Current Microorganisms News and Events

Current Microorganisms News and Events, Microorganisms News Articles.
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Innate immune system worsens the situation in severe COVID-19
In patients with severe COVID-19, the innate immune system overreacts. This overreaction may underlie the formation of blood clots (thrombi) and deterioration in oxygen saturation that affect the patients. This is shown in an Uppsala University study published in the journal Frontiers in Immunology. (2021-02-23)

Life from Earth could temporarily survive on Mars
German Aerospace Center scientists. The researchers launched these small lifeforms into Earth's stratosphere, which replicates key characteristics of the Martian environment, and found that some microorganisms, in particular spores of black mold, survived the trip. This new way of testing endurance to space travel will be invaluable for understanding the threats and opportunities of microbes in future missions to Mars. (2021-02-22)

Can bacteria make stronger cars, airplanes and armor?
Biological systems can harness their living cells for growth and regeneration, but engineering systems cannot. Until now.Researchers are harnessing living bacteria to create engineering materials that are strong, tolerant, and resilient. (2021-02-22)

Waste into wealth: Harvesting useful products from microbial growth
Anca Delgado, a researcher in the Biodesign Swette Center for Environmental Biotechnology at Arizona State University, has been exploring how bacteria can convert organic waste into useful products. In a new study, she describes for the first time how the chain elongation processes are carried out by microorganisms under normal conditions in soil. (2021-02-17)

Substance in the blood of pregnant women fights pathological immune reaction
Scientists studied the effect of trophoblastic β1-glycoprotein in the blood of pregnant women on pro-inflammatory immune cells. Thanks to trophoblastic β1-glycoprotein, a woman's body does not adversely react to the fetus and supports its normal development until birth. It turned out that trophoblastic β1-glycoproteins also suppressed the development of pro-inflammatory lymphocytes and reduced their activity. (2021-02-10)

The role of nanobacteria in the organic matter cycle in freshwater systems
A team of scientists including researchers from Baltic Federal University studied freshwater microorganisms that can pass through biological filters. These microorganisms are understudied but were believed to play an important role in the biosphere. However, experiments showed that they had only a minor impact on the cycle of dissolved organic matter. (2021-02-10)

The invisible killer lurking in our consumer products
Our consumer products, such as food, cosmetics and clothes, might be filled with nanomaterials - unbeknownst to us. The use of nanomaterials remains unregulated and they do not show up in lists of ingredients. A new study published in Nature Communications sheds light on whether they are harmful and what happens to them when they enter an organism. (2021-02-09)

Arctic permafrost releases more CO2 than once believed
There may be greater CO2 emissions associated with thawing Arctic permafrost than ever imagined. An international team of researchers, including one from the University of Copenhagen, has discovered that soil bacteria release CO2 previously thought to be trapped by iron. The finding presents a large new carbon footprint that is unaccounted for in current climate models. (2021-02-09)

Nehandertals' gut microbiota and the bacteria helping our health
Through the study of ancient DNA from 50,000-year-old Neanderthal faecal sediments, an international research group isolated a group of micro-organisms whose characteristics are similar to those of modern Sapiens: such findings can be instrumental to the protection of our gut microbiota (2021-02-05)

Fecal microbiota transplants help patients with advanced melanoma respond to immunotherapy
For patients with cancers that do not respond to immunotherapy drugs, adjusting the composition of microorganisms in the intestines--known as the gut microbiome--through the use of stool, or fecal, transplants may help some of these individuals respond to the immunotherapy drugs, a new study suggests. Researchers at the NCI, part of the National Institutes of Health, conducted the study in collaboration with investigators from UPMC Hillman Cancer Center at the University of Pittsburgh. (2021-02-04)

Experts 'scan horizon' to help prepare governments for next major biosecurity threat
A panel of experts have outlined key biosecurity questions facing policymakers - ''from brain-altering bioweapons to mass surveillance through DNA''. Recently published, the exercise - conducted shortly before COVID-19 - follows a 'horizon scan' led by the same researchers on areas of bioengineering that ''could prove even more impactful, for better or worse, than the current pandemic.'' (2021-02-03)

Specific bacteria in the gut prompt mother mice to neglect their pups
As scientists learn more about the microorganisms that colonize the body--collectively called the microbiota--one area of intense interest is the effect that these microbes can have on the brain. A new study led by Salk Institute scientists has identified a strain of E. coli bacteria that, when living in the guts of female mice, causes them to neglect their offspring. The findings were published January 29, 2021, in the journal Science Advances. (2021-01-29)

