# Current Mathematical Model News and Events

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'Problem of missing ice' finally solved by movement of the earth's crust

An international team of scientists published a study in Nature Communications today. This new reconstruction revolutionizes what is thought about the global continental ice mass during the Last Ice Age. (2021-02-23)

A dynamic forest floor

Walk along the beach after a winter storm and you'll see a shore littered with wracks of giant kelp, some 30 to 40 feet long -- evidence of the storm's impact on coastal kelp forests. (2021-02-22)

Making sense of the mass data generated from firing neurons

Scientists reveal technological breakthrough which may help answer key questions about how animals process information and adapt to environmental changes. Researchers at the University of Sussex and University of Kyoto have developed a new framework capable of analysing the masses of data created when studying the thousands of neutrons within an animal's brain. (2021-02-19)

New physics rules tested on quantum computer

Simulation of non-Hermitian quantum mechanics using a quantum computer goes beyond centuries old conventions (2021-02-15)

Cloud simulations get a dose of realism

A focus on the fundamental physics of cloud formation leads to highly realistic simulations of different types of clouds. (2021-02-15)

Moffitt uses mathematical modeling to identify factors that determine adaptive therapy success

In a new article featured on this month's cover of Cancer Research, Moffitt Cancer Center researchers, in collaboration with Oxford University, report results from their study using mathematical modeling to show that cell turnover impacts drug resistance and is an important factor that governs the success of adaptive therapy. (2021-02-15)

Can evolution be predicted?

Evolution adapts and optimizes organisms to their ecological niche. This could be used to predict how an organism evolves, but how can such predictions be rigorously tested? The Biophysics and Computational Neuroscience group led by professor Gašper Tkačik at the Institute of Science and Technology (IST) Austria has now created a mathematical framework to do exactly that. (2021-02-15)

Integrating maths and plant science to explain how plant roots generate a hormone gradient

The research team that developed a biosensor that first recorded that a distinct gradient of the plant growth hormone gibberellin correlated with plant cell size has now revealed how this distribution pattern is created in roots. (2021-02-15)

New tool predicts the success of extubating patients on intensive mechanical ventilation

A mathematical model predicts the success of extubating patients on intensive mechanical ventilation. The results of the study by a research team from the Universitat Rovira i Virgili (Tarragona-Spain) and the Institute of Health Research Pere Virgili show a potential reduction of the current rate of reintubation from 9% to 1% by using machine learning tools. Data from a thousand intensive-care patients with respiratory difficulties has been processed and analysed to create this tool (2021-02-15)

Placing cosmological constraints on quantum gravity phenomenology

Through new research published in

The quantum advantage: a novel demonstration

Scientists have just proved that a quantum machine can perform a given verification task in seconds when the same exercise would take a time equivalent to the age of the universe for a conventional computer. For this demonstration, they combined a complex interactive algorithm that solves a certain type of mathematical problem with limited information and a simple experimental photonics system that can be made in all advanced photonics laboratories. (2021-02-08)

Mathematics developed new classes of stellar dynamics systems solutions

The Vlasov-Poisson equations describe many important physical phenomena such as the distribution of gravitating particles in the interstellar space, high-temperature plasma kinetics, and the Landau damping effect. A joint team of scientists from the Mathematical Institute of RUDN University and the Mathematical Institute of the University of Munich suggested a new method to obtain stationary solutions for a system of Vlasov-Poisson equations in a three-dimensional case. (2021-02-05)

The Ramanujan Machine

The study, which was published in the journal

Researchers find a way to increase spatial resolution in brain activity visualization

Researchers from the HSE Institute for Cognitive Neuroscience have proposed a new method to process magnetoencephalography (MEG) data, which helps find cortical activation areas with higher precision. The method can be used in both basic research and clinical practice to diagnose a wide range of neurological disorders and to prepare patients for brain surgery. The paper describing the algorithm was published in the journal NeuroImage. (2021-02-05)

New research studies 'domino effects' and synchrony in brain activity

Scientists have made a significant breakthrough in the quest to understand the intricate processes that occur in the brain during seizures that are the key symptom of epilepsy. (2021-02-05)

In symbiosis: Plants control the genetics of microbes

Researchers from the University of Ottawa have discovered that plants may be able to control the genetics of their intimate root symbionts - the organism with which they live in symbiosis - thereby providing a better understanding of their growth. In addition to having a significant impact on all terrestrial ecosystems, their discovery may lead to improved eco-friendly agricultural applications. (2021-02-04)

