Current Motor Neurons News and Events

Current Motor Neurons News and Events, Motor Neurons News Articles.
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ALS neuron damage reversed with new compound
Scientists have identified the first compound that eliminates the ongoing degeneration of upper motor neurons that become diseased and are a key contributor to ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis), a swift and fatal neurodegenerative disease that paralyzes its victims. In ALS, movement-initiating nerve cells in the brain and muscle-controlling nerve cells in the spinal cord die. After administering the new compound,, the diseased brain neurons stopped degenerating so much that they became similar to healthy control neurons after 60 days of treatment. (2021-02-23)

Yale scientists repair injured spinal cord using patients' own stem cells
Intravenous injection of bone marrow derived stem cells (MSCs) in patients with spinal cord injuries led to significant improvement in motor functions, researchers from Yale University and Japan report Feb. 18 in the Journal of Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery. (2021-02-22)

Sleep is vital to associating emotion with memory, according to U-M study
When you slip into sleep, it's easy to imagine that your brain shuts down, but University of Michigan research suggests that groups of neurons activated during prior learning keep humming, tattooing memories into your brain. (2021-02-22)

BU researchers identify biochemical process responsible for producing toxic tau
Tau is a protein that helps stabilize the internal skeleton of nerve cells (neurons) in the brain. Groups of toxic tau protein, termed tau oligomers, drive disease progression and memory loss in Alzheimer's disease (AD). A new study from Boston University School of Medicine (BUSM) shows how these tau oligomers form, and, correspondingly, how they can be prevented. (2021-02-22)

'Walking' molecule superstructures could help create neurons for regenerative medicine
By discovering a new printable biomaterial that can mimic properties of brain tissue, Northwestern University researchers are now closer to developing a platform capable of conditions using regenerative medicine. (2021-02-22)

Making sense of the mass data generated from firing neurons
Scientists reveal technological breakthrough which may help answer key questions about how animals process information and adapt to environmental changes. Researchers at the University of Sussex and University of Kyoto have developed a new framework capable of analysing the masses of data created when studying the thousands of neutrons within an animal's brain. (2021-02-19)

Study reveals how a longevity gene protects brain stem cells from stress
A gene linked to unusually long lifespans in humans protects brain stem cells from the harmful effects of stress, according to a new study by Weill Cornell Medicine investigators. (2021-02-19)

Columbia researchers uncover altered brain connectivity after prolonged anesthesia
A body of evidence supports the association between prolonged anesthesia and cognitive impairment, but the Columbia study is first to address the effect of the procedure on neural connections. (2021-02-17)

Study shows how some neurons compensate for death of their neighbors
By studying several neuron pairs that innervate distinct muscles in a fruit fly model, researchers found that some neurons compensate for the loss of a neighboring partner. (2021-02-17)

Small 'window of opportunity' for best recovery after stroke
An international study has shown, for the first time, that the capacity of the human brain to recover and rewire itself peaks around two weeks after a stroke and diminishes over time. (2021-02-16)

Biodegradable microcapsules deliver nerve growth factor to guide neuronal development
Researchers from Skoltech and their colleagues have demonstrated that nanoengineered biodegradable microcapsules can guide the development of hippocampal neurons in an in vitro experiment. The microcapsules deliver nerve growth factor, a peptide necessary for neuron growth. (2021-02-16)

UTEP professor's study may lead to solutions for overeating
The 10-member team made discoveries about a specific area of the brain tied to recollection and the desire to seek and consume food. It could lead to a way to inhibit the desire to overeat. (2021-02-12)

Study suggests sounds influence the developing brain earlier than previously thought
In experiments in newborn mice, scientists at Johns Hopkins report that sounds appear to change ''wiring'' patterns in areas of the brain that process sound earlier than scientists assumed and even before the ear canal opens. (2021-02-12)

Tiny population of neurons may have big role in depression
Medical College of Georgia scientists and their colleagues report the first evidence that, not short-term stress, like a series of tough college exams, rather chronic, unpredictable stress like that which erupts in our personal and professional lives, induces changes in the function of AgRP neurons that may contribute to depression (2021-02-11)

Cold sores: Discovery reveals how stress, illness and even sunburn trigger flareups
The finding could lead to new ways to prevent cold sores and herpes-related eye disease from reoccurring, the researchers report. (2021-02-11)

