Current Molecular Biology News and Events | Page 24

Current Molecular Biology News and Events, Molecular Biology News Articles.
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Discovery: Molecular mechanism at root of familial amyloidosis and other diseases
A team of local researchers has proposed a molecular mechanism that may be responsible for the development of life-threatening diseases called amyloidoses. The best known of such diseases is Alzheimer's disease, but there are many others that are receiving increased scrutiny, in part because of mounting evidence linking them to atherosclerosis and aging. (2015-11-12)

Sweet news for soda and coffee drinkers, stevia less bitter than before
Good news for consumers with a sweet tooth. Cornell food scientists have reduced the sweetener stevia's bitter aftertaste by physical -- rather than chemical -- means. (2015-11-11)

Oregon study suggests some gut microbes may be keystones of health
University of Oregon scientists have found that strength in numbers doesn't hold true for microbes in the intestines. A minority population of the right type might hold the key to regulating good health. (2015-11-11)

Close-up view of galaxies prompts re-think on star formation
Astronomers have identified for the first time one of the key components of many stars, a study suggests. (2015-11-10)

Sugar molecules lose their 'Cinderella' status
A team from the York Structural Biology Laboratory in the Department of Chemistry at the University of York has produced user-friendly software called Privateer that enables scientists to analyze and study the three-dimensional structure of carbohydrates facilitating their exploitation in academic and modern medicine. (2015-11-10)

Molecular clocks control mutation rate in human cells
A theory that our cells have molecular clock processes ticking inside them, that damage DNA by generating mutations continuously throughout life, has just been proven. These clock-like mutational processes could ultimately be responsible for a large proportion of human cancer and contribute to human aging. Two clock-like mutational processes have been found in human cells and the rates at which the two clocks tick in different human cell types have been determined. (2015-11-09)

Strangled cells condense their DNA
Scientists at the Institute of Molecular Biology have been able to see, for the first time, the dramatic changes that occur in the DNA of cells that are starved of oxygen and nutrients. This starved state is typical in some of today's most common diseases, particularly heart attacks, stroke and cancer. The findings provide new insight into the damage these diseases cause and may help researchers to discover new ways of treating them. (2015-11-09)

Grant establishes center for 3-D structure and physics of the genome at UMMS
The University of Massachusetts Medical School has been awarded a five-year, $15 million grant from the National Institutes of Medicine Common Fund to establish the Center for 3-D Structure and Physics of the Genome. The center is part of the NIH's 4-D Nucleome Program, an interdisciplinary effort comprising 29 research teams across the country with the goal of mapping the three-dimensional architecture of the human genome and how this organization changes over time -- the fourth dimension. (2015-11-03)

Male and female mice respond differently to inflammation
New research published in the Journal of Leukocyte Biology shows that male and female mice respond differently to inflammation at the cellular level. (2015-11-02)

NIH awards 2 Georgia State biologists $2.4 million
Georgia State University biologists have received a $2.4 million grant from the National Institutes of Health to investigate the effect of diabetes on cardiovascular disease. (2015-11-02)

UT study: Lack of ZZZZs may zap cell growth, brain activity
Lack of adequate sleep can do more than just make you tired. It can short-circuit your system and interfere with a fundamental cellular process that drives physical growth, physiological adaptation and even brain activity, according to a new study from the University of Tennessee, Knoxville. (2015-10-30)

Virginia Tech study of basic cell processes may inform health, synthetic biology efforts
The study has implications for cancer research, as scientists try to understand how cells avoid errors that promote cancer development. It could also be useful in synthetic biology, where scientists work to make robust mechanisms for synthetic life. (2015-10-29)

Making heads and tails of embryo development: lessons from the humble fly
Proteins usually responsible for the destruction of virally infected or cancerous cells in our immune system have been found to control the release from cells of a critical growth factor governing head and tail development in fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster). This may help explain how these perforin-like proteins function in human brain development and neurodevelopmental disorders such as Autism Spectrum Disorder. (2015-10-28)

Massive screen of drug combinations may find treatment for resistant, BRAF-mutant melanoma
A team of Massachusetts General Hospital investigators has discovered a new combination of drugs that may be effective against one of the deadliest cancers, malignant melanoma. The combination -- pairing a drug targeted against mutations in the BRAF gene with a second drug that targets another important signaling pathway -- was discovered through one of the largest screens of cancer drug combinations conducted to date. (2015-10-26)