Solving complex physics problems at lightning speed

A calculation so complex that it takes twenty years to complete on a powerful desktop computer can now be done in one hour on a regular laptop. Physicist Andreas Ekström at Chalmers University of Technology, together with international research colleagues, has designed a new method to calculate the properties of atomic nuclei incredibly quickly. (2021-02-01)

Synthetic biology reinvents development

The research team have used synthetic biology to develop a new type of genetic design that can reproduce some of the key processes that enable creating structures in natural systems, from termite nests to the development of embryos. (2021-02-01)

Physics of snakeskin sheds light on sidewinding

Sidewinders' bellies are studded with tiny pits and have few, if any, of the tiny spikes found on the bellies of other snakes. The discovery includes a mathematical model linking these distinct structures to function. (2021-02-01)

Mathematical method developed to predict cancer and drug-specific immunotherapy efficacy

Houston Methodist researchers have developed a mathematical model to predict how specific cancers will respond to immunotherapy treatments, thus enhancing chances for successful treatments from a wide variety of cancer-immunotherapy drug combinations. The results were recently published in Nature Biomedical Engineering in collaboration with researchers at MD Anderson Cancer Center. (2021-02-01)

Pace of prehistoric human innovation could be revealed by 'linguistic thermometer'

A physics professor has joined forces with language experts to build a 'linguistic thermometer' that can record the temperature of 'hot' or 'cold' (ie fast or slow) developments in modern linguistic features to create a computer-based model that can provide a better understanding of the development in human language and innovation stretching back to pre-history. (2021-01-27)

Engineers share model for ventilating two patients with one ventilator

As Covid-19 continues to put pressure on healthcare providers around the world, engineers at the University of Bath have published a mathematical model that could help clinicians to safely allow two people to share a single ventilator. (2021-01-27)

A NEAT reduction of complex neuronal models accelerates brain research

Unlike their simple counterparts in artificial intelligence (AI) applications, neurons in the brain use dendrites - their intricate tree-like branches - to find relevant chunks of information. Now, neuroscientists from the University of Bern have discovered a new computational method to make complex dendrite models much simpler. These faithful reductions may lead AI applications to process information much like the brain does. (2021-01-27)

What's in a name? A new class of superconductors

A new theory that could explain how unconventional superconductivity arises in a diverse set of compounds might never have happened if physicists Qimiao Si and Emilian Nica had chosen a different name for their 2017 model of orbital-selective superconductivity. (2021-01-25)

Domino effects and synchrony in seizure initiation

In a brain with a neurological disorder like epilepsy, synchronization between groups of neurons can grow to a dangerous extent when a collection of brain cells begins to emit excess electricity. Researchers used a mathematical model to explore the interplay between neurons that leads to these transitions in synchronization during the onset of seizures. (2021-01-25)

To find the right network model, compare all possible histories

Scientists rarely have the historical data they need to see exactly how nodes in a network became connected. But a new paper in Physical Review Letters offers hope for reconstructing the missing information, using a new method to evaluate the rules that generate network models. (2021-01-25)

Scientists improved eye tracking technology in VR systems

The tracking of eye movement is one of the key elements of virtual and amplified reality technologies (VR/AR). A team from MSU together with a professor from RUDN University developed a mathematical model that helps accurately predict the next gaze fixation point and reduces the inaccuracy caused by blinking. The model would make VR/AR systems more realistic and sensitive to user actions. (2021-01-22)

Getting shapes into numbers

A mathematical framework enables accurate characterization of shapes (2021-01-20)

COVID-19 model reveals key role for innate immunity in controlling viral load

Since SARS-CoV-2 was identified in December 2019, researchers have worked feverishly to study the novel coronavirus. Although much knowledge has been gained, scientists still have a lot to learn about how SARS-CoV-2 interacts with the human body, and how the immune system fights it. Now, researchers reporting in

Constructing termite turrets without a blueprint

Following a series of studies on termite mound physiology and morphogenesis over the past decade, researchers at the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences have now developed a mathematical model to help explain how termites construct their intricate mounds. (2021-01-19)

New management approach can help avoid species vulnerability or extinction

Research focuses on transient nature of species' and ecosystem stability; illustrates how prepare for possible flips. (2021-01-18)

How cells move and don't get stuck

Theoretical physicists from Berlin teamed up with experimental physicists from Munich to determine the precise mechanics involved in cell motility. The findings were published in the journal

Tracking the evolution Maxwell knots

A new study published in EPJ C by Alexei Morozov and Nikita Tselousov, from the Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics and the Institute of Transmission Problems, Moscow, respectively, details peculiar solutions to the Maxwell equations--so-called Maxwell knots. The research could have applications in the fields of mathematical physics and string theory. (2021-01-18)

