# Current Mathematics News and Events | Page 2

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Study shows domestic violence reports on the rise as COVID-19 keeps people at home

A UCLA-led research team has found an increase in domestic violence reports in Los Angeles and Indianapolis since the stay-at-home restrictions were implemented in March. The scholars, who are leaders in applying mathematics to interpret and make sense of police crime data, predict the incidence should gradually decrease as people return to normal routines, but would likely increase again if there is a second wave of COVID-19 infections that prompts new stay-at-home orders. (2020-05-27)

New information about the transmission of the amphibian pathogen, Bsal

Using existing data from controlled experiments and computer simulations, researchers with the University of Tennessee Institute of Agriculture have found that host contact rates and habitat structure affect transmission rates of Bsal among eastern newts, a common salamander species found throughout eastern North America. (2020-04-08)

IKBFU Physicists keep improving 'smart' composites for biomedical sensors

The new composites are related to the multiferroic-class materials which have mutually controlled magnetic and electric properties. The effects observed in the compositions are considered to be a perspective platform for creating new devices from energy converters to highly sensitive sensors. (2020-03-10)

Speak math, not code

Writing algorithms in mathematics rather than code is not only more elegant but also more efficient, says 2013 Turing Award winner Leslie Lamport. (2020-03-01)

French mathematician and spider aficionado Cédric Villani honoured with a new orb-weaver

Considered as one of the best studied spiders, the orb-weavers remain poorly known in the central parts of the Palearctic ecozone. Hence, an international research team took to the Caucasus, Middle East and Central Asia. Their article in the open-access peer-reviewed journal ZooKeys documents three new to science species, where one is named after the Indo-Iranian god of light Mithra. Another carries the name of the flamboyant French mathematician and spider aficionado Cédric Villani. (2020-02-03)

Math that feels good

Mathematics and science Braille textbooks are expensive and require an enormous effort to produce -- until now. A team of researchers has developed a method for easily creating textbooks in Braille, with an initial focus on math textbooks. The new process is made possible by a new authoring system which serves as a 'universal translator' for textbook formats. Based on this new method, the production of Braille textbooks will become easy, inexpensive, and widespread. (2020-01-16)

Mathematicians put famous Battle of Britain 'what if' scenarios to the test

Mathematicians from the University of York have developed a new model to explore what the impact of changes to Luftwaffe tactics would actually have been. Their approach uses statistical modelling to calculate how the Battle might have played out if history had followed one of several alternative courses. (2020-01-09)

Indeterminist physics for an open world

Classical physics is characterized by the equations describing the world. Yet our day-to-day experience is struck by this deterministic vision of the world. A physicist (UNIGE) has been analyzing the classical mathematical language used in modern physics. He has thrown light on a contradiction between the equations that explained the phenomena and the finite world. He suggests making changes to the mathematical language to allow randomness and indeterminism to become part of classical physics. (2020-01-07)

Understanding the mechanisms of seemingly chaotic synchronization in trees

The synchronization of seed production by trees has garnered attention due to its importance in agriculture, forestry and ecosystem management. A team of scientists led by Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology (TUAT) have developed a method that can be used to model the wide range of synchronization behaviors exhibited by different tree species simply by changing the control parameters. (2019-12-19)

Smaller class sizes not always better for pupils, multinational study shows

A new statistical analysis of data from a long-term study on the teaching of mathematics and science has found that smaller class sizes are not always associated with better pupil performance and achievement. (2019-12-15)

Researchers develop first mathematical proof for key law of turbulence in fluid mechanics

Turbulence is one of the least understood phenomena of the physical world. Long considered too hard to understand and predict mathematically, turbulence is the reason the Navier-Stokes equations, which describe how fluids flow, are so hard to solve that there is a million-dollar reward for anyone who can prove them mathematically. But now, University of Maryland mathematicians have broken through the barrier and developed the first rigorous mathematical proof for a fundamental law of turbulence. (2019-12-11)

Analyzing seismic patterns to forecast the magnitude of the largest earthquake aftershocks

