Current Microbiome News and Events

Current Microbiome News and Events, Microbiome News Articles.
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Microbiome boost may help corals resist bleaching
Providing corals with cocktails of natural probiotics could enhance their tolerance to stress and reduce mortality in coral bleaching events. (2021-02-23)

'Good bacteria' in breast milk changes over time
The cocktail of beneficial bacteria passed from mother to infant through breast milk changes significantly over time and could act like a daily booster shot for infant immunity and metabolism. The research, conducted by scientists from Montreal and Guatemala and published in Frontiers in Microbiology, has important implications for infant development and health. (2021-02-23)

Gut microbiome implicated in healthy aging and longevity
The gut microbiome is an integral component of the body, but its importance in the human aging process is unclear. ISB researchers and their collaborators have identified distinct signatures in the gut microbiome that are associated with either healthy or unhealthy aging trajectories, which in turn predict survival in a population of older individuals. The work is set to be published in the journal Nature Metabolism(2021-02-18)

Scientists identify over 140,000 virus species in the human gut
Viruses are the most numerous biological entities on the planet. Now researchers at the Wellcome Sanger Institute and EMBL's European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL-EBI) have identified over 140,000 viral species living in the human gut, more than half of which have never been seen before. (2021-02-18)

Neoadjuvant combination immunotherapy improves outcomes for early stage non-small cell lung cancer
The first randomized Phase II clinical trial to report on single and combined neoadjuvant immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy in stage I-III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) found combination therapy produced a significant clinical benefit. (2021-02-18)

New study reports activated B. infantis EVC001 improves health outcomes in preterm infants
The new study, Impact of probiotic B. infantis EVC001 on the gut microbiome, nosocomially acquired antibiotic resistance, and enteric inflammation in preterm infants reports probiotic supplementation with EVC001 substantially reduces inflammation, diaper rash and antibiotic use in preterm infants. The paper was published in Frontiers in Pediatrics. (2021-02-16)

Melanoma patients respond to immunotherapy after changes to gut microbiome
Statistical modeling developed by Oregon State University researchers has confirmed that changes to melanoma patients' gut microbiome led them to respond to a type of treatment capable of providing long-term benefit. (2021-02-14)

Rebuilding soil microbiomes in high-tunnel agricultural systems focus of study
The presence of high salt and nitrogen concentrations in high- tunnel soils may make it more challenging to rebuild a healthy soil microbiome following a soil-clearing event, according to microbial ecologists in Penn State's College of Agricultural Sciences. (2021-02-11)

Smectite promotes probiotic biofilm formation in gut for cancer immunotherapy
Orally administrating probiotics is ineffective due to the poor inhabitation of exogenous bacteria in host intestines. Chinese scientists report that smectite, a type of mineral clay and classical anti-diarrhoea drug, can promote the expansion of probiotics in the murine gut that subsequently elicits anti-tumor immune responses. Their findings suggest a novel approach to specifically enrich probiotics in the body, with high translational potential for cancer immunotherapy. (2021-02-10)

Infectious disease causes long-term changes to frog's microbiome
In a rare study published this week, Andrea Jani, a researcher with the University of Hawai'i at Mānoa, determined the skin microbiome of an endangered frog was altered when the frogs were infected by a specific fungus, and it didn't recover to its initial state even when the frog was cured of the infection. (2021-02-10)

What happens in the mouth ... doesn't stay in the mouth
The healthy human oral microbiome consists of not just clean teeth and firm gums, but also energy-efficient bacteria living in an environment rich in blood vessels that enables the organisms' constant communication with immune-system cells and proteins. A growing body of evidence has shown that this system that seems so separate from the rest of our bodies is actually highly influential on, and influenced by, our overall health. (2021-02-08)

Microbiota transfer therapy for autism: Multi-omic approaches and lessons learned
Recent studies in mice and humans have revealed intriguing links between the composition of gut microbiota and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), a disease believed to affect one in 54 children, according to the Centers for Disease Control. Dr. Krajmalnik-Brown's lecture will propose linkages between gut bacteria and ASD, highlighting encouraging results of a microbiome-targeted, ASD open-label clinical trial. (2021-02-08)

Probiotics or prebiotics? Exploring the complex world of 'gut' health
Elena Goun at the University of Missouri and an international team of scientists have developed a noninvasive diagnostic imaging tool to measure the levels of a naturally occurring enzyme -- bile salt hydrolase -- inside the body's entire gastrointestinal tract. This research could lead to better precision medicine treatments by providing a way for scientists to better understand how a person's individual gut health is connected to various human pathologies, or the origin and nature of human diseases. (2021-02-04)