A mathematical study describes how metastasis starts

A scientific study carried out by the Universidad Carlos III de Madrid (UC3M) and the Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM) has produced a mathematical description of the way in which a tumor invades the epithelial cells and automatically quantifies the progression of the tumor and the remaining cell islands after its progression. The model developed by these researchers could be used to better understand the biophysical characteristics of the cells involved when developing new treatments for wound healing, organ regeneration, or cancer progression. (2021-01-18)

Borrowing from birds, experts reduce search times for novel high-entropy alloys to seconds

Computational materials science experts at the US Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory enhanced an algorithm that borrows its approach from the nesting habits of cuckoo birds, reducing the search time for new high-tech alloys from weeks to mere seconds. (2021-01-14)

SUTD develops new model of influence maximization

The model will enhance the robustness of networks to adversarial attacks and will benefit both practitioners and organizations. (2021-01-12)

Formula predicts ideal dose of stem cells to cure HIV

Scientists have determined the optimal conditions following a stem cell transplant that could control HIV without the need of an everyday pill, according to a study published today in

A bit too much: reducing the bit width of Ising models for quantum annealing

Quantum annealers are devices that physically implement a quantum system called the 'Ising model' to solve combinatorial optimization problems. However, the coefficients of the Ising model often require a large bit width, making it difficult to implement physically. Now, scientists from Japan demonstrate a method to reduce the bit width of any Ising model, increasing the applicability and versatility of quantum annealers in many fields, including cryptography, logistics, and artificial intelligence. (2021-01-06)

Scientists develop new approach to understanding massive volcanic eruptions

An international volcanology team has created a first-of-its kind tool that can aid scientists in understanding past explosive eruptions that shaped the earth and improve the way of estimating hazards of future eruptions. (2021-01-04)

Scientists find the error source of a sea-ice model varies with the season

Scientists evaluated the sea-ice simulations of the Arctic regional ocean-ice coupling configuration of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model (MITgcm) and found there were disagreements between the simulations and observations in both March and September. (2020-12-30)

An international team of scientists published a study in Nature Communications today. This new reconstruction revolutionizes what is thought about the global continental ice mass during the Last Ice Age. (2021-02-23)

A dynamic forest floor

Walk along the beach after a winter storm and you'll see a shore littered with wracks of giant kelp, some 30 to 40 feet long -- evidence of the storm's impact on coastal kelp forests. (2021-02-22)

Making sense of the mass data generated from firing neurons

Scientists reveal technological breakthrough which may help answer key questions about how animals process information and adapt to environmental changes. Researchers at the University of Sussex and University of Kyoto have developed a new framework capable of analysing the masses of data created when studying the thousands of neutrons within an animal's brain. (2021-02-19)

New physics rules tested on quantum computer

Simulation of non-Hermitian quantum mechanics using a quantum computer goes beyond centuries old conventions (2021-02-15)

Cloud simulations get a dose of realism

A focus on the fundamental physics of cloud formation leads to highly realistic simulations of different types of clouds. (2021-02-15)

Moffitt uses mathematical modeling to identify factors that determine adaptive therapy success

In a new article featured on this month's cover of Cancer Research, Moffitt Cancer Center researchers, in collaboration with Oxford University, report results from their study using mathematical modeling to show that cell turnover impacts drug resistance and is an important factor that governs the success of adaptive therapy. (2021-02-15)

Can evolution be predicted?

Evolution adapts and optimizes organisms to their ecological niche. This could be used to predict how an organism evolves, but how can such predictions be rigorously tested? The Biophysics and Computational Neuroscience group led by professor Gašper Tkačik at the Institute of Science and Technology (IST) Austria has now created a mathematical framework to do exactly that. (2021-02-15)

Integrating maths and plant science to explain how plant roots generate a hormone gradient

The research team that developed a biosensor that first recorded that a distinct gradient of the plant growth hormone gibberellin correlated with plant cell size has now revealed how this distribution pattern is created in roots. (2021-02-15)

New tool predicts the success of extubating patients on intensive mechanical ventilation

A mathematical model predicts the success of extubating patients on intensive mechanical ventilation. The results of the study by a research team from the Universitat Rovira i Virgili (Tarragona-Spain) and the Institute of Health Research Pere Virgili show a potential reduction of the current rate of reintubation from 9% to 1% by using machine learning tools. Data from a thousand intensive-care patients with respiratory difficulties has been processed and analysed to create this tool (2021-02-15)

Placing cosmological constraints on quantum gravity phenomenology

Through new research published in

*EPJ C*, researchers have used well-established cosmological observations to place tighter constraints on the quadratic model of the Generalized Uncertainty Principle, while discrediting the linear model. (2021-02-10)The quantum advantage: a novel demonstration