TUM scientists identify molecular mechanism behind early flowering
Plants adapt their flowering time to the temperature. But what exactly triggers their flowering at the molecular level? Can this factor switch flowering on or off and thus respond to changes in the climate? In a study published in PLOS Genetics, a team headed by Professor Claus Schwechheimer from Technical University of Munich describes a molecular mechanism with which plants adapt their flowering time and indicate ways in which it can be predicted. (2015-10-23)

From good to bad with a copper switch
They turn into bad prions, but no one knew how. Now a group of SISSA scientists has finally identified the mechanism underlying the pathological transformation of prion proteins: it all depends on a metal, copper, and its bond with the protein. The findings have just been published in Scientific Reports. (2015-10-20)

'The Road to Discovery: A Short History of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory,' just released
For over a century, the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory has been influenced by exceptional personalities, outstanding achievements, and dramatic events. 'The Road to Discovery' captures that history in a lively narrative illuminated by vignettes on the importance of individual scientists and their discoveries. Abundantly documented with material from the Laboratory's archives, it is an accessible book that will appeal to anyone interested in the development of biomedical science and biotechnology through the 20th century to the present day. (2015-10-16)

Study reveals why cancer anemia treatment leads to tumor growth
Scientists have shown why a drug widely used to treat chemotherapy-induced anemia in ovarian and breast cancer patients also may shorten survival times in some patients by inadvertently stimulating tumor growth. (2015-10-15)

Biochemists uncover structure of cellular memory mechanism
Biochemists at The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston Medical School uncover structure of cellular mechanism tied to thought, movement and other bodily functions. (2015-10-14)

A dominant evolutionary theme emerges to better predict clinical outcomes for cancer
In a study published in the early online edition of Molecular Biology and Evolution, authors Han Chen and Xionglei He have used a new computational approach to show that as tumors evolve, no matter what the tissue or cell type, a dominant theme has emerged. Those that are trending toward a more primitive, or embryonic stem cell (ESC) state -- have a worse clinical outcome. (2015-10-13)

Seeing in a new light
Craig Montell's lab has made new discoveries at the cellular and molecular levels about how the eye processes light (2015-10-08)

In the sex lives of male worms in the lab, 1 gene makes a big difference
For tiny nematode worms of the species Caenorhabditis elegans -- males are rare and all but irrelevant in nature. That's because the vast majority of C. elegans individuals are self-fertilizing hermaphrodites. In the laboratory environment, males of the species do turn up with some regularity, and now researchers reporting in Current Biology have discovered natural variation in a single gene produces males with excretory pores that attract the sexual attentions of other males. (2015-10-08)

Newly discovered 'design rule' brings nature-inspired nanostructures one step closer
Scientists aspire to build nanostructures that mimic the complexity and function of nature's proteins, but are made of durable and synthetic materials. These microscopic widgets could be customized into chemical detectors or catalysts. But they must first learn how to finesse the materials they'll use to build these structures. A discovery by Berkeley Lab scientists is a big step in this direction. They discovered a design rule that enables a recently created material to exist. (2015-10-07)

New protein found in immune cells
Researchers of the University of Freiburg have discovered Kidins220/ARMS in B cells. They also determined that it plays a decisive role in the production of antibodies and the formation of B cells, which are a type of white blood cells. Various teams of researchers had already found that Kidins220/ARMS is present in nerve cells and in T cells of the immune system. However, that it is present in B cells was unknown until now. (2015-10-07)

Johns Hopkins biologist leads research shedding light on stem cells
A research team reports progress in understanding the mysterious shape-shifting ways of stem cells, which have vast potential for medical research and disease treatment. (2015-10-07)

Of skin and teeth: Identifying key differences in Asians
Authors Susana Seixas et al., in a new study recently published in the advanced online edition of Molecular Biology and Evolution, have found key differences in a suite of genes important for skin and bone development that may have bestowed specific advantages amongst Asians. (2015-10-06)

New book on neurogenesis from Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press
Written and edited by experts in the field, 'Neurogenesis,' from Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology, provides a state-of-the-art account of the sophisticated neurogenic processes in the adult mammalian brain -- particularly in the hippocampus and olfactory bulb. (2015-10-06)