Fecal transplant turns cancer immunotherapy non-responders into responders
A phase II clinical trial shows that changing the gut microbiome through fecal transplant can transform cancer patients who never responded to immunotherapy into patients who do. (2021-02-04)

Fecal microbiota transplants help patients with advanced melanoma respond to immunotherapy
For patients with cancers that do not respond to immunotherapy drugs, adjusting the composition of microorganisms in the intestines--known as the gut microbiome--through the use of stool, or fecal, transplants may help some of these individuals respond to the immunotherapy drugs, a new study suggests. Researchers at the NCI, part of the National Institutes of Health, conducted the study in collaboration with investigators from UPMC Hillman Cancer Center at the University of Pittsburgh. (2021-02-04)

Study finds childhood diet has lifelong impact
Eating too much fat and sugar as a child can alter your microbiome for life, even if you later learn to eat healthier, a new UC Riverside study in mice suggests. (2021-02-03)

Biodiversity is its own catalyst -- to a point
For decades, scientists have wrestled with rival theories to explain how interactions between species, like competition, influence biodiversity. Tracking microbial life across the planet, researchers from McGill University show that biodiversity does in fact foster further diversity in microbiomes that are initially less diverse. However, diversity rates plateau with increased competition for survival and space in more diverse microbiomes. (2021-02-03)

Liver cancer 'signature' in gut holds clues to cancer risk
People with non-alcohol-related liver cancer have a unique gut microbiome profile which could help predict disease risk, a new UNSW Sydney study has found. (2021-02-03)

Bile acids may play previously unknown role in Parkinson's
What does bile acid production in the digestive tract have to do with Parkinson's disease? Quite a lot, according to a sweeping new analysis published in the journal Metabolites. The findings reveal that changes in the gut microbiome -- the rich population of helpful microbes that call the digestive tract home -- may in turn alter bile acid production by favoring synthesis of toxic forms of the acids. (2021-02-02)

Your toothbrush reflects you, not your toilet
After studying microbial communities living on bristles from used toothbrushes, Northwestern University researchers found those communities matched microbes commonly found inside the mouth and on skin. (2021-02-01)

Wonder fungi
Michelle O'Malley(link is external) has long been inspired by gut microbes. Since she began studying the herbivore digestive tract, the UC Santa Barbara chemical engineering professor has guided several students to their doctoral degrees, won early and mid-career awards (including a recognition from President Obama), attained tenure and advanced to the position of full professor. She even had three children along the way. A constant through it all: goat poop. (2021-02-01)

Why people overuse antibiotics
The overuse of antibiotics occurs due to the mistaken widespread belief that they are beneficial for a broad array of conditions and because many physicians are willing to prescribe antibiotics if patients ask for the medication, according to a Rutgers study. (2021-01-27)

Neonatal antibiotic use associated with reduced growth in boys
Exposure to antibiotics in the first few weeks of life is associated with reduced weight and height in boys up to the age of six, but not girls, reports a paper in Nature Communications. The study, led by Prof. Omry Koren, of Bar-Ilan University, together with Prof. Samuli Rautava, of the University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, suggests that this effect may be due to changes in the development of the gut microbiome. (2021-01-26)

Intercontinental study sheds light on the microbial life of sourdough
In a study of 500 sourdough starters spanning four continents, scientists have garnered new insights into the environmental factors that contribute to each sourdough starter's microbial ecosystem, and how different types of microbes influence both a sourdough's aroma and how quickly the sourdough rises. The results may surprise sourdough enthusiasts. (2021-01-26)

Novel molecules to combat asthma and covid-related lung diseases discovered
Australian researchers have made the extraordinary discovery of two molecules - one found in a commercially available dietary supplement - that provide profound protection in experimental models of asthma and can also substantially reduce the severity of asthma attacks. The molecules also appear to have a role in treating the respiratory illness that is often fatal in people with serious COVID-19. (2021-01-25)

Newly discovered subset of brain cells fight inflammation with instructions from the gut
A team led by researchers from Brigham and Women's Hospital, has shown that a specific astrocyte sub-population can do the opposite, instead serving a protective, anti-inflammatory function within the brain based on signals regulated by the bacteria that reside in the gut. (2021-01-25)