Seeds transfer their microbes to the next generation
Scientists have been pondering if the microbiome of plants is due to nature or nurture. Research at Stockholm University, published in Environmental Microbiology, showed that oak acorns contain a large diversity of microbes, and that oak seedlings inherit their microbiome from these acorns. The microorganisms found on the seed are often valuable for the plant, promoting its growth and protecting it against certain diseases. Each plant species harbours a distinct microbial community. (2021-01-21)

On the trail of active ingredients from marine yeasts
Numerous natural products are awaiting discovery in all kinds of natural habitats. Especially microorganisms such as bacteria or fungi are able to produce diverse natural products with high biomedical application potential in particular as antibiotics and anticancer agents. Researchers from GEOMAR and Kiel University isolated red yeast of the species Rhodotorula mucilaginosa from a deep-sea sediment sample and analyzed for its genome and chemical constituents. The scientists succeeded in demonstrating its anticancer and antibacterial effects. (2021-01-20)

Expanding the biosynthetic pathway via retrobiosynthesis
KAIST metabolic engineers presented the bio-based production of multiple short-chain primary amines that have a wide range of applications in chemical industries for the first time. The research team designed the novel biosynthetic pathways for short-chain primary amines by combining retrobiosynthesis and a precursor selection step. (2021-01-13)

New method helps pocket-sized DNA sequencer achieve near-perfect accuracy 
Researchers have found a simple way to eliminate almost all sequencing errors produced by a widely used portable DNA sequencer (Oxford Nanopore Technologies' MinION device). (2021-01-12)

Metabolic potential and molecular diversity of natural products from microorganisms
Metabolic potential and molecular diversity of natural products from microorganisms https://doi.org/10.1007/s42995-020-00077-5 Announcing a new publication for Marine Life Science & Technology journal. In this review article the authors consider the metabolic potential and molecular diversity of natural products from microorganisms. (2021-01-10)

In changing oceans, sea stars may be 'drowning'
New Cornell University-led research suggests that starfish, victims of sea star wasting disease (SSWD), may actually be in respiratory distress - literally 'drowning' in their own environment - as elevated microbial activity derived from nearby organic matter and warm ocean temperatures rob the creatures of their ability to breathe. (2021-01-06)

New bacterial culture methods could result in the discovery of new species
A new microbial study explored the bacterial diversity of the Tabernas Desert located in the south-eastern Spain. Using simple tweaks of the traditional bacterial culture methods, the researchers isolated more than 250 bacterial strains of which 80 could be possible new bacteria species. (2021-01-05)

Experts agree on new global definition of 'fermented foods'
Interdisciplinary scientists have come together to create the first international consensus definition of fermented foods. Their paper, published in Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology, defines fermented foods as: ''foods made through desired microbial growth and enzymatic conversions of food components''. (2021-01-05)

Gum disease-causing bacteria borrow growth molecules from neighbors to thrive
The human body is filled with friendly bacteria. However, some of these microorganisms, such as Veillonella parvula, may be too nice. These peaceful bacteria engage in a one-sided relationship with pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis, helping the germ multiply and cause gum disease, according to a new University at Buffalo-led study. (2021-01-05)

RUDN University scientist showed global warming effect on greenhouse gas emissions in paddy soils
A soil scientist from RUDN University studied the decomposition of organic matter in rice paddies--the sources of CO2 and methane emissions. Both gases add to the greenhouse effect and affect climate warming in subtropical regions. The emissions increase when the roots of plants influence microbial communities in the soil. This influence, in turn, depends on temperature changes. Therefore, climate warming can lead to more greenhouse gas emissions. (2020-12-24)

Bacteria release climate-damaging carbon from thawing permafrost
Around a quarter of the ground in the northern hemisphere is permanently frozen. These areas are estimated to contain about twice as much carbon as the world's current atmosphere. New research says that these permafrost soils are not only increasingly thawing out as the Earth becomes warmer, but also releasing that carbon, which accelerates the thawing. (2020-12-10)

The pesticides in contact with plastics for mulch take longer to degrade
A study within the Diverfarming project analyses the interactions between 38 pesticides and three types of plastic for mulch (2020-12-09)

Weathered microplastic particles, readily internalized by mouse cells, may pose a greater risk than pristine ones
Microplastic particles exposed to freshwater or saltwater environments for several weeks are about 10 times more likely than pristine particles to be absorbed by mouse cells, due to a crust of microorganisms and biomolecules that forms on the particles' surfaces, according to a new study. The results indicate that this crust acts as a biomolecular 'Trojan horse.' (2020-12-09)