NUS making waves in the brave new world of synthetic biology
The National University of Singapore launched a new research initiative called the NUS Synthetic Biology for Clinical and Technological Innovation to further develop research capacity and capabilities in the emerging and fast-growing field, which has the potential to be the next engine for economic growth for technologically advanced countries, including Singapore. (2015-10-02)

Endoplasmic reticulum stress plays significant role in type 2 diabetes
A new research report published in the October 2015 issue of the Journal of Leukocyte Biology, suggests that the endoplasmic reticulum plays a more important role in type 2 diabetes and its complications than previously believed. (2015-10-01)

Two NIH grants boost bioinformatics research and development of precision medicine
A pair of major NIH grants will bolster bioinformatics research and strengthen scientists' ability to analyze massive amounts of data. Professor Cathy Wu and colleagues at the University of Delaware's Center for Bioinformatics and Computational Biology hope to further develop the 'Protein Ontology' -- a 'virtual reference library' for proteins -- and advance the development of precision medicine. (2015-10-01)

Oregon researchers tap fruit flies for insights on the symmetry of movement
How do our brains allow us to smile and breathe? University of Oregon scientists have identified a network of neurons in the nerve cords of live fruit fly larvae that are similar in most organisms, including humans. Their discovery provides fundamental insights into how the network carries out essential motor and sensory duties. (2015-10-01)

AACR-NCI-EORTC to host international conference on molecular targets and cancer therapeutics
The American Association for Cancer Research, the National Cancer Institute, and the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer will host their annual International Conference on Molecular Targets and Cancer Therapeutics from Nov. 5-9, at the Hynes Convention Center in Boston. (2015-10-01)

Nanomachines: Pirouetting in the spotlight
Scientists from Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet in Munich have developed a new class of molecular motors that rotate unidirectionally at speeds of up to 1 kHz when exposed to sunlight at room temperature. This unique combination of features opens up novel applications in nano-engineering. (2015-09-29)

Three early career cell biologists win $5,000 ASCB-Gibco Emerging Leaders Prizes
Three early career cell biology researchers at Princeton, UC Berkeley, and Baylor have won the American Society for Cell Biology's first-ever ASCB-Gibco Emerging Leaders Prizes. Each will receive $5,000. (2015-09-24)

US defense agencies increase investment in federal synthetic biology research
A new analysis by the Synthetic Biology Project at the Wilson Center finds the Defense Department and its Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency fund much of the US government's research in synthetic biology, with less than 1 percent of total federal funding going to risk research. (2015-09-16)

Findings could shed light on cancer, aging
Researchers have found molecular evidence of how a biochemical process controls the lengths of protective chromosome tips, a potentially significant step in ultimately understanding cancer growth and aging. (2015-09-14)

New method to treat antibiotic resistant MRSA: Bacteriophages
BYU senior molecular biology major Jacob Hatch knows MRSA as the infection that took his dad's leg. Now Hatch is exacting revenge on the bacteria. Researching alongside assistant professor of microbiology and molecular biology (and brother-in-law) Bradford Berges, Hatch is unlocking the power of a new MRSA-killer: bacteriophage. (2015-09-14)

Sticklebacks urinate differently when nestbuilding
Fish also build nests. Among sticklebacks this is done by the male, requiring so many of his resources that he cannot function normally while at work: he loses his ability to produce urine normally. Now scientists reveal how the hard-working males manage to get rid of surplus fluid from their body. (2015-09-10)

Molecular culprits driving most common form of glaucoma discovered
African Americans are particularly prone to developing the most common form of glaucoma -- a leading cause of blindness -- but how genetics can increase one's risk of getting the disease has been poorly understood. A Molecular Cell study provides the first explanation for how a build-up of pressure within the eye may trigger risk genes to drive retina cell death and vision loss. This insight could lead to a new class of drugs to treat glaucoma. (2015-09-10)

Ant communication: Secrets of the antennae
A Japanese research group has identified chemosensory proteins (CSPs) that play important roles in communications between worker ants. CSPs may represent a starting point for elucidation of the molecular mechanisms involved in the sophisticated system of communication that supports ants' complex societies, and the evolution of these mechanisms. These findings were published in Scientific Reports on Aug. 27. (2015-09-09)

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