Earthquakes can have devastating impacts on communities all around the world. Associate Professor Jiancang Zhuang and Emeritus Professor Yosihiko Ogata from The Institute of Statistical Mathematics (ISM) in Japan, in collaboration with colleagues, have developed a method that can forecast the probability of when and where aftershocks are likely to occur, and how strong the largest of these will be. Their findings were published on Sept. 6, 2019, in Nature Communications. (2019-12-01)

UT mathematician develops model to control spread of aquatic invasive species

Adjusting the water flow rate in a river can prevent invasive species from moving upstream and expanding their range. An applied mathematician at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, has developed a partial differential equation model to find the desired flow rate to reduce invasive populations. (2019-11-21)

Foam offers way to manipulate light

A study by Princeton scientists has shown that a type of foam long studied by scientists is able to block particular wavelengths of light, a coveted property for next-generation information technology that uses light instead of electricity. (2019-11-18)

A better understanding of soft artificial muscles

Artificial muscles will power the soft robots and wearable devices of the future. But more needs to be understood about the underlying mechanics of these powerful structures in order to design and build new devices. Now, researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) have uncovered some of the fundamental physical properties of artificial muscle fibers. (2019-11-15)

What future do emperor penguins face?

Emperor penguins establish their colonies on sea ice under extremely specific conditions. Yet, this ice will gradually melt as the climate warms, depriving these birds of their habitat, food sources, and the capacity to raise their young. To predict what will happen to emperor penguin colonies, a team of scientists led by the Chizé Centre for Biological Studies (CNRS / University of La Rochelle) applied a combination of climate and population models to three different scenarios. (2019-11-12)

Study finds brains of girls and boys are similar, producing equal math ability

Jessica Cantlon at Carnegie Mellon University led a research team that comprehensively examined the brain development of young boys and girls. Their research shows no gender difference in brain function or math ability. (2019-11-08)

Tiny swimming donuts deliver the goods

Bacteria and other swimming microorganisms evolved to thrive in challenging environments, and researchers struggle to mimic their unique abilities for biomedical technologies, but fabrication challenges created a manufacturing bottleneck. Microscopic, 3D-printed, tori -- donuts -- coated with nickel and platinum may bridge the gap between biological and synthetic swimmers, according to an international team of researchers. (2019-10-30)

RUDN scientists proved a theorem that would help calculate water movement in porous rock

Mathematicians from RUDN University have proved the unique continuation theorem for a one dimensional solution to a fractional order diffusion problem. The results of RUDN University mathematicians' work are needed for a more accurate analysis of solutions and their numerical simulation. In the general case, there are no such continuation theorems for other classes of similar equations. (2019-10-23)

Mathematical modelling vital to tackling disease outbreaks

Predicting and controlling disease outbreaks would be easier and more reliable with the wider application of mathematical modelling, according to a new study. The study was conducted by researchers at the University of Waterloo, University of Maryland and Yale's School of Public Health. (2019-10-17)

Parental gender attitudes associated with Japanese girls' reduced university participation

Researchers in Japan have found stereotypical gender role attitudes and negative images of STEM fields of Japanese parents may be associated with girls' reduced university participation. (2019-10-16)

Explained: The lifetime of an evaporating liquid drop

The lifespan of a liquid droplet which is transforming into vapour can now be predicted thanks to a theory developed at the University of Warwick. The new understanding can now be exploited in a myriad of natural and industrial settings where the lifetime of liquid drops governs a process' behaviour and efficiency. (2019-10-10)

Computer kidney sheds light on proper hydration

A new computer kidney developed at the University of Waterloo could tell researchers more about the impacts of medicines taken by people who don't drink enough water. (2019-10-07)

RUDN University mathematicians help improve efficiency of data centers using Markov chains

RUDN University mathematicians created a model of maximum efficiency of data centers. It is based on a nontrivial Markov chain. In addition to the obvious practical applications of the results for the organization of servers and data centers, the theoretical part will be useful for the theory of queues and queuing, as well as for working with big data and neural networks. The study is published in the journal Mathematics. (2019-09-30)

Staying at elementary school for longer associated with higher student attainment

A new study has discovered that US students achieve better results in reading and mathematics tests when they stay in elementary school for grades 6 (age 11-12) and 7 (age 12-13), rather than transfer to middle school. In contrast, students in grade 8 (age 13-14) achieve better results in middle school than high school. (2019-09-20)

