Current Metabolism News and Events

Current Metabolism News and Events, Metabolism News Articles.
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Metabolic mutations help bacteria resist drug treatment
MIT researchers have identified a new class of mutations that help bacteria develop antibiotic resistance. In a study of E. coli, they discovered that mutations to genes involved in metabolism can help bacteria to evade the toxic effects of several different antibiotics. (2021-02-18)

Researchers find a novel connection between cell metabolism and cell division
Many biological processes are subject to rhythmic changes. Well-known examples of this are the so-called circadian rhythm, an ''internal clock'' with a period of around 24 hours, or the shorter ultradian rhythm. Cell division is often linked to these rhythms. Biologists from Saarbrücken and Kaiserslautern have now found out that these rhythms and their coupling with cell division is closely related to hydrogen peroxide. The study was published in the renowned journal Nature Chemical Biology. (2021-02-16)

The body produces new satiety factor during prolonged exercise
Researchers at the University of Copenhagen confirm that the hormone GDF15 is released in response to vigorous exercise, but likely not in sufficient quantity to affect behavior or appetite. These findings add nuance to a hormone that is currently under scrutiny for its potential as an anti-obesity medication. (2021-02-16)

Spanish scientists uncover early links between cardiovascular risk and brain metabolism
Investigators at the CNIC have discovered a link between brain metabolism, cardiovascular risk, and atherosclerosis during middle age, years before symptoms appear (2021-02-15)

Metabolism: Researchers first to shed light on structure of huge enzyme complex
A new method has enabled the natural structure of particularly large and complex enzymes to be revealed. Scientists at Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg (MLU) and TU Berlin have published their findings in the journal Cell Reports. They investigated a multi-enzyme complex that plays an essential role in metabolism and have discovered that it functions differently than previously thought. This will help scientists better understand certain diseases. (2021-02-10)

RUDN University veterinarians tested a new drug against pneumonia in calves
Respiratory tract diseases in young animals of the cattle are a big issue for world agriculture and food safety because a bacterium that causes them is resistant to most antibiotics. A team of veterinarians from RUDN University developed and tested a complex preparation called gentaminoseleferon that could help treat respiratory infection in calves. (2021-02-10)

Type 2 diabetes: drugs initially increase glucose production
Although SGLT-2 inhibitors are central to the treatment of diabetes, their exact mode of action was hitherto unknown. A study shows that there is a direct correlation between the elimination of glucose via the kidneys and new glucose production in the liver. (2021-02-08)

Today's stem cell special: Small intestine on a plate!
A team of scientists from Japan have found success in growing small intestinal cells, akin to those found in the human body, from human-induced pluripotent stem cells. The scientists used a procedure they previously developed on embryonic stem cells for this discovery. They claim that the grown cells can be used for laboratory studies focusing on human small intestinal drug transport and metabolism. (2021-02-05)

Body and mind: hormones in the brain may explain how exercise improves metabolism
A mitochondrial hormone expressed by cells deep in the brain appears to play a role in improving metabolism and fighting off obesity, according to a new study in mice. (2021-02-02)

Cholesterol starvation kills lymphoma cells
Scientists have developed a novel therapy to trick cancer cells into gobbling up what they think is their favorite food - cholesterol -- which actually triggers their destruction. What appears to them as a cholesterol-loaded particle is actually a synthetic nanoparticle that binds to the cancer cells and starves them to death. The study was in lymphoma cells but could be effective in ovarian and kidney cancer. (2021-01-25)

Vegan diet significantly remodels metabolism in young children
University of Helsinki researchers report a comprehensive pilot study on the metabolic effects of full vegan diet on young children. The study found vegan children to have remarkably altered metabolism and lower vitamin A and D status compared to children with no special diet. (2021-01-21)

Sloan Kettering Institute scientists solve a 100-year-old mystery about cancer
A long-standing mystery is why fast-growing cells, like cancer cells and immune cells, rely on a seemingly inefficient form of metabolizing glucose to power their activities. In a new study, scientists at the Sloan Kettering Institute offer a compelling solution. (2021-01-21)

The regulatory network of sugar and organic acid in watermelon fruit is revealed
The innovation project watermelon and melon cultivation and physiology team of Zhengzhou Fruit Research Institute has made new progress in the metabolism regulation of sugar and organic acid in watermelon fruit. (2021-01-14)

Eating omega-3 fat helps hibernating Arctic ground squirrels warm up during deep cold
By feeding arctic ground squirrels special diets, researchers have found that omega-3 fatty acids, common in flax seed and fish oil, help keep the animals warmer in deep hibernation. (2021-01-14)

