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Current Microorganisms News and Events, Microorganisms News Articles.
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Shrinking (ultra)violet
Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) report the technical details of pioneering research they conducted on the disinfection of drinking water using ultraviolet (UV) light. (2020-07-22)

Plant roots increase carbon emission from permafrost soils
A key uncertainty in climate projections is the amount of carbon emitted by thawing permafrost in the Arctic. Plant roots in soil stimulate microbial decomposition, a mechanism called the priming effect. An international research team co-lead by Frida Keuper from INRAE and UmeƄ University and Birgit Wild from Stockholm University shows that the priming effect alone can cause emission of 40 billion tonnes carbon from permafrost by 2100. The study was published today in Nature Geoscience. (2020-07-20)

Timing key in understanding plant microbiomes
Oregon State University researchers have made a key advance in understanding how timing impacts the way microorganisms colonize plants, a step that could provide farmers an important tool to boost agricultural production. (2020-07-16)

How do bacteria build up natural products?
The active agents of many drugs are natural products, so called because often only microorganisms are able to produce the complex structures. Similar to the production line in a factory, large enzyme complexes put these active agent molecules together. A team of the Technical University of Munich (TUM) and the Goethe University Frankfurt has now succeeded in investigating the basic mechanisms of one of these molecular factories. (2020-07-06)

Arctic plants may not provide predicted carbon sequestration potential
The environmental benefits of taller, shrubbier tundra plants in the Arctic may be overstated, according to new research involving the University of Stirling. (2020-07-02)

Marine alga from the Kiel Fjord discovered as a remedy against infections and skin cancer
Using state-of-the-art approaches coupled with bio- and cheminformatics and machine learning, researchers at the GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel have succeeded in discovering new, bioactive components of the Baltic Sea Baltic Sea seaweed Fucus vesiculosus and its fungal symbiont against infectious bacteria or skin cancer. (2020-07-02)

Tongue microbes provide window to heart health
Microorganisms on the tongue could help diagnose heart failure, according to research presented today on HFA Discoveries, a scientific platform of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). 'The tongues of patients with chronic heart failure look totally different to those of healthy people,' said study author Dr. Tianhui Yuan, No.1 Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine. (2020-06-23)

The Parkinson's disease gut has an overabundance of opportunistic pathogens
In 2003, Heiko Braak proposed that Parkinson's disease is caused by a pathogen in the gut that could pass through the intestinal mucosal barrier and spread to the brain through the nervous system. Until now, no evidence of a specific pathogen that may trigger PD was found; now researchers report for the first time a significant overabundance of a cluster of opportunistic pathogens in the PD gut. (2020-06-18)

An excessive amount of propionic acid (PPA) in food preservatives may hinder brain development
This research proves the mechanism of autism induced by an imbalance of human gut microorganisms. (2020-06-17)

Overlooked: The role of bacterial viruses in plant health
We know how important bacteria and fungi are for the health of plants. In marine environments and in our own gut, bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria) are important in regulating the microbiome. Yet, their effect on bacteria living around the roots of plants has hardly been studied. 'I cannot believe that they are not important,' says Joana Falcao Salles, Professor of Microbial Community Ecology at the University of Groningen. (2020-06-16)

Water bacteria have a green thumb
Research team from University of Jena discover new natural products that bacteria in water use to regulate the growth of competing organisms. (2020-06-12)

Prodigiosin-based solution has selective activity against cancer cells
Together with colleagues from the University of Palermo, KFU employees offer a nano preparation based on biocompatible halloysite nanotubes and bacterial pigment prodigiosin; the latter is known to selectively disrupt cancer cells without damaging the healthy ones. (2020-06-12)

Advances in the production of minor ginsenosides using microorganisms and their enzymes
Advances in the Production of Minor Ginsenosides Using Microorganisms and Their Enzymes - BIO Integration https://bio-integration.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/bioi20200007.pdf Announcing a new article publication for BIO Integration journal. In this review article the author Almando Geraldi from the Universitas Airlangga, Indonesia considers the advances in the production of minor ginsenosides using microorganisms and their enzymes. (2020-06-08)

Diet, gut microbes affect cancer treatment outcomes, research suggests
What we eat can affect the outcome of chemotherapy - and likely many other medical treatments - because of ripple effects that begin in our gut, new research suggests. (2020-06-05)

