researchers capture bacterial infection on film
Researchers have developed a new technique that allows them for the first time to make a movie of bacteria infecting their living host. (2009-07-27)

Infiltrating blood-derived macrophages are vital cells in recovery from spinal cord injury in mice
Although macrophages are known as essential players in wound healing, their contribution to recovery from spinal cord injury is a subject of debate. Using a mouse model of spinal injury, Michal Schwartz and colleagues from the Weizmann institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel tested the effect of macrophages on the recovery process after injury. (2009-07-27)

Common allergy drug reduces obesity and diabetes in mice
Two new studies connect the immune system with obesity and type 2 diabetes. In the first study, researchers used two common over-the-counter allergy medications known to stabilize a group of inflammatory immune cells to reduce obesity and symptoms of type 2 diabetes in mice. In the second study, researchers found that a kind of regulatory white blood cell once thought to manage only immune cells also controls inflammation in non-obese fat tissue. (2009-07-26)

Stripping leukemia-initiating cells of their 'invisibility cloak'
Two new studies reveal a way to increase the body's appetite for gobbling up the cancer stem cells responsible for acute myeloid leukemia (AML), a form of cancer with a particularly poor survival rate. The key is targeting a protein on the surface of those cells that sends a (2009-07-23)

Leukemia cells evade immune system by mimicking normal cells, Stanford studies show
Human leukemia stem cells escape detection by co-opting a protective molecular badge used by normal blood stem cells to migrate safely within the body, according to a pair of studies by researchers at Stanford University Medical School. (2009-07-23)

Vitamin D, curcumin may help clear amyloid plaques found in Alzheimer's disease
UCLA scientists and colleagues from UC Riverside and the Human BioMolecular Research Institute have found that a form of vitamin D, together with a chemical found in turmeric spice called curcumin, may help stimulate the immune system to clear the brain of amyloid beta, which forms the plaques considered the hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. (2009-07-15)

Harvard scientists solve mystery about why HIV patients are more susceptible to TB infection
Harvard scientists took an important first-step toward the development of new treatments to help people with HIV battle Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. In a report appearing in the July 2009 print issue of the Journal of Leukocyte Biology they describe how HIV interferes with the cellular and molecular mechanisms used by the lungs to fight TB infection. This information is crucial for researchers developing new treatments. (2009-06-30)

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