Current Mantle News and Events | Page 2

Current Mantle News and Events, Mantle News Articles.
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Unexpected abundance of hydrogen in meteorites reveals the origin of Earth's water
Meteorite material presumed to be devoid of water because it formed in the dry inner Solar System appears to have contained sufficient hydrogen to have delivered to Earth at least three times the mass of water in its oceans, a new study shows. (2020-08-27)

Earth may always have been wet
The Earth is the only planet known to have liquid water on its surface, a fundamental characteristic when it comes to explaining the emergence of life. However, its origin is still debated. In the journal Science dated 28 August 2020, scientists from the CNRS and Université de Lorraine contribute to this debate by showing that most of the water present on the Earth today has probably been there right from the very beginning. (2020-08-27)

Crust and upper mantle velocity structure in SE Tibet and its geodynamic implications
Southeastern Tibet is a major area for transport of the Tibetan Plateau materials. Recently, researchers from University of Science and Technology of China obtained the high-resolution crust and upper mantle velocity structure of this area from ambient noise and surface wave tomography. The results reveal three major dynamic modes in southeastern Tibet: rigid extrusion of upper crustal material, complex and disconnected plastic flow of mid-lower crust material, and large-scale upwelling of asthenospheric material. (2020-08-19)

Rice researchers use InSight for deep Mars measurements
Using data from NASA's InSight Lander on Mars, Rice University seismologists have made the first direct measurements of three subsurface boundaries from the crust to the core of the red planet. (2020-08-05)

FSU geologists publish new findings on carbonate melts in Earth's mantle
Geologists from Florida State University's Department of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Science have discovered how carbon-rich molten rock in the Earth's upper mantle might affect the movement of seismic waves. (2020-08-04)

Is the Earth's transition zone deforming like the upper mantle?
In a recently published paper in Earth and Planetary Science Letters, researchers from the Geodynamics Research Center, Ehime University and the University of Lille combine numerical modeling of dislocation glide and results from diffusion experiments to revisit the rheology of wadsleyite, ringwoodite and majorite garnet under geological strain rates across the transition zone of the Earth's mantle based on theoretical plasticity modeling. (2020-07-29)

How stony-iron meteorites form
Meteorites give us insight into the early development of the solar system. Using the SAPHiR instrument at the Research Neutron Source Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II) at the Technical University of Munich (TUM), a scientific team has for the first time simulated the formation of a class of stony-iron meteorites, so-called pallasites, on a purely experimental basis. (2020-07-29)

An origin story for a family of oddball meteorites
Study suggests a family of rare meteorites likely came from an early planetesimal with a magnetic core. (2020-07-24)

The Venus 'ring of fire'
ETH researchers used computer simulations to classify the current activity of corona structures on the surface of Venus. To their surprise, they found a previously undiscovered ring of fire on our neighbouring planet. (2020-07-21)

Scientists discover volcanoes on Venus are still active
A new study identified 37 recently active volcanic structures on Venus. The study provides some of the best evidence yet that Venus is still a geologically active planet. A research paper on the work, which was conducted by researchers at the University of Maryland and the Institute of Geophysics at ETH Zurich, Switzerland, was published in the journal Nature Geoscience. (2020-07-20)

New evidence of long-term volcanic, seismic risks in northern Europe
An ancient European volcanic region may pose both a greater long-term volcanic risk and seismic risk to northwestern Europe than scientists had realized, geophysicists report in a study in the Geophysical Journal International. The densely populated area is centered in the Eifel region of Germany, and covers parts of Belgium, the Netherlands, France and Luxembourg. (2020-07-09)

Curtin study could rewrite Earth's history
Curtin University-led research has found new evidence to suggest that the Earth's first continents were not formed by subduction in a modern-like plate tectonics environment as previously thought, and instead may have been created by an entirely different process. (2020-07-07)

How does Earth sustain its magnetic field?
Life as we know it could not exist without Earth's magnetic field and its ability to deflect dangerous ionizing particles. It is continuously generated by the motion of liquid iron in Earth's outer core, a phenomenon called the geodynamo. Despite its fundamental importance, many questions remain unanswered about the geodynamo's origin. New work examines how the presence of lighter elements in the predominately iron core could affect the geodynamo's genesis and sustainability. (2020-07-06)

A different slant of light
Giant clams manipulate light to assist their symbiotic partner. (2020-07-05)