Atmospheric scientists identify cleanest air on Earth in first-of-its-kind study
A research group at Colorado State University identified an atmospheric region unchanged by human-related activities in the first study to measure bioaerosol composition of the Southern Ocean south of 40 degrees south latitude. (2020-06-01)

'Bottom-heavy squirmers' adopt characteristic group behaviours
Through research published in EPJ E, researchers find that swimming, bottom-heavy particles will collectively spend most of their time in one of two states, between which some intriguing behaviours can emerge. (2020-05-28)

New method for capturing carbon via root exudates in wild forest
The fine root systems of four coniferous trees were measured for carbon exudates in the natural environment. (2020-05-26)

Terrestrial bacteria can grow on nutrients from space
As inevitable fellow travellers on the bodies of astronauts, spaceships, or equipment, terrestrial microorganisms will undoubtedly come into contact with extraterrestrial environments. Researchers from the Radboudumc describe in an article in Astrobiology that bacteria can survive on an 'extraterrestrial diet', which affected their pathogenic potential. (2020-05-26)

Clarification of microbial community structures around Antarctic lakes
A research team lead by Toyohashi University of Technology has revealed the community structure of microorganisms living around freshwater lakes, ice-free areas of Antarctica. An analysis of samples collected from lake shores, puddles, etc. using a next-generation sequencer has verified that cyanobacteria and tardigrades are widely distributed and specific eukaryotic algae are dominant in certain sites. This knowledge will contribute to clarification of adaptation mechanisms of microorganisms to severe physical stresses in Antarctica. (2020-05-15)

Research shows even animals benefit from social distance to prevent disease
Microorganisms living inside and on our body play a crucial role in both the maintenance of our health and the development of disease. Now researchers at UTSA have uncovered evidence about the importance of maintaining physical distance to minimize the spread of microbes among individuals. (2020-05-11)

Researchers present a microbial strain capable of massive succinic acid production
A research team led by Distinguished Professor Sang-Yup Lee reported the production of a microbial strain capable of the massive production of succinic acid with the highest production efficiency to date. This strategy of integrating systems metabolic engineering with enzyme engineering will be useful for the production of industrially competitive bio-based chemicals. (2020-05-06)

Microorganisms in parched regions extract needed water from colonized rocks
Cyanobacteria living in rocks in Chile's Atacama Desert extract water from the minerals they colonize and, in doing so, change the phase of the material from gypsum to anhydrite. Researchers at the University of California, Irvine and Johns Hopkins University gained verification of this process through experiments, and the work points to possible strategies for humans to stay hydrated in harsh environments. (2020-05-04)

Life on the rocks helps scientists understand how to survive in extreme environments
By studying how the tiniest organisms in the Atacama Desert of Chile, one of the driest places on Earth, extract water from rocks, researchers at the Johns Hopkins University, University of California, Irvine, and U.C. Riverside revealed how, against all odds, life can exist in extreme environments. (2020-05-04)

Study shows how microorganisms survive in harsh environments
In northern Chile's Atacama Desert, one of the driest places on Earth, microorganisms are able to eke out an existence by extracting water from the rocks they colonize. An Army-funded project by researchers at the University of California, Irvine, Johns Hopkins University and University of California, Riverside gained an in-depth understanding of the mechanisms by which some cyanobacteria, an ancient group of photosynthetic microbes, survive in harsh environments. (2020-05-04)

Simulated deep-sea mining affects ecosystem functions at the seafloor
The environmental impact of deep-sea mining is only partially known. Also, there is a lack of standards to regulate mining and set binding thresholds for the impact on the local organisms. Researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology with colleagues at the Alfred Wegener Institute, the GEOMAR and others describe that deep-sea mining-related disturbances have a long-term impact on the natural ecosystem functions and microbial communities at the seafloor. (2020-04-29)

New drug formulation could treat Candida infections
With antimicrobial resistance (AMR) increasing around the world, new research led by the University of Bristol has shown a new drug formulation could possibly be used in antifungal treatments against Candida infections. (2020-04-28)

Rapid evolution in fish: genomic changes within a generation
Researchers from Basel have identified the genetic basis of rapid adaptation using a native fish species. They compared threespine stickleback fish from different habitats in the Lake Constance region. Their study reveals that changes in the genome can be observed within a single generation. The results were published in the journal Nature Communications. (2020-04-27)