UBCO researchers suggest stool transplants can battle serious infections
Could number two be number one when it comes to combating recurrent Clostridium difficile (CDI) infections? Using genetic material analysis and machine learning, UBC researchers have pinpointed several key factors to ensure successful fecal microbiota transplants (FMT), which have proven successful in treating bacterial infections in the gut including illnesses like C. difficile, Crohn's Disease, Colitis and even obesity, explains lead author Negin Kazemian. (2020-12-09)

New cost-effective technique facilitates study of non-bacterial plant microbiomes
Thanks to a new technique developed by plant pathologists in Connecticut, scientists now have access to an affordable and effective tool to facilitate the study of the entire non-bacterial microbiomes of any plant species. (2020-12-08)

A comprehensive review of biosynthesis of inorganic nanomaterials using microorganisms and bacteriophages
A KAIST bioprocess engineering research team conducted a summary of 146 biosynthesized single and multi-element inorganic nanomaterials covering 55 elements in the periodic table synthesized using wild-type and genetically engineered microorganisms. Their research highlights the diverse applications of biogenic nanomaterials and gives strategies for improving the biosynthesis of nanomaterials in terms of their producibility, crystallinity, size, and shape. (2020-12-07)

RUDN University medics created a wound-healing gel with metabolic products of trichoderma
Researchers from the Department of Biochemistry of RUDN University developed a wound-healing gel based on a substance that is produced by Trichoderma fungi. (2020-12-04)

Researchers discover life in deep ocean sediments at or above water's boiling point
Research published today in the journal Science found single-celled organisms living in sediments 1180 meters beneath the ocean at temperatures of 120 degrees Celsius (2020-12-03)

New device offers faster way to detect antibiotic-resistant bacteria
A new device for faster testing of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has been developed by researchers at Binghamton University, State University of New York. (2020-12-01)

Biodiesel made from discarded cardboard boxes
Dr. Sun-Mi Lee and her team at the Clean Energy Research Center of the Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST) have announced that they have developed a novel microorganism capable of producing biodiesel precursors from lignocellulosic biomass such as discarded agricultural by-products, waste paper, and cardboard boxes. This microorganism has achieved the product yield twice of what was obtainable from its predecessors. (2020-11-30)

Robot probes the Red Sea's carbon storage system
Little of the organic carbon in the Red Sea could be reaching the depths necessary for long-term storage. (2020-11-29)

New insights into how the CRISPR immune system evolved
With new insights into how the genetic tool CRISPR - which allows direct editing of our genes - evolved and adapted, we are now one step closer to understanding the basis of the constant struggle for survival that takes place in nature. The results can be used in future biotechnologies. (2020-11-25)

Bed dust microorganisms may boost children's health
In the most extensive study of its kind, researchers from the University of Copenhagen, in collaboration with the Danish Pediatric Asthma Center at Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, have found a link between microorganisms living in the dust of children's beds and the children's own bacteria. The correlation suggests that microorganisms may reduce a child's risk of developing asthma, allergies and autoimmune diseases later on in life. (2020-11-19)

Antibiotic exposure in children under age 2 associated with chronic conditions
Children under age 2 who take antibiotics are at greater risk for childhood-onset asthma, respiratory allergies, eczema, celiac disease, obesity and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, according to a paper written jointly by Mayo Clinic and Rutgers researchers. While previous studies have looked at the association of antibiotics with single diseases, this is the first to look at the association across many diseases. (2020-11-16)

A more resistant material against microorganisms is created to restore cultural heritage
The study was performed by a research team at the University Research Institute into Fine Chemistry and Nanochemistry at the University of Cordoba and Seville's Institute of Natural Resources and Agrobiology of the Spanish National Research Council (2020-11-09)

RUDN University soil scientist: Deforestation affects the bacterial composition of the soil
A soil scientist from RUDN University studied the effect of forest conversion on the properties of the soil: its acidity, carbon and nitrogen resources, bacterial composition, and the activity of microorganisms. The study can help improve the methods of soil cultivation after deforestation, namely, select the best fertilizers, prevent erosion, slow down nutrient depletion, and balance the composition of the bacterial community. (2020-11-09)

Clay subsoil at Earth's driest place may signal life on Mars
Diverse microbes discovered in the clay-rich, shallow soil layers in Chile's dry Atacama Desert suggest that similar deposits below the Martian surface may contain microorganisms, which could be easily found by future rover missions or landing craft. (2020-11-05)

Europe took centre-stage in global spread of the coronavirus, says new research
A collaboration between genome researchers at the University of Huddersfield and Portugal's University of Minho has discovered it is Europe, not China, which has been the main source of spreading the coronavirus disease around the world. (2020-11-03)

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