Resilience to climate change?
A recent study examined the effects of acidic water on octopuses, potentially bringing new insight into both how our activities impact the world around us, and the way that world is adapting in response. (2021-01-13)

Tiny molecules with a big impact
In an international study, scientists from the Berlin Institute of Health (BIH) and Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin joined forces with colleagues from the United Kingdom, Australia and the United States and discovered hundreds of previously unknown variations in genes that have a sometimes drastic impact on the concentration of these small molecules in the blood. The researchers have now published their findings in the journal Nature Genetics. (2021-01-13)

Texas A&M research explores how melanoma grows and spreads
The first step in treating cancer is understanding how it starts, grows and spreads throughout the body. A relatively new cancer research approach is the study of metabolites, the products of different steps in cancer cell metabolism, and how those substances interact. (2021-01-12)

Turbo boosters for the immune system
Immunologist Prof. Dr. Olaf Groß of the Medical Center - University of Freiburg receives a Proof of Concept Grant from the European Research Council (ERC) for his project IMMUNOSTIM. (2021-01-11)

How the circadian clock regulates liver genes in time and space
EPFL scientists have carried out the first comprehensive study of how genes in the liver perform their metabolic functions in both space and time of day. Monitoring almost 5000 genes at the level of the individual cell across a 24-hour period, the researchers have modelled how the circadian clock and liver functions crosstalk throughout the day in sync with the feeding-fasting cycle. (2021-01-11)

Link between driver of ovarian cancer and metabolism opens up new therapeutic strategies
Wistar scientists found mutations that inactivate the ARID1A gene in ovarian cancer increase utilization of the glutamine amino acid making cancer cells dependent on glutamine metabolism. Researchers also showed that pharmacologic inhibition of glutamine metabolism may represent an effective therapeutic strategy for ARID1A-mutant ovarian cancer. (2021-01-11)

Alternative cancer cell fuel source targeted as therapeutic approach for breast cancer
Wistar scientists characterized an inhibitor that targets acetate metabolism in cancer cells. This molecule caused tumor growth inhibition and regression in preclinical studies, demonstrating the promise of this approach as a novel therapeutic strategy for solid tumors. (2021-01-07)

Beating the bulge with a nice cup of tea
Researchers led by the University of Tsukuba found that healthy volunteers who consumed oolong tea every day had much higher levels of fat breakdown compared with the placebo group, and that the effects were most noticeable during sleep. Importantly, the volunteers developed a tolerance to caffeine over the 2-week study period, with their sleep patterns remaining unaffected by tea or caffeine consumption, indicating that oolong tea may have clinical relevance for weight control. (2021-01-06)

Researchers uncover a potential treatment for an aggressive form of lung cancer
DALLAS - Jan. 5, 2021 - Researchers at the Children's Medical Center Research Institute at UT Southwestern (CRI) have discovered a new metabolic vulnerability in a highly aggressive form of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). These findings could pave the way for new treatments for patients with mutations in two key genes - KRAS and LKB1. Patients whose tumors contain both of these mutations, known as KL tumors, have poor outcomes and usually do not respond to immunotherapy. (2021-01-05)

Immunology study finds protein critical to T cell metabolism and anti-tumor immune response
Researchers at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center have discovered that a protein called NF-kappa B-inducing kinase (NIK) is essential for the shift in metabolic activity that occurs with T cell activation, making it a critical factor in regulating the anti-tumor immune response. (2021-01-04)

In liver, a stressed cell can be bad news for its neighbors
When a stressed liver cell starts communicating with its neighbors, it can send stress signals to neighboring cells, causing significant problems that can lead to fatty liver disease and metabolic disease. (2020-12-18)

Optogenetic method can reveal how gut microbes affect longevity
Optogenetics offers a direct way to manipulate gut bacterial metabolism in a temporally, quantitatively and spatially controlled manner and enhance host fitness. (2020-12-17)

Novel biomarkers predict the development of incident heart failure
Researchers at the University of Eastern Finland and Kuopio University Hospital have discovered several new biomarkers that are associated with incident heart failure. In a new study, several inflammatory biomarkers and cell energy metabolites were linked to an increased risk of incident heart failure. (2020-12-16)

Hopes of new treatment strategies for glaucoma
In the search for new ways to treat the incurable eye disease glaucoma, researchers at Karolinska Institutet and St. Erik Eye Hospital in Sweden have discovered more clues as to its pathogenesis. A new study shows how metabolic disturbance of the neurons coincide with raised pressure in the eye. In animal and cell models, rapamycin and pyruvate treatments were shown to have a protective effect. The study is published in the journal PNAS. (2020-12-15)

