Current Microbiome News and Events | Page 25

Current Microbiome News and Events, Microbiome News Articles.
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Probiotics improve cognition in Alzheimer's patients
In a randomized double-blind trial, scientists show for the first time that dietary supplementation with daily dose of probiotic bacteria over a period of just 12 weeks is sufficient to yield a small but significant improvement in the cognitive performance of Alzheimer's patients. (2016-11-10)

How important is the gut microbiome? It may depend on your genetics
Joslin Diabetes Center investigators are shedding light on how the success of microbiome treatments may be affected by genetics of the individual or animal being treated. (2016-11-07)

Gut microbes linked to immunotherapy response in melanoma patients
Patients with malignant melanoma -- whose disease has spread -- are more likely to respond to immunotherapy treatment if they had greater diversity in their gut bacteria, according to new research* presented at the National Cancer Research Institute's (NCRI) Cancer Conference in Liverpool. (2016-11-06)

Study links intestinal microbial population to production of inflammatory proteins
A study led by investigators at Massachusetts General Hospital, the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, and two academic medical centers in the Netherlands has begun to elucidate how differences in the gut microbiome -- the microbial population of the gastrointestinal tract -- affect the immune response in healthy individuals. (2016-11-03)

Making the microbiome part of precision medicine
Studies of the microbiome should be integral to future precision medicine initiatives, argue scientists from the University of Chicago in a new commentary published Nov. 1 in Trends in Pharmacological Sciences. (2016-11-01)

Infections during infancy more closely associated with childhood obesity risk
Infections during infancy -- rather than antibiotic use, as previously suspected -- were associated with an increased risk of childhood obesity in a Kaiser Permanente study of more than 260,000 infants over 16 years. The findings were published today in The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology. (2016-11-01)

How does the gut microbiome influence breast cancer?
Researchers from the University of Illinois at Chicago and the University of Chicago have received a three-year, $900,000 Defense Department grant to investigate how the gut microbiome -- the trillions of bacteria, viruses and other bugs that make our digestive systems their home -- influences breast cancer. (2016-10-26)

UT scientists identify bacterial genes that could lessen severity of malaria
Researchers at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, have identified a set of bacterial genes that may help them find ways to lessen the severity of the disease malaria. Their findings could also aid the research of fellow scientists working in malaria-stricken regions around the world. (2016-10-26)

Presence of certain oral bacterium in esophageal cancer samples associated with shorter survival
Among Japanese patients with esophageal cancer, those whose cancer tested positive for DNA from the bacterium Fusobacterium nucleatum had shorter cancer-specific survival compared with those whose cancer had no DNA from the bacterium. (2016-10-21)

Migraine sufferers have more nitrate-reducing microbes in their mouths
Researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine have found that the mouths of migraine sufferers harbor significantly more microbes with the ability to modify nitrates than people who do not get migraine headaches. The study is published Oct. 18 by mSystems. (2016-10-18)

Study suggests gut bacteria can aid recovery from spinal cord injury
Researchers from The Ohio State University have discovered that spinal cord injury alters the type of bacteria living in the gut and that these changes can exacerbate the extent of neurological damage and impair recovery of function. The study, 'Gut dysbiosis impairs recovery after spinal cord injury,' by Kristina A. Kigerl et al., which will be published online Oct. 17 ahead of issue in The Journal of Experimental Medicine, suggests that counteracting these changes with probiotics could aid patients' recovery from spinal cord injuries. (2016-10-17)

Ohio State scientists explain how gut microbes change after spinal cord injury
Spinal cord injuries cause dramatic shifts in the types of bacteria normally found in the gut, resulting in dysbiosis, which can cause or contribute to neurologic disease. (2016-10-17)

How the gut microbiome may help us prevent IBD
In this Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology research update, we highlight the most noteworthy research recently published in the journal, including a study offering the first example of a preventative approach to inflammatory bowel disease therapy. (2016-10-14)

Penn's 11th Annual Translational Medicine Symposium
The University of Pennsylvania's Institute for Translational Medicine and Therapeutics' (ITMAT) 11th Annual International Symposium will cover precision medicine research in academic medical centers and biotech. Speakers will include experts in precision medicine, epigenetics, global health, and microbiome biology. (2016-10-12)