Scientists have just proved that a quantum machine can perform a given verification task in seconds when the same exercise would take a time equivalent to the age of the universe for a conventional computer. For this demonstration, they combined a complex interactive algorithm that solves a certain type of mathematical problem with limited information and a simple experimental photonics system that can be made in all advanced photonics laboratories. (2021-02-08)

Mathematics developed new classes of stellar dynamics systems solutions

The Vlasov-Poisson equations describe many important physical phenomena such as the distribution of gravitating particles in the interstellar space, high-temperature plasma kinetics, and the Landau damping effect. A joint team of scientists from the Mathematical Institute of RUDN University and the Mathematical Institute of the University of Munich suggested a new method to obtain stationary solutions for a system of Vlasov-Poisson equations in a three-dimensional case. (2021-02-05)

The Ramanujan Machine

The study, which was published in the journal

*Nature*, was carried out by undergraduates from different faculties under the tutelage of Assistant Professor Ido Kaminer of the Andrew and Erna Viterbi Faculty of Electrical Engineering at the Technion. (2021-02-05)Researchers find a way to increase spatial resolution in brain activity visualization

Researchers from the HSE Institute for Cognitive Neuroscience have proposed a new method to process magnetoencephalography (MEG) data, which helps find cortical activation areas with higher precision. The method can be used in both basic research and clinical practice to diagnose a wide range of neurological disorders and to prepare patients for brain surgery. The paper describing the algorithm was published in the journal NeuroImage. (2021-02-05)

New research studies 'domino effects' and synchrony in brain activity

Scientists have made a significant breakthrough in the quest to understand the intricate processes that occur in the brain during seizures that are the key symptom of epilepsy. (2021-02-05)

In symbiosis: Plants control the genetics of microbes

Researchers from the University of Ottawa have discovered that plants may be able to control the genetics of their intimate root symbionts - the organism with which they live in symbiosis - thereby providing a better understanding of their growth. In addition to having a significant impact on all terrestrial ecosystems, their discovery may lead to improved eco-friendly agricultural applications. (2021-02-04)

Solving complex physics problems at lightning speed

A calculation so complex that it takes twenty years to complete on a powerful desktop computer can now be done in one hour on a regular laptop. Physicist Andreas Ekström at Chalmers University of Technology, together with international research colleagues, has designed a new method to calculate the properties of atomic nuclei incredibly quickly. (2021-02-01)

Synthetic biology reinvents development

The research team have used synthetic biology to develop a new type of genetic design that can reproduce some of the key processes that enable creating structures in natural systems, from termite nests to the development of embryos. (2021-02-01)

Physics of snakeskin sheds light on sidewinding

Sidewinders' bellies are studded with tiny pits and have few, if any, of the tiny spikes found on the bellies of other snakes. The discovery includes a mathematical model linking these distinct structures to function. (2021-02-01)

Mathematical method developed to predict cancer and drug-specific immunotherapy efficacy

Houston Methodist researchers have developed a mathematical model to predict how specific cancers will respond to immunotherapy treatments, thus enhancing chances for successful treatments from a wide variety of cancer-immunotherapy drug combinations. The results were recently published in Nature Biomedical Engineering in collaboration with researchers at MD Anderson Cancer Center. (2021-02-01)

Pace of prehistoric human innovation could be revealed by 'linguistic thermometer'

A physics professor has joined forces with language experts to build a 'linguistic thermometer' that can record the temperature of 'hot' or 'cold' (ie fast or slow) developments in modern linguistic features to create a computer-based model that can provide a better understanding of the development in human language and innovation stretching back to pre-history. (2021-01-27)

Engineers share model for ventilating two patients with one ventilator

As Covid-19 continues to put pressure on healthcare providers around the world, engineers at the University of Bath have published a mathematical model that could help clinicians to safely allow two people to share a single ventilator. (2021-01-27)

A NEAT reduction of complex neuronal models accelerates brain research

Unlike their simple counterparts in artificial intelligence (AI) applications, neurons in the brain use dendrites - their intricate tree-like branches - to find relevant chunks of information. Now, neuroscientists from the University of Bern have discovered a new computational method to make complex dendrite models much simpler. These faithful reductions may lead AI applications to process information much like the brain does. (2021-01-27)

What's in a name? A new class of superconductors

A new theory that could explain how unconventional superconductivity arises in a diverse set of compounds might never have happened if physicists Qimiao Si and Emilian Nica had chosen a different name for their 2017 model of orbital-selective superconductivity. (2021-01-25)