New materials of perovskite challenge the chemical intuition
Materials scientists have synthesized a new type of perovskite--one of the most common crystal structures of materials deployed for a range of uses, from superconductors to photovoltaics--that goes against conventional thinking about how such structures behave at extreme pressures such as those that exist deep in the Earth. (2020-06-30)

New Curtin research uncovers the two 'faces' of the Earth
New Curtin University-led research has uncovered how rocks sourced from the Earth's mantle are linked to the formation and breakup of supercontinents and super oceans over the past 700 million years, suggesting that the Earth is made up of two distinct 'faces'. (2020-06-30)

FSU News: MagLab geochemists solve mystery of Earth's vanishing crust
A team of geochemists based at the Florida State University-headquartered National High Magnetic Field Laboratory has found new evidence that Earth has been consistently churning out crust since its formation 4.5 billion years ago and that some crust is made of ancient, resurfaced chunks. (2020-06-26)

Simulations reveal how saltwater behaves in Earth's mantle
Giulia Galli's complex computer simulations reveal how saltwater behaves in the Earth's mantle, affecting everything from magma production to the carbon cycle. (2020-06-24)

The Kerguelen oceanic plateau sheds light on the formation of continents
How did the continents form? Although to a certain extent this remains an open question, the oceanic plateau of the Kerguelen Islands may well provide part of the answer, according to a French-Australian team led by the Géosciences Environnement Toulouse laboratory (CNRS/Université Toulouse III-Paul Sabatier/IRD/CNES). (2020-06-19)

Are planets with oceans common in the galaxy? It's likely, NASA scientists find
Several years ago, planetary scientist Lynnae Quick began to wonder whether any of the more than 4,000 known exoplanets, or planets beyond our solar system, might resemble some of the watery moons around Jupiter and Saturn. (2020-06-18)

Geoscientists create deeper look at processes below Earth's surface with 3D images
Geoscientists at The University of Texas at Dallas recently used massive amounts of earthquake data and supercomputers to generate high-resolution, 3D images of the dynamic geological processes taking place far below the Earth's surface. In a study published April 29 in Nature Communications, the research team described how it created images of mantle flows in a subduction region under Central America and the Caribbean Sea. (2020-06-17)

Scientists review the metallogenesis and challenges of porphyry copper systems above subduction zone
Porphyry copper ± molybdenum ± gold deposits (PCDs) are the most economically important magmatic-hydrothermal metallogenic system above subduction zones, which have supplied nearly 3/4 of the world's copper, 1/2 of the molybdenum and 1/5 of the gold, as well as large amounts of silver, zinc, tin and tungsten, with however their metallogenesis remaining controversial. Now researchers in Guangzhou have reviewed the recent progress in understanding the metallogenesis and remaining challenges of PCDs. (2020-06-15)

Remixed mantle suggests early start of plate tectonics
New Curtin University research on the remixing of Earth's stratified deep interior suggests that global plate tectonic processes, which played a pivotal role in the existence of life on Earth, started to operate at least 3.2 billion years ago. (2020-06-11)

New hints of volcanism under the heart of northern Europe
Scientists have discovered new evidence for active volcanism next door to some of the most densely populated areas of Europe. The study 'crowd-sourced' GPS monitoring data from antennae across western Europe to track subtle movements in the Earth's surface, thought to be caused by a rising subsurface mantle plume. The work is published in Geophysical Journal International. (2020-06-09)

Volcanic activity and changes in Earth's mantle were key to rise of atmospheric oxygen
Evidence from rocks billions of years old suggest that volcanoes played a key role in the rise of oxygen in the atmosphere of the early Earth. (2020-06-09)

Why the Victoria Plate in Africa rotates
The East African Rift System is a newly forming plate tectonic boundary at which the African continent is being separated into several plates. According to GPS data, one of those, the Victoria microplate, is moving in a counterclockwise rotation relative to Africa in contrast to the other plates involved. Now, researchers have found evidence that suggests that the configuration of weaker and stronger lithospheric regions controls the rotation of continental microplates and Victoria in particular. (2020-06-08)

Study shows diamonds aren't forever
Two Tulane researchers were among a team of international experts who co-authored a paper that was published in the journal Nature on June 3. (2020-06-04)