RI Hospital receives $500,000 CDC grant to research new approach for combating antibiotic resistance
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has awarded a $519,344 grant to Rhode Island Hospital to study the microbiome (bacteria that inhabit the body) of patients exposed to antibiotics to predict which are at most risk of acquiring multidrug-resistant bacteria. (2016-10-12)

Symposium addresses the science of the rhizosphere
Understanding root zone-soil interaction is key to increasing sustainability. (2016-10-12)

Indigenous group add to evidence tying cesarean birth to obesity
A Purdue University study of an indigenous group of Maya people reinforces the link between Cesarean births and obesity. (2016-10-12)

Sick or healthy? Bacterial metabolism tells us which -- and why
The human gut is a complex ecosystem: countless bacteria colonize it and help us to digest our food. Scientists from the Luxembourg Centre for Systems Biomedicine of the University of Luxembourg in collaboration with the Integrated BioBank of Luxembourg, the Centre Hospitalier de Luxembourg and the Centre Hospitalier Emile Mayrisch have developed a way to study this ecosystem -- the microbiome of the gut -- in unprecedented detail. (2016-10-10)

Newly discovered gut organism protects mice from bacterial infections
While bacteria are often stars of the gut microbiome, emerging research depicts a more complex picture, where microorganisms from different kingdoms of life are actively working together or fighting against one another. In a study published Oct. 6 in Cell, scientists reveal one example: a newly discovered protist that protects its host mice from intestinal bacterial infections. (2016-10-06)

Type 2 diabetes and obesity -- what do we really know?
Social and economic factors have led to a dramatic rise in type 2 diabetes and obesity around the world. In a review in Science, Mark McCarthy, professor at the University of Oxford, UK, and Paul Franks, professor at Lund University, Sweden, examine the knowledge of the actual causes and the interplay between genetics and lifestyle factors. (2016-10-06)

Penn Vet-CHOP partnership probes link between cattle and Crohn's disease
Penn Vet New Bolton Center scientists Marie-Eve Fecteau and Raymond Sweeney are investigating the similarities between Crohn's disease, which affects as many as 700,000 Americans, and Johne's disease, a chronic wasting disease present in nearly 70 percent of dairy cattle herds in the United States. (2016-10-06)

Metagenomic study links microbes to flavors in kefir
A team of food scientists and microbiologists in Ireland have used high-throughput sequencing to analyze how microbial populations change as kefir ferments. It's a new frontier in food analysis: Using the data, collected over a 24-hour fermentation period, the researchers were able to connect the presence of individual microbial species and their associated pathways to flavor compounds in the fermented milk beverage. (2016-10-04)

Mix and match microbes to make probiotics last
Scientists have tried to alter the human gut microbiota to improve health by introducing beneficial probiotic bacteria. Yet commercially available probiotics do not establish themselves in the gut. A study published Sept. 29 in Cell Host & Microbe suggests that it is possible to alter the microbial ecosystem in the human gut for at least six months by introducing a single, ecologically appropriate bacterial strain. (2016-10-03)

How human genes affect the microbiome
Studies on human twins and experimental work with animals have both confirmed that our microbiome is partly hereditary. But so far, there was only limited information about the host genes that affect the microbiome. Now a new study, led by the University Medical Center Groningen/University of Groningen Department of Genetics has associated genetic loci and specific genes in human DNA to bacterial species and their metabolic signatures. (2016-10-03)

Revving the microbial engine: Horsepower vs. fuel efficiency in bacterial genomes
Microbes that can reproduce rapidly in times of plenty have an evolutionary stockpile of extra genes that allows them to quickly respond to changing conditions such as oil spills or outbreaks of intestinal diseases. (2016-09-12)

Chinese investigators characterize the world of resistance gene exchange among bacteria
Certain antibiotic resistance genes are easily transferred from one bacterial species to another, and can move between farm animals and the human gut. A team led by Chinese researchers has characterized this 'mobile resistome,' which they say is largely to blame for the spread of antibiotic resistance. They found that many antibiotic resistance genes that are shared between the human and animal gut microbiome are also present in multiple human pathogens. (2016-09-09)

Experts urge a defensive stance in efforts against antimicrobial resistance
In a Comment in Nature, CDDEP Director Ramanan Laxminarayan and other experts in antimicrobial resistance suggest that the United Nations should reframe global efforts against antimicrobial resistance by adopting a defensive stance. The suggested focus should be in building the resilience of society and maintaining diversity in the 'global microbiome'-- only a fraction of which causes human or animal disease. (2016-09-08)