Meta-Apo supports cheaper, quicker microbiome functional assessment
A new algorithm called Meta-Apo, developed by researchers led by JING Gongchao of the Qingdao Institute of BioEnergy and Bioprocess Technology (QIBEBT) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) may reduce the need for expensive, time-consuming whole-genome sequencing computations to understand how a microbiome functions. (2021-01-22)

Microbiome Search Engine 2 helps researchers explore microbiome space
To correlate the newly developed microbiomes with existing data sets, researchers from the Qingdao Institute of BioEnergy and Bioprocess Technology (QIBEBT) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) and their collaborators developed the Microbiome Search Engine 2 (MSE 2). (2021-01-22)

Study suggests that gut fungi are not associated with Parkinson's disease
The bacterial gut microbiome is strongly associated with Parkinson's disease (PD), but no studies had previously investigated he role of fungi in the gut. In this novel study published in the Journal of Parkinson's Disease, a team of investigators at the University of British Columbia examined whether the fungal constituents of the gut microbiome are associated with PD. (2021-01-21)

Seeds transfer their microbes to the next generation
Scientists have been pondering if the microbiome of plants is due to nature or nurture. Research at Stockholm University, published in Environmental Microbiology, showed that oak acorns contain a large diversity of microbes, and that oak seedlings inherit their microbiome from these acorns. The microorganisms found on the seed are often valuable for the plant, promoting its growth and protecting it against certain diseases. Each plant species harbours a distinct microbial community. (2021-01-21)

New study: nine out of ten US infants experience gut microbiome deficiency
A new peer-reviewed study reveals that the vast majority of US infants may be suffering from a substantial deficiency in an important bacterium key to breast milk utilization and immune system development, as well as protection against gut pathogens linked to common newborn conditions such as colic and diaper rash. The study is the largest to date to benchmark the widespread deficiency in gut bacteria among US infants, and the resulting diminished function of their gut microbiomes. (2021-01-21)

Study in twins identifies fecal microbiome differences in food allergies
A new study out of the University of Chicago and Stanford University on pairs of twins with and without food allergies has identified potential microbial players in this condition. (2021-01-19)

The cancer microbiome reveals which bacteria live in tumors
Biomedical engineers at Duke University have devised an algorithm to remove contaminated microbial genetic information from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). With a clearer picture of the microbiota living in various organs in both healthy and cancerous states, researchers will now be able to find new biomarkers of disease and better understand how numerous cancers affect the human body. (2021-01-13)

MIND and Mediterranean diets associated with later onset of Parkinson's disease
A new study from UBC researchers suggests a strong correlation between following the MIND and Mediterranean diets and later onset of Parkinson's disease (PD). While researchers have long known of neuroprotective effects of the MIND diet for diseases like Alzheimer's and dementia, this study is the first to suggest a link between this diet and brain health for Parkinson's disease (PD). (2021-01-13)

Gut microbes may antagonize or assist in anorexia
Anorexia is a debilitating eating disorder, and was long thought to be purely psychological. New research is challenging this by revealing that gut microbes may have a significant role in anorexia. A recent review examines the evidence that gut microbes can contribute to anorexia and may provide a new method to treat it. (2021-01-12)

Poor gut health connected to severe COVID-19, new review shows
In a review published this week in mBio, researchers examined emerging evidence suggesting that poor gut health adversely affects COVID-19 prognosis. (2021-01-12)

Scientists reveal how gut microbes can influence bone strength in mice
Gut microbes passed from female mice to their offspring, or shared between mice that live together, may influence the animals' bone mass, says a new study published today in eLife. (2021-01-12)

High doses of saccharin don't lead to diabetes in healthy adults, study finds
For those trying to live a healthy lifestyle, the choice between sugar and artificial sweeteners such as saccharin can be confusing. A new study led by researchers at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center and The Ohio State University College of Medicine found the sugar substitute saccharin doesn't lead to the development of diabetes in healthy adults as previous studies have suggested. (2021-01-12)

TU Graz identifies bacterium that protects rice plants against diseases
With their expertise in microbiome research, the researchers at the Institute of Environmental Biotechnology were able to demonstrate how a specific bacterium inside the seeds of rice plants effectively and in an eco-friendly way inhibits destructive plant pathogens. (2021-01-11)

Study reveals strong links between gut microbes, diet and metabolic health
The largest and most detailed study of its kind has uncovered strong links between a person's diet, the microbes in their gut (microbiome) and their health. This interrelationship appears to associate with an individual's risk of some serious conditions, including diabetes and heart disease. The study shows that gut microbe composition is highly individualized, and these findings could be used to provide personal dietary advice for better health. (2021-01-11)

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