Where to park your car, according to math

In a world where the best parking space is the one that minimizes time spent in the lot, 2 physicists compare parking strategies and settle on a prudent approach. (2019-09-19)

The ever-winning lottery ticket: Mathematicians solve a dusty mystery

After years of work, University of Copenhagen mathematics researchers have answered a mysterious half-century-old riddle. The mystery was all but forgotten until a Danish researcher heard about, and then decided to tackle it. (2019-09-09)

People can see beauty in complex mathematics, study shows

Ordinary people see beauty in complex mathematical arguments in the same way they can appreciate a beautiful landscape painting or a piano sonata. (2019-09-05)

New mathematical model can improve radiation therapy of brain tumours

Researchers have developed a new model to optimize radiation therapy and significantly increase the number of tumor cells killed during treatment. The new mathematical model, outlined in a recent study led by a University of Waterloo student, can use information about where the majority of the cells in a tumor are located allowing for radiation treatment to be administered to the densest area. (2019-09-04)

Researchers develop a better way to harness the power of solar panels

Researchers at the University of Waterloo have developed a way to better harness the volume of energy collected by solar panels. In a new study, the researchers developed an algorithm that increases the efficiency of the solar photovoltaic (PV) system and reduces the volume of power currently being wasted due to a lack of effective controls. (2019-08-27)

Computer model could help test new sickle cell drugs

A new computer model that captures the dynamics of the red blood cell sickling process could help in evaluating drugs for treating sickle cell disease. (2019-08-22)

Speed identified as the best predictor of car crashes

Speeding is the riskiest kind of aggressive driving, according to a unique analysis of data from on-board devices in vehicles. (2019-08-21)

Shape-shifting sheets

Researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) have developed a mathematical framework that can turn any sheet of material into any prescribed shape, inspired by the paper craft termed kirigami (from the Japanese, kiri, meaning to cut and kami, meaning paper). (2019-08-20)

Study shows we like our math like we like our art: Beautiful

A beautiful landscape painting, a beautiful piano sonata -- art and music are almost exclusively described in terms of aesthetics, but what about math? Beyond useful or brilliant, can an abstract idea be considered beautiful? (2019-08-09)

A key piece to understanding how quantum gravity affects low-energy physics

In a new study, led by researchers from SISSA (Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati), the Complutense University of Madrid and the University of Waterloo, a solid theoretical framework is provided to discuss modifications to the Unruh effect caused by the microstructure of space-time. (2019-08-08)

Novel school improvement program can raise teaching quality while reducing inequality

A multi-national European study, looking at over 5,500 students, has found that a novel school intervention program can not only improve the mathematics scores of primary school children from disadvantaged areas, but can also lessen the achievement gap caused by socioeconomic status. (2019-08-06)

Earthquakes, hurricanes and other natural disasters obey same mathematical pattern

Researchers from the Centre for Mathematical Research (CRM) and the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona have mathematically described the frequency of several dangerous phenomena according to their size with more precision than ever. Using new statistical tools, researchers have rigorously demonstrated how the frequency of earthquakes, hurricanes, torrential rains and meteorite impacts can be described with the same mathematical rule. However, other phenomena such as forest fires and land subsidence follow a different rule. (2019-08-05)

What gives meteorites their shape? New research uncovers a 'Goldilocks' answer

Meteoroids coming from outer space are randomly shaped, but many of these, which land on Earth as meteorites, are found to be carved into cones. Scientists have now figured out how the physics of flight in the atmosphere leads to this transformation. (2019-07-22)

New technique developed to detect autism in children

Researchers have developed a new technique to help doctors more quickly and accurately detect autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children. In a study led by the University of Waterloo, researchers characterized how children with ASD scan a person's face differently than a neuro-typical child. Based on the findings, the researchers were able to develop a technique that considers how a child with ASD gaze transitions from one part of a person's face to another. (2019-07-09)

'Curvy bacteria' weigh the benefits of different shapes

Research by scientists into why some bacteria have different shapes has found that a curved shape can make it easier to find food. Computer simulations were used to compare the swimming of differently shaped bacteria. Results showed that a curved shape can be beneficial for efficient swimming and for finding food through the use of chemical trails (known as chemotaxis) - but at the expense of higher cell construction costs. (2019-07-08)