UC study looks at the influence of fat when gut bacteria is reduced by antibioticsm
A study led by University of Cincinnati (UC) lipid metabolism researchers lends additional insight into how bacteria in the gut, or lack thereof, influences intestinal mast cells (MMC) activation and perhaps fat absorption. (2016-09-08)

No consensus on how the microbiome affects tuberculosis, review finds
Inconsistencies across studies and sampling errors remain major barriers to understanding how the lung microbiome changes with tuberculosis, according to a review published today in Clinical Microbiology Reviews. (2016-09-07)

Flowers critical link to bacteria transmission in wild bees
A team of researchers, including several from the University of California, Riverside, have found that flowers are a hot spot of transmission of bacteria that end up in the microbiome of wild bees. (2016-09-06)

Early life exposure to antibiotics is related to increased risk of allergies later in life
Research presented Sept. 6, 2016, at this year's European Respiratory Society International Congress in London, UK, shows that exposure to antibiotics early in life is related to increased risk of developing allergies later in life. The research is by Dr. Fariba Ahmadizar, Utrecht University, Netherlands and colleagues. (2016-09-05)

ICU patients lose helpful gut bacteria within days of hospital admission
The microbiome of patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) at a hospital differs dramatically from that of healthy patients, according to a new study published in mSphere. Researchers analyzing microbial taxa in ICU patients' guts, mouth and skin reported finding dysbiosis, or a bacterial imbalance, that worsened during a patient's stay in the hospital. Compared to healthy people, ICU patients had depleted populations of commensal, health-promoting microbes and higher counts of bacterial taxa with pathogenic strains. (2016-08-31)

Monkeys in zoos have human gut bacteria
A new study led by the University of Minnesota shows that monkeys in captivity lose much of their native gut bacteria diversity and their gut bacteria ends up resembling those of humans. The results suggest that switching to a low-fiber, Western diet may have the power to deplete most normal primate gut microbes in favor of a less diverse set of bacteria. (2016-08-30)

Shifts in the microbiome impact tissue repair and regeneration
Researchers at the Stowers Institute have established a definitive link between the makeup of the microbiome, the host immune response, and an organism's ability to heal itself. (2016-08-26)

Brief rapamycin therapy in middle-aged mice extends lives
In mice, the drug rapamycin is known to extend lives and delay some age-related problems. Questions remain about about how it promotes healthy aging, when, how much and how long to administer rapamycin, and how to avoid serious side effects. A new study showed brief therapy during middle age with rapamycin dramatically extended mouse lives. Findings revealed the need to further examine how gender and dose influence side effects and the drug's impact on susceptibility to and protection from different types of cancer. (2016-08-23)

Is a messed-up microbiome linked to obesity? New U-M study casts doubt
A new study, done by pooling data from previous studies, throws cold water on the idea that extra pounds may stem from an imbalance of the bacteria inside us. (2016-08-23)

Improving food quality by studying the microbial composition of raw milk
Findings from a new study, reported in the journal mBio, may help food companies improve the quality of dairy products. The researchers have discovered that bacteria in raw milk arriving at dairy processing facilities are highly diverse and differ according to season, but still contain a core microbiota. (2016-08-23)

Antibiotic treatment increased risk for type 1 diabetes in animal study
In doses equivalent to those used regularly in human children, antibiotics changed the mix of gut microbes in young mice to dramatically increase their risk for type 1 diabetes. (2016-08-22)

Soluble corn fiber can help young women build bone, and older women preserve bone
Supplementing with soluble corn fiber at two critical times in a woman's life -- adolescence and post-menopause -- can help build and retain calcium in bone, according to new research from Purdue University. (2016-08-22)

New findings detail how beneficial bacteria in the nose suppress pathogenic bacteria
Staphylococcus aureus is a common colonizer of the human body. Although, one quarter of the US population live with the bacteria and never get sick, having S. aureus present in the nostrils is a risk for infections that range in severity from mild skin to life- threatening MRSA infections. Research from the Forsyth Institute is providing insight into how harmless Corynebacterium species, bacterial members of the nasal and skin microbiome, help protect humans from disease. (2016-08-17)

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