Current Microtubules News and Events

Current Microtubules News and Events, Microtubules News Articles.
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How plants stabilize their water pipes
New techniques allow live-observation of forming cell walls in the vascular tissue (2021-02-02)

Dewdrops on a spiderweb reveal the physics behind cell structures
Researchers in the laboratories of Princeton University scientists Joshua Shaevitz, Howard Stone, and Sabine Petry have discovered that surface tension drives the liquid-like protein TPX2 to form globules that nucleate the formation of branching microtubules during cell division. The paper detailing these discoveries appeared in the Jan 28 issue of the journal Nature Physics. (2021-01-29)

Wood formation can now be followed in real-time -- and possibly serve the climate of tomorrow
A genetic engineering method makes it possible to observe how woody cell walls are built in plants. The new research in wood formation, conducted by the University of Copenhagen and others, opens up the possibility of developing sturdier construction materials and perhaps more climate efficient trees. (2021-01-28)

Study shows why anesthetic stops cell's walkers in their tracks
Researchers detail the mechanism that allows propofol, a common anesthetic, to halt the movement of kinesin proteins that deliver cargoes to the far reaches of cells. (2021-01-28)

Mathematics explains how giant whirlpools form in developing egg cells
Cell-spanning whirlpools in the immature egg cells of animals such as mice, zebrafish and fruit flies quickly mix the cells' innards, but scientists didn't know how these flows form. Using mathematical modeling, researchers have found an answer. The gyres result from the collective behavior of rodlike molecular tubes called microtubules that extend inward from the cells' membranes, the researchers report. (2021-01-13)

Keeping sperm cells on track
Researchers point to a new mechanism underlying male infertility. (2021-01-07)

Changing the perspective on the 'Cinderella of the cytoskeleton'
SETD2, known for its involvement on gene expression, also can affect functions controlled by the cytoskeleton, such as movement, metastasis and migration, which are very important for cancer cells. (2020-12-23)

CNIO and IRB Barcelona assemble the gamma-tubulin ring complex in vitro for the first time
This work paves the way for the in vitro study of the nucleation process that is essential for assembly and organization of the microtubule cytoskeleton. The paper is a collaboration between Jens Lüders' group at IRB Barcelona and Oscar Llorca's at CNIO. The results have been published in Science Advances. (2020-12-21)

Hinder handing the message -- stopping tumors from creating new blood vessels
Researchers from Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU) have found that vasohibin-1 (VASH1), a protein known to prevent the formation of new blood vessels, acts by changing the conditions of microtubules which bring blocking the certain signal from outside through encumbering transport of its message to the inner of cell. The unique function of this protein can inhibit tumor cells from spreading throughout the body, making it a notable finding for cancer therapeutic research. (2020-12-14)

Photopharmacology -- light-gated control of the cytoskeleton
Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich researchers have developed photoresponsive derivatives of the anticancer drug Taxol®, which allow light-based control of cytoskeleton dynamics in neurons. The agents can optically pattern cell division and may elucidate how Taxol acts. (2020-11-06)

HSE Faculty of Chemistry scientists discovered new anti-cancer molecule
A group of Moscow scientists has discovered and explained the activity mechanism of a new anti-cancer molecule -- diphenylisoxazole. This molecule has been shown to be effective against human cancer cells. The research, published in the journal Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters, makes it possible to produce an affordable cancer treatment drug. (2020-10-29)

Cause of Alzheimer's disease traced to mutation in common enzyme
Researchers from Tokyo Metropolitan University have discovered a new mechanism by which clumps of tau protein are created in the brain, killing brain cells and causing Alzheimer's disease. A specific mutation to an enzyme called MARK4 changed the properties of tau, usually an important part of the skeletal structure of cells, making it more likely to aggregate, and more insoluble. Getting to grips with mechanisms like this may lead to breakthrough treatments. (2020-10-24)

Microscopy beyond the resolution limit
The Polish-Israeli team from the Faculty of Physics of the University of Warsaw and the Weizmann Institute of Science has made another significant achievement in fluorescent microscopy. In the pages of the Optica journal the team presented a new method of microscopy which, in theory, has no resolution limit. In practice, the team managed to demonstrate a fourfold improvement over the diffraction limit. (2020-10-19)