Domino effects and synchrony in seizure initiation

In a brain with a neurological disorder like epilepsy, synchronization between groups of neurons can grow to a dangerous extent when a collection of brain cells begins to emit excess electricity. Researchers used a mathematical model to explore the interplay between neurons that leads to these transitions in synchronization during the onset of seizures. (2021-01-25)

To find the right network model, compare all possible histories

Scientists rarely have the historical data they need to see exactly how nodes in a network became connected. But a new paper in Physical Review Letters offers hope for reconstructing the missing information, using a new method to evaluate the rules that generate network models. (2021-01-25)

Scientists improved eye tracking technology in VR systems

The tracking of eye movement is one of the key elements of virtual and amplified reality technologies (VR/AR). A team from MSU together with a professor from RUDN University developed a mathematical model that helps accurately predict the next gaze fixation point and reduces the inaccuracy caused by blinking. The model would make VR/AR systems more realistic and sensitive to user actions. (2021-01-22)

Getting shapes into numbers

A mathematical framework enables accurate characterization of shapes (2021-01-20)

COVID-19 model reveals key role for innate immunity in controlling viral load

Since SARS-CoV-2 was identified in December 2019, researchers have worked feverishly to study the novel coronavirus. Although much knowledge has been gained, scientists still have a lot to learn about how SARS-CoV-2 interacts with the human body, and how the immune system fights it. Now, researchers reporting in

*ACS Pharmacology & Translational Science*have developed a mathematical model of SARS-CoV-2 infection that reveals a key role for the innate immune system in controlling viral load. (2021-01-20)Constructing termite turrets without a blueprint

Following a series of studies on termite mound physiology and morphogenesis over the past decade, researchers at the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences have now developed a mathematical model to help explain how termites construct their intricate mounds. (2021-01-19)

New management approach can help avoid species vulnerability or extinction

Research focuses on transient nature of species' and ecosystem stability; illustrates how prepare for possible flips. (2021-01-18)

How cells move and don't get stuck

Theoretical physicists from Berlin teamed up with experimental physicists from Munich to determine the precise mechanics involved in cell motility. The findings were published in the journal

*Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences*(PNAS). (2021-01-18)Tracking the evolution Maxwell knots

A new study published in EPJ C by Alexei Morozov and Nikita Tselousov, from the Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics and the Institute of Transmission Problems, Moscow, respectively, details peculiar solutions to the Maxwell equations--so-called Maxwell knots. The research could have applications in the fields of mathematical physics and string theory. (2021-01-18)

A mathematical study describes how metastasis starts

A scientific study carried out by the Universidad Carlos III de Madrid (UC3M) and the Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM) has produced a mathematical description of the way in which a tumor invades the epithelial cells and automatically quantifies the progression of the tumor and the remaining cell islands after its progression. The model developed by these researchers could be used to better understand the biophysical characteristics of the cells involved when developing new treatments for wound healing, organ regeneration, or cancer progression. (2021-01-18)

Borrowing from birds, experts reduce search times for novel high-entropy alloys to seconds

Computational materials science experts at the US Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory enhanced an algorithm that borrows its approach from the nesting habits of cuckoo birds, reducing the search time for new high-tech alloys from weeks to mere seconds. (2021-01-14)

SUTD develops new model of influence maximization

The model will enhance the robustness of networks to adversarial attacks and will benefit both practitioners and organizations. (2021-01-12)

Formula predicts ideal dose of stem cells to cure HIV

Scientists have determined the optimal conditions following a stem cell transplant that could control HIV without the need of an everyday pill, according to a study published today in

*eLife*. (2021-01-12)A bit too much: reducing the bit width of Ising models for quantum annealing

Quantum annealers are devices that physically implement a quantum system called the 'Ising model' to solve combinatorial optimization problems. However, the coefficients of the Ising model often require a large bit width, making it difficult to implement physically. Now, scientists from Japan demonstrate a method to reduce the bit width of any Ising model, increasing the applicability and versatility of quantum annealers in many fields, including cryptography, logistics, and artificial intelligence. (2021-01-06)

Scientists develop new approach to understanding massive volcanic eruptions

An international volcanology team has created a first-of-its kind tool that can aid scientists in understanding past explosive eruptions that shaped the earth and improve the way of estimating hazards of future eruptions. (2021-01-04)

Scientists find the error source of a sea-ice model varies with the season

Scientists evaluated the sea-ice simulations of the Arctic regional ocean-ice coupling configuration of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model (MITgcm) and found there were disagreements between the simulations and observations in both March and September. (2020-12-30)

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