A UCLA-led research team has found an increase in domestic violence reports in Los Angeles and Indianapolis since the stay-at-home restrictions were implemented in March. The scholars, who are leaders in applying mathematics to interpret and make sense of police crime data, predict the incidence should gradually decrease as people return to normal routines, but would likely increase again if there is a second wave of COVID-19 infections that prompts new stay-at-home orders. (2020-05-27)

New information about the transmission of the amphibian pathogen, Bsal

Using existing data from controlled experiments and computer simulations, researchers with the University of Tennessee Institute of Agriculture have found that host contact rates and habitat structure affect transmission rates of Bsal among eastern newts, a common salamander species found throughout eastern North America. (2020-04-08)

IKBFU Physicists keep improving 'smart' composites for biomedical sensors

The new composites are related to the multiferroic-class materials which have mutually controlled magnetic and electric properties. The effects observed in the compositions are considered to be a perspective platform for creating new devices from energy converters to highly sensitive sensors. (2020-03-10)

Speak math, not code

Writing algorithms in mathematics rather than code is not only more elegant but also more efficient, says 2013 Turing Award winner Leslie Lamport. (2020-03-01)

French mathematician and spider aficionado Cédric Villani honoured with a new orb-weaver

Considered as one of the best studied spiders, the orb-weavers remain poorly known in the central parts of the Palearctic ecozone. Hence, an international research team took to the Caucasus, Middle East and Central Asia. Their article in the open-access peer-reviewed journal ZooKeys documents three new to science species, where one is named after the Indo-Iranian god of light Mithra. Another carries the name of the flamboyant French mathematician and spider aficionado Cédric Villani. (2020-02-03)

Math that feels good

Mathematics and science Braille textbooks are expensive and require an enormous effort to produce -- until now. A team of researchers has developed a method for easily creating textbooks in Braille, with an initial focus on math textbooks. The new process is made possible by a new authoring system which serves as a 'universal translator' for textbook formats. Based on this new method, the production of Braille textbooks will become easy, inexpensive, and widespread. (2020-01-16)

Mathematicians put famous Battle of Britain 'what if' scenarios to the test

Mathematicians from the University of York have developed a new model to explore what the impact of changes to Luftwaffe tactics would actually have been. Their approach uses statistical modelling to calculate how the Battle might have played out if history had followed one of several alternative courses. (2020-01-09)

Indeterminist physics for an open world

Classical physics is characterized by the equations describing the world. Yet our day-to-day experience is struck by this deterministic vision of the world. A physicist (UNIGE) has been analyzing the classical mathematical language used in modern physics. He has thrown light on a contradiction between the equations that explained the phenomena and the finite world. He suggests making changes to the mathematical language to allow randomness and indeterminism to become part of classical physics. (2020-01-07)

Understanding the mechanisms of seemingly chaotic synchronization in trees

The synchronization of seed production by trees has garnered attention due to its importance in agriculture, forestry and ecosystem management. A team of scientists led by Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology (TUAT) have developed a method that can be used to model the wide range of synchronization behaviors exhibited by different tree species simply by changing the control parameters. (2019-12-19)

Smaller class sizes not always better for pupils, multinational study shows

A new statistical analysis of data from a long-term study on the teaching of mathematics and science has found that smaller class sizes are not always associated with better pupil performance and achievement. (2019-12-15)

Researchers develop first mathematical proof for key law of turbulence in fluid mechanics

Turbulence is one of the least understood phenomena of the physical world. Long considered too hard to understand and predict mathematically, turbulence is the reason the Navier-Stokes equations, which describe how fluids flow, are so hard to solve that there is a million-dollar reward for anyone who can prove them mathematically. But now, University of Maryland mathematicians have broken through the barrier and developed the first rigorous mathematical proof for a fundamental law of turbulence. (2019-12-11)

Analyzing seismic patterns to forecast the magnitude of the largest earthquake aftershocks

Earthquakes can have devastating impacts on communities all around the world. Associate Professor Jiancang Zhuang and Emeritus Professor Yosihiko Ogata from The Institute of Statistical Mathematics (ISM) in Japan, in collaboration with colleagues, have developed a method that can forecast the probability of when and where aftershocks are likely to occur, and how strong the largest of these will be. Their findings were published on Sept. 6, 2019, in Nature Communications. (2019-12-01)