Enzyme SSH1 impairs disposal of accumulating cellular garbage, leading to brain cell death
The protein p62 plays a major role in clearing misfolded tau proteins and dysfunctional mitochondria, the energy powerhouse in all cells including neurons. Neuroscientists at the University of South Florida Health (USF Health) Byrd Alzheimer's Center report for the first time that the protein phosphatase Slingshot-1, or SSH1 for short, disrupts p62's ability to function as an efficient 'garbage collector' and thereby impairs the disposal of both damaged tau and mitochondria leaking toxins. (2020-10-12)

Scientists shed new light on pollen tube growth in plants
New insight on how an enzyme ensures the correct growth of pollen tubes in flowering plants has been published today in the open-access journal eLife. (2020-09-01)

A new method for in vivo plant cell imaging with SNAP-tag proteins
A new method for visualizing in vivo protein dynamics in plant cells has been developed by Nagoya University scientists, offering an important step forward in plant cell fluorescent imaging. (2020-08-21)

Unbalanced microtubule networks launch establishment of neuronal polarity
Prof. MENG Wenxiang's group from the Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences recently reported a new mechanism by which microtubule networks instruct neuronal polarity. (2020-08-21)

Leading-edge technology unmasks protein linked to Parkinson's disease
UC San Diego scientists using leading-edge technologies have produced the first visualizations of LRRK2, the elusive protein that many consider the key of fully understanding the causes of genetic Parkinson's disease, inside its natural cellular environment and the first high-resolution blueprint of the protein. They leveraged these depictions to describe how LRRK2 binds to cellular tracks called microtubules and acts as a roadblock for motors that move along these tracks. (2020-08-19)

Success in promoting plant growth for biodiesel
Scientists of Waseda University in Japan succeeded in promoting plant growth and increasing seed yield by heterologous expression of protein from Arabidopsis (artificially modified high-speed motor protein) in Camelina sativa, which is expected as a useful plant for biodiesel. The study is expected to apply to other plant resources for biodiesel, such as corn, rice, and sugar cane. (2020-08-07)

Protein linked to cancer acts as a viscous glue in cell division
The protein PRC1, a telltale sign in many cancer types including prostate, ovarian, and breast cancer, act as a ''viscous glue'' during cell division, precisely controlling the speed at which two sets of DNA are separated as a single cell divides. The finding could explain why too much or too little PRC1 disrupts that process and causes genome errors linked to cancer. (2020-07-07)

Biologists unravel tangled mystery of plant cell growth
When cells don't divide into proper copies of themselves, living things fail to grow as they should. For the first time, scientists now understand how a protein called TANGLED1 can lead to accurate cell division in plants. (2020-06-22)

HKU scientists uncover new mechanism for balancing protein stability during neuronal development
A School of Biological Sciences research team at the University of Hong Kong recently discovered an unexpected role of the heat shock proteins (HSPs) during neuronal differentiation. HSPs are mostly known to protect cells from various stresses, e.g. extreme temperatures, toxins, and mechanical damage, and to safeguard tissue development. This new study, however, suggests that the HSPs can also play an inhibitory role in neuronal differentiation by destabilizing the cytoskeleton of the neurons. (2020-06-16)

HIV-1 viral cores enter the nucleus collectively through the nuclear endocytosis-like pathway
How HIV-1 viral cores enter the nucleus through the undersized nuclear pore remains mysterious. By multi labelling of viral and cellular components and dynamically tracking, researchers observed that HIV-1 selectively gathered at the microtubule organization center, leading the nearby nuclear envelope to undergo deformation, invagination and restoration to form a nuclear vesicle in which the viral particles were wrapped; then, the inner membrane of the nuclear vesicle ruptured to release HIV-1 viral cores into the nucleus. (2020-06-01)

Programming with the light switch
Freiburg researchers show how to control individual components of self-assembling molecular structures. (2020-05-06)

Biochemists unveil molecular mechanism for motor protein regulation
Researchers have unveiled the mechanism by which one particular molecule affects dynein function. While it was long known that the lissencephaly-1 gene, or Lis1, affects dynein activity, the details were unclear. Steven Markus and his team have revealed exactly how Lis1 activates dynein by preventing dynein's ability to turn itself off, stabilizing it in an 'open,' uninhibited conformation. (2020-04-27)

Autophagy: Scientists discover novel role for self-recycling process in the brain
Proteins classically associated with autophagy regulate the speed of intracellular transport. (2020-03-31)