Scientists decipher the role of carbon and the break-up of continents
An international collaboration has led scientists to new insights into the storage and dynamic transfer of carbon below thick and very old continental crust currently published in the journal Nature titled, Displacement of cratonic mantle and lithospheric channeling concentrates deep carbon during continental rifting. (2020-06-03)

New model shows how diamond-carrying rocks formed in Northern Alberta
A new study by University of Alberta geologists is proposing a new model for explaining the eruption of diamond-bearing kimberlites in Northern Alberta. (2020-06-02)

Scientists discover new forms of feldspars
In high-pressure experiments, scientists have discovered new forms of the common mineral feldspar. At moderate temperatures, these hitherto unknown variants are stable at pressures of Earth's upper mantle, where common feldspar normally cannot exist. The discovery could change the view at cold subducting plates and the interpretation of seismologic signatures, as the team around DESY scientist Anna Pakhomova and Leonid Dubrovinsky from Bayerisches Geoinstitut in Bayreuth report in the journal Nature Communications. (2020-06-01)

Oxygen-excess oxides in Earth's mid-mantle facilitate the ascent of deep oxygen
Under the conditions of Earth's middle mantle, scientists discovered an oxygen-excess phase, (Mg,Fe)2O3+δ (0 < δ < 1) that can be formed with under-saturated water at >1000 kilometers depths. Those oxygen-excess materials may have long-termly oxidized the shallow mantle and the crust, which is essential to allow free oxygen to build up in Earth's atmosphere. (2020-05-27)

Yale finds a (much) earlier birth date for tectonic plates
Yale geophysicists reported that Earth's ever-shifting, underground network of tectonic plates was firmly in place more than 4 billion years ago -- at least a billion years earlier than scientists generally thought. (2020-05-27)

Dinosaur-dooming asteroid struck earth at 'deadliest possible' angle
New simulations from Imperial College London have revealed the asteroid that doomed the dinosaurs struck Earth at the 'deadliest possible' angle. (2020-05-26)

The lower mantle can be oxidized in the presence of water
In regions at depths greater than 1900 kilometers, scientists found active interactions between water and mantle rocks, which are oxidizing Earth's mantle. Water may have reached and dwelled at the lowermost part of the mantle over geologic time. (2020-05-22)

Probing materials at deep-Earth conditions to decipher Earth's evolutionary tale
Scientists have developed a way to study liquid silicates at the extreme conditions found in the core-mantle boundary. This could lead to a better understanding of the Earth's early molten days, which could even extend to other rocky planets. (2020-05-18)

Researchers reveal largest and hottest shield volcano on Earth
Researchers from the University of Hawai'i at Mānoa revealed the largest and hottest shield volcano on Earth--Pūhāhonu, a volcano within the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument. (2020-05-14)

A tale of two kinds of volcanoes
At an idyllic island in the Mediterranean Sea, ocean covers up the site of a vast volcanic explosion from 3200 years ago. A few hundred kilometers north-west, three other islands still have their volcanic histories from a few million years ago mostly intact. No explosions there. So why the differences between the Santorini caldera and the Aegina, Methana and Poros lava domes? Researchers used volcanic ''fingerprints' and plate tectonics research to find out why. (2020-05-09)

A new tool to predict volcanic eruptions
Earth's atmosphere is made up of 78% nitrogen and 21% oxygen, a mixture that is unique in the solar system. But where did the nitrogen come from? Did it escape from Earth's mantle through volcanic activity? To try to answer these questions, CNRS researcher Jabrane Labidi and his colleagues collected samples of gas from several volcanic sites. Their highly precise data could help to predict future volcanic eruptions. (2020-04-15)

New geochemical tool reveals origin of Earth's nitrogen
Researchers at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) and their colleagues used a new geochemical tool to shed light on the origin of nitrogen and other volatile elements on Earth, which may also prove useful as a way to monitor the activity of volcanoes. (2020-04-15)

Is the Earth's inner core oscillating and translating anomalously?
A theoretical mineral physics approach based on the ab initio methods was adopted to determine the viscosity of hexagonal, close-packed iron at the extreme pressures and temperatures corresponding to the Earth's inner core. The results are found to deny geophysical observations of large fluctuations in the inner core rotation rate. The obtained viscosity also rules out inner core translation and provides support that the dynamics of the inner core may be governed by solid-state convection. (2020-04-14)

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