UT mathematician develops model to control spread of aquatic invasive species

Adjusting the water flow rate in a river can prevent invasive species from moving upstream and expanding their range. An applied mathematician at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, has developed a partial differential equation model to find the desired flow rate to reduce invasive populations. (2019-11-21)

Foam offers way to manipulate light

A study by Princeton scientists has shown that a type of foam long studied by scientists is able to block particular wavelengths of light, a coveted property for next-generation information technology that uses light instead of electricity. (2019-11-18)

A better understanding of soft artificial muscles

Artificial muscles will power the soft robots and wearable devices of the future. But more needs to be understood about the underlying mechanics of these powerful structures in order to design and build new devices. Now, researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) have uncovered some of the fundamental physical properties of artificial muscle fibers. (2019-11-15)

What future do emperor penguins face?

Emperor penguins establish their colonies on sea ice under extremely specific conditions. Yet, this ice will gradually melt as the climate warms, depriving these birds of their habitat, food sources, and the capacity to raise their young. To predict what will happen to emperor penguin colonies, a team of scientists led by the Chizé Centre for Biological Studies (CNRS / University of La Rochelle) applied a combination of climate and population models to three different scenarios. (2019-11-12)

Study finds brains of girls and boys are similar, producing equal math ability

Jessica Cantlon at Carnegie Mellon University led a research team that comprehensively examined the brain development of young boys and girls. Their research shows no gender difference in brain function or math ability. (2019-11-08)

Tiny swimming donuts deliver the goods

Bacteria and other swimming microorganisms evolved to thrive in challenging environments, and researchers struggle to mimic their unique abilities for biomedical technologies, but fabrication challenges created a manufacturing bottleneck. Microscopic, 3D-printed, tori -- donuts -- coated with nickel and platinum may bridge the gap between biological and synthetic swimmers, according to an international team of researchers. (2019-10-30)

RUDN scientists proved a theorem that would help calculate water movement in porous rock

Mathematicians from RUDN University have proved the unique continuation theorem for a one dimensional solution to a fractional order diffusion problem. The results of RUDN University mathematicians' work are needed for a more accurate analysis of solutions and their numerical simulation. In the general case, there are no such continuation theorems for other classes of similar equations. (2019-10-23)

Mathematical modelling vital to tackling disease outbreaks

Predicting and controlling disease outbreaks would be easier and more reliable with the wider application of mathematical modelling, according to a new study. The study was conducted by researchers at the University of Waterloo, University of Maryland and Yale's School of Public Health. (2019-10-17)

Parental gender attitudes associated with Japanese girls' reduced university participation

Researchers in Japan have found stereotypical gender role attitudes and negative images of STEM fields of Japanese parents may be associated with girls' reduced university participation. (2019-10-16)

Explained: The lifetime of an evaporating liquid drop

The lifespan of a liquid droplet which is transforming into vapour can now be predicted thanks to a theory developed at the University of Warwick. The new understanding can now be exploited in a myriad of natural and industrial settings where the lifetime of liquid drops governs a process' behaviour and efficiency. (2019-10-10)

Computer kidney sheds light on proper hydration

A new computer kidney developed at the University of Waterloo could tell researchers more about the impacts of medicines taken by people who don't drink enough water. (2019-10-07)

RUDN University mathematicians help improve efficiency of data centers using Markov chains

RUDN University mathematicians created a model of maximum efficiency of data centers. It is based on a nontrivial Markov chain. In addition to the obvious practical applications of the results for the organization of servers and data centers, the theoretical part will be useful for the theory of queues and queuing, as well as for working with big data and neural networks. The study is published in the journal Mathematics. (2019-09-30)

Staying at elementary school for longer associated with higher student attainment

A new study has discovered that US students achieve better results in reading and mathematics tests when they stay in elementary school for grades 6 (age 11-12) and 7 (age 12-13), rather than transfer to middle school. In contrast, students in grade 8 (age 13-14) achieve better results in middle school than high school. (2019-09-20)