Researchers explore ocean microbes' role in climate effects
A new study shows that 'hotspots' of nutrients surrounding phytoplankton -- which are tiny marine algae producing approximately half of the oxygen we breathe every day -- play an outsized role in the release of a gas involved in cloud formation and climate regulation. (2020-04-23)

How atrazine regulations have influenced the environment
Opposing chemical trends linked to atrazine regulations from 1990s. (2020-04-22)

Spores, please!
Black poplar leaves infected by fungi are especially susceptible to attack by gypsy moth caterpillars. A research team at the Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology found that young larvae that fed on leaves covered with fungal spores grew faster and pupated earlier than those feeding only on leaf tissue. The results shed new light on the co-evolution of plants and insects, in which microorganisms play a much greater role than previously assumed. (2020-04-20)

Lactic acid bacteria present in kimchi cabbage and garlic carry out the fermentation
Kimchi, a traditional Korean fermented vegetable food, is fermented by lactic acid bacteria derived from raw ingredients, such as kimchi cabbage, garlic, ginger, and red pepper. Lactic acid bacteria produce various metabolites during fermentation in response to the type of ingredients and storage temperature, and the metabolites determine the flavor and quality of kimchi. (2020-04-17)

Soil carbon and nitrogen mineralization after the initial flush of CO2
Healthy soil should have abundant nitrogen to supply plant growth needs, but it should not all be in the inorganic fraction. Rather, organic nitrogen is the preferred storage warehouse from which soil microorganisms can decompose and release inorganic nitrogen to soil and then to plants. This system avoids leaching and volatile losses of nitrogen. Historically, scientists have had difficulty predicting how much nitrogen is made available to plants by soil biological activity due to time and resource constraints. (2020-04-16)

Technique offers path for biomanufacturing medicines during space flights
Research published today in Nature Microgravity used an Earth-bound simulator of the space station instrument to grow E. coli, demonstrating that it can be nurtured with methods that promise to be more suitable for space travel than existing alternatives. (2020-04-10)

Light driven proton pump in distant relative
Researchers investigated the group of microorganisms classified as Asgard archaea, and found a protein in their membrane which acts as a miniature light-activated pump. The schizorhodopsin protein draws protons into the organisms' body. This research could lead to new biomolecular tools to control the pH in cells or microorganisms, and possibly more. (2020-04-10)

Tiny marine organisms as the key to global cycles
Marine microorganisms play a very important role in global cycles such as of the uptake of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. However, little is known about how they function. New approaches by an international research team with the participation of the GEOMAR, Kiel, Germany are for the first time laying the foundation for a more detailed genetic investigation of some key phytoplankton organisms, as reported in the international journal Nature Methods today. (2020-04-06)

A friendlier way to deal with nitrate pollution
Learning from nature, scientists from the Center for Sustainable Resource Science in Japan and the Korean Basic Science Institute (KBSI) have found a catalyst that efficiently transforms nitrate into nitrite -- an environmentally important reaction -- without requiring high temperature or acidity, and now have identified the mechanism that makes this efficiency possible. (2020-04-02)

A pilot study of the sequencing of the intestinal microbiota for colon cancer
In this study, they compare two sequencing methods and design a bioinformatic analysis to establish the basis of a wide study in the research of early detection markers of colon cancer. (2020-03-31)

German scientists identify microbe that could help degrade polyurethane-based plastics
One of the most widely used oil-based plastics, polyurethane, is particularly hard to recycle or destroy safely. It also releases toxic chemicals into landfills. However, some microorganisms are capable of metabolizing these compounds and degrading the plastic waste in the process. A team of scientists in Germany have identified one such bacterium that could be used to help break down polyurethane-based plastics for future bio-recycling. (2020-03-27)

Microbes far beneath the seafloor rely on recycling to survive
Scientists from Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution reveal how microorganisms could survive in rocks nestled thousands of feet beneath the ocean floor in the lower oceanic crust. (2020-03-11)

Not only what you eat, but how you eat, may affect your microbiome
Researchers from Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU) found that post-stroke patients re-grow a healthy microbiota in their mouth and gut when they revert to normal food intake from tube feeding. These results emphasize the need to actively normalize feeding in these patients, not only to minimize the risks of tube feeding, but also because oral feeding significantly alters the microbiome of both the mouth and the gut, potentially with beneficial consequences for overall health. (2020-03-03)

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