What makes peppers blush
Bright red, tasty and healthy, that's how we know and love bell peppers. In a first, the team headed by Professor Sacha Baginsky from the Chair for Plant Biochemistry at Ruhr University (RUB) has deciphered in detail at the protein level what makes them turn red as they ripen. At the heart of the project are the so-called plastids, typical plant cell organelles in which chlorophyll is broken down and carotenoids are produced as the fruit ripens. (2020-12-14)

Amino acid recycling in cells: Autophagy helps cells adapt to changing conditions
Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech), Japan, have shown for the first time how specific metabolites produced by autophagy are utilized by a cell. They discovered that in budding yeast adapting to respiratory growth, autophagy--an intracellular recycling system--recycles the amino acid serine to trigger growth through mitochondrial one-carbon metabolism. This study shows how the recycling function of autophagy is crucial for adaptation to fluctuating environmental conditions. (2020-12-10)

Arctic ground squirrels recycle nutrients to endure deep hibernation
By studying the body chemistry of hibernating Arctic ground squirrels, researchers have found that the animals are able to recycle their body's own nutrients to survive during a long, inactive winter. A University of Alaska Fairbanks-led study monitored ground squirrels in a laboratory environment for two years, measuring the almost undetectable flow of nutrients through their hibernating bodies. Researchers found that the animals were able to convert the free nitrogen they were creating into amino acids. (2020-12-07)

Understanding bacteria's metabolism could improve biofuel production
A new study reveals how bacteria control the chemicals produced from consuming 'food.' The insight could lead to organisms that are more efficient at converting plants into biofuels. (2020-12-03)

Amino acid connected to NAFLD could provide treatment clues
Basic science research explores the effects of impaired glycine metabolism in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease - and how to potentially use glycine-based treatment to help people with NAFLD. (2020-12-03)

Deciphering the energetic code of cells for better anticancer therapies
A procedure that may help personalise anticancer therapies has just been developed by the CNRS, INSERM, and Aix-Marseille University scientists in association with colleagues from the University of California San Francisco and the Marseille Public University Hospital System (AP-HM), with support from Canceropôle Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur. Their patented technique reveals the energy status of cells, an indicator of their activity. (2020-12-01)

SLC25A51 regulates the transport of the coenzyme NAD into the mitochondria
Scientists at CeMM have now discovered that the previously uncharacterized protein SLC25A51 acts as a transporter into the mitochondria for the coenzyme NAD. This molecule has already been associated with processes such as aging, neurological diseases and the metabolism of cancer cells. Therefore, the results of this study not only open up new possibilities to study the biological role of NAD but also potentially provide the basis for new therapeutic approaches. (2020-12-01)

Bacteria in iron-deficient environments process carbon sources selectively
Looking at a group of bacteria from soil, researchers at Northwestern University discovered that these organisms overcome limitation in their carbon processing machinery by rerouting their metabolic pathways to favor producing iron-scavenging compounds. (2020-11-30)

Warwick scientists design model to predict cellular drug targets against COVID-19
A computational model of a human lung cell has been used to understand how SARS-CoV-2 draws on human host cell metabolism to reproduce by researchers at the University of Warwick. This study helps understand how the virus uses the host to survive, and enable drug predictions for treating the virus to be made. (2020-11-25)

Phytoplankton disturbed by nanoparticles
Products derived from nanotechnology are efficient and highly sought-after, yet their effects on the environment are still poorly understood. A research team from the University of Geneva have investigated the effects of nanosilver, currently used in almost 450 products for its antibacterial properties, on the algae known as Poterioochromonas malhamensis. The results show that nanosilver disturb the alga's entire metabolism. Its membrane becomes more permeable, the cellular ROS increases and photosynthesis is less effective. (2020-11-25)

Tackling metabolic complexity
CRISPRi screens reveal sources of metabolic robustness in E. coli. (2020-11-24)

Prostate cancer: CRYM protein inhibits tumour growth
Prostate cancer is caused by elevated hormone levels, and tumours are generally treated using hormone therapy. A research team headed by Lukas Kenner of MedUni Vienna in collaboration with David Heery from the University of Nottingham/UK and Sarka Pospisilova and Suzanne Turner of the University of Brno/Czech Republic have shown that the protein μ-crystallin (CRYM) plays a significant part in tumour growth. The higher the levels of this protein that are present, the better the prognosis. (2020-11-18)

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