Where to park your car, according to math

In a world where the best parking space is the one that minimizes time spent in the lot, 2 physicists compare parking strategies and settle on a prudent approach. (2019-09-19)

The ever-winning lottery ticket: Mathematicians solve a dusty mystery

After years of work, University of Copenhagen mathematics researchers have answered a mysterious half-century-old riddle. The mystery was all but forgotten until a Danish researcher heard about, and then decided to tackle it. (2019-09-09)

People can see beauty in complex mathematics, study shows

Ordinary people see beauty in complex mathematical arguments in the same way they can appreciate a beautiful landscape painting or a piano sonata. (2019-09-05)

New mathematical model can improve radiation therapy of brain tumours

Researchers have developed a new model to optimize radiation therapy and significantly increase the number of tumor cells killed during treatment. The new mathematical model, outlined in a recent study led by a University of Waterloo student, can use information about where the majority of the cells in a tumor are located allowing for radiation treatment to be administered to the densest area. (2019-09-04)

Researchers develop a better way to harness the power of solar panels

Researchers at the University of Waterloo have developed a way to better harness the volume of energy collected by solar panels. In a new study, the researchers developed an algorithm that increases the efficiency of the solar photovoltaic (PV) system and reduces the volume of power currently being wasted due to a lack of effective controls. (2019-08-27)

Computer model could help test new sickle cell drugs

A new computer model that captures the dynamics of the red blood cell sickling process could help in evaluating drugs for treating sickle cell disease. (2019-08-22)

Speed identified as the best predictor of car crashes

Speeding is the riskiest kind of aggressive driving, according to a unique analysis of data from on-board devices in vehicles. (2019-08-21)

Shape-shifting sheets

Researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) have developed a mathematical framework that can turn any sheet of material into any prescribed shape, inspired by the paper craft termed kirigami (from the Japanese, kiri, meaning to cut and kami, meaning paper). (2019-08-20)

Study shows we like our math like we like our art: Beautiful

A beautiful landscape painting, a beautiful piano sonata -- art and music are almost exclusively described in terms of aesthetics, but what about math? Beyond useful or brilliant, can an abstract idea be considered beautiful? (2019-08-09)

A key piece to understanding how quantum gravity affects low-energy physics

In a new study, led by researchers from SISSA (Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati), the Complutense University of Madrid and the University of Waterloo, a solid theoretical framework is provided to discuss modifications to the Unruh effect caused by the microstructure of space-time. (2019-08-08)

Novel school improvement program can raise teaching quality while reducing inequality

A multi-national European study, looking at over 5,500 students, has found that a novel school intervention program can not only improve the mathematics scores of primary school children from disadvantaged areas, but can also lessen the achievement gap caused by socioeconomic status. (2019-08-06)

Earthquakes, hurricanes and other natural disasters obey same mathematical pattern

Researchers from the Centre for Mathematical Research (CRM) and the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona have mathematically described the frequency of several dangerous phenomena according to their size with more precision than ever. Using new statistical tools, researchers have rigorously demonstrated how the frequency of earthquakes, hurricanes, torrential rains and meteorite impacts can be described with the same mathematical rule. However, other phenomena such as forest fires and land subsidence follow a different rule. (2019-08-05)

What gives meteorites their shape? New research uncovers a 'Goldilocks' answer

Meteoroids coming from outer space are randomly shaped, but many of these, which land on Earth as meteorites, are found to be carved into cones. Scientists have now figured out how the physics of flight in the atmosphere leads to this transformation. (2019-07-22)

New technique developed to detect autism in children

Researchers have developed a new technique to help doctors more quickly and accurately detect autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children. In a study led by the University of Waterloo, researchers characterized how children with ASD scan a person's face differently than a neuro-typical child. Based on the findings, the researchers were able to develop a technique that considers how a child with ASD gaze transitions from one part of a person's face to another. (2019-07-09)

'Curvy bacteria' weigh the benefits of different shapes

Research by scientists into why some bacteria have different shapes has found that a curved shape can make it easier to find food. Computer simulations were used to compare the swimming of differently shaped bacteria. Results showed that a curved shape can be beneficial for efficient swimming and for finding food through the use of chemical trails (known as chemotaxis) - but at the expense of higher cell construction costs. (2019-07-08)

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