Cellular train track deformities shed light on neurological disease
A new technique allows researchers to test how the deformation of tiny train track-like cell proteins affects their function. The findings could help clarify the roles of deformed 'microtubules' in traumatic brain injuries and in neurological diseases like Parkinson's. (2020-03-27)

NCAM2 protein plays a decisive role in the formation of structures for cognitive learning
The molecule NCAM2, a glycoprotein from the superfamily of immunoglobulins, is a vital factor in the formation of the cerebral cortex, neuronal morphogenesis and formation of neuronal circuits in the brain, as stated in the new study published in the journal Cerebral Cortex. The deficit of NCAM2 causes an incorrect migration of neurons and alters the morphology, cytoskeleton and functionality of these cells in the central nervous system. (2020-03-13)

Research reveals collective dynamics of active matter systems
A study provides new details about the collective motion of individual agents in a liquid-crystal-like system, which could help in better understanding bacterial colonies, structures and systems in the human body, and other forms of active matter. (2020-03-09)

First real-time observation of the chaos within 3D liquid crystals
A new study offers the opportunity to watch dynamic 3D liquid crystal systems and the chaotic motion within that until now have largely been studied through theory and simulations. (2020-03-05)

Actin filaments control the shape of the cell structure that divides plant cells
A Japanese research group using microscopic video analysis provides deeper insight into the mechanics of plant cell division. Their analysis shows that actin filaments control the shape of cell structures, called phragmoplasts, that create the partition between two dividing plant cells. The discovery is expected to lead to a better understanding of plant cell division mechanisms. (2020-02-28)

A scaffold at the center of our cellular skeleton
When the cells stop dividing, the centrioles migrate to the plasma membrane and allow the formation of primary and mobile cilia, which are used for the transfer of information and the genesis of movement. While performing these biological functions, centrioles are therefore subjected to many physical forces, which they must resist. Scientists (UNIGE) have discovered an internal structure at the center of these nano-cylinders, a cellular scaffolding that maintains the physical integrity of this organelle. (2020-02-20)

Parkinson's disease protein structure solved inside cells using novel technique
The top contributor to familial Parkinson's disease is mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2), whose large and difficult structure has finally been solved, paving the way for targeted therapies. (2020-02-15)

Physics of Life -- Lane change in the cytoskeleton
Many amphibians and fish are able to change their color in order to better adapt to their environment. Munich-based scientists have now investigated the molecular mechanisms in the cytoskeleton necessary for this and revealed potential evolutionary paths. (2020-02-12)

Lane change in the cytoskeleton
Many amphibians and fish are able to change their color in order to better adapt to their environment. Munich-based scientists have now investigated the molecular mechanisms in the cytoskeleton necessary for this and revealed potential evolutionary paths. (2020-02-12)

How plants are built to be strong and responsive
Researchers have solved the long-standing mystery of how plants control the arrangement of their cellulose fibres. (2020-02-06)

U of T researchers discover intricate process of DNA repair in genome stability
An elaborate system of filaments, liquid droplet dynamics and protein connectors enables the repair of some damaged DNA in the nuclei of cells, researchers at the University of Toronto have found. The findings further challenge the belief that broken DNA floats aimlessly -- and highlight the value of cross-disciplinary research in biology and physics. (2020-02-04)

Unique centromere type discovered in the European dodder
Commonly, the presence of histone variant CENH3 epigenetically determines the positioning of centromeres. In monocentric chromosomes, CENH3 occurs in a single region, whilst in holocentrics, CENH3 is distributed along the entire chromosome. Scientists have discovered a new type of centromere in the plant Cuscuta europae. Centromere activity is distributed in holocentric fashion, despite CENH3 only occurring on 1 to 3 distinct regions on the chromosome. The findings were published in Frontiers in Plant Sciences. (2020-01-27)

Deep-sea osmolyte makes biomolecular machines heat-tolerant
Researchers have discovered a method to control biomolecular machines over a wide temperature range using deep-sea osmolyte trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO). This finding could open a new dimension in the application of artificial machines fabricated from biomolecular motors and other proteins. (2020-01-22)

How're your cells' motors running?
Kyoto University researchers develop a device that parks individual molecular motors on nano scale platforms and found that two types of 'kinesin' possess different properties of coordination. In kinesin-1, neither the number nor spacing of the molecules change the transport velocity of microtubules, while kinesin-14 decreased transport velocity as the number of motors on a filament increased, but increased as the spacing of the motors increased. (2020-01-22)

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