Compounds from apples may boost brain function
Natural compounds found in apples and other fruits may help stimulate the production of new brain cells, which may have implications for learning and memory, according to a new study in mice published in Stem Cell Reports. (2021-02-11)

Function identified of 'mystery protein' that kills brain cells of people with Parkinson's
Scientists have made a 'vital step' towards understanding the origins of Parkinson's Disease - the fastest growing neurological condition in the world. A study published in Nature Communications today (Wednesday 10 February) presents a compelling new evidence about what a key protein called alpha-synuclein actually does in neurons in the brain. (2021-02-10)

Where and when is economic decision-making represented in the brain?
Researchers at the University of Tsukuba report two areas of the monkey brain that represent expected value when making economic decisions. Analyses showed that neuronal activity in the VS and the cOFC provided stable representations of expected value, while other regions that are part of the reward network in the brain did not. State-space analysis revealed that the way expected value was represented over time differed in these two areas. (2021-02-10)

Adult neurogenesis may hold clues for more effective treatment of alcoholism
Neuroplasticity, the remarkable ability of the brain to modify and reorganize itself, is affected by or in response to excessive alcohol, whether through individual consumption or exposure in the womb. It is now well accepted that the birth and integration of new neurons continue beyond development and into adulthood. New discoveries and insights on how alcohol impacts this and other plastic processes are discussed in ''Alcohol and Neural Plasticity,'' a special issue of Brain Plasticity. (2021-02-10)

New "molecular" tool helps shed light on individual synapses in brain cells
Optogenetics, or genetically engineering neurons to respond to light, is an important technique for studying how neurons work. However, manipulating individual synapses (gaps between neurons), where signaling transmission occurs, has been challenging until now. Researchers at National Institute of Physiological Sciences, Japan, have now generated a light-activated signaling protein that can help study signaling-related physiological changes in single neurons--a breakthrough that will be valuable for neuroscience. (2021-02-09)

As you look around, mental images bounce between right and left brain
A new study in Neuron explains how the brain helps us remember what we've seen, even as it shifts around in our visual system. That ability--to remember that something is the same thing no matter how it's moving around relative to our eyes--is what gives us the freedom to control where we look. (2021-02-08)

Fetal surgery for spina bifida leads to better mobility in school-age children
Adding to a growing body of research affirming the benefits of fetal surgery for spina bifida, new findings show prenatal repair of the spinal column confers physical gains that extend into childhood. The researchers found that children who had undergone fetal surgery for myelomeningocele, the most severe form of spina bifida, were more likely than those who received postnatal repair to walk independently, go up and down stairs, and perform self-care tasks like using a fork, washing hands and brushing teeth. (2021-02-08)

Link found between time perception, risk for developmental coordination disorder
Neuroscientists at McMaster University have found a link between children who are at risk for developmental coordination disorder (DCD), a common condition that can cause clumsiness, and difficulties with time perception such as interpreting changes in rhythmic beats. (2021-02-05)

Innovation from Vienna: Ultrasound in the treatment of brain diseases
Ultrasound is not only used as an imaging technique but targeted pulses of ultrasound can be used as a highly accurate treatment for a range of brain diseases. A review jointly written by MedUni Vienna and the University of Toronto shows that the new treatments are already on the brink of broad clinical application. (2021-02-04)

Study reveals neurons responsible for rapidly stopping behaviors, actions
For the first time in humans, investigators at Cedars-Sinai have identified the neurons responsible for canceling planned behaviors or actions--a highly adaptive skill that when lost, can lead to unwanted movements. (2021-02-03)

Researchers explore link between 'Alzheimer's gene' and COVID-19
A City of Hope-led research team found that the same gene that increases the risk for Alzheimer's disease, ApoE4, can increase the susceptibility to and severity of COVID-19. ''Our study provides a causal link between the Alzheimer's disease risk factor ApoE4 and COVID-19 and explains why some (e.g., ApoE4 carriers) but not all COVID-19 patients exhibit neurological manifestations'' said City of Hope's Yanhong Shi, Ph.D., co-corresponding author of the Cell Stem Cell study. (2021-02-03)

Unraveling the mystery of Gao, a protein implicated in movement disorders
Scientists at Scripps Research have clarified the workings of a mysterious protein called Gao, which is one of the most abundant proteins in the brain and, when mutated, causes severe movement disorders. (2021-02-02)

A study reveals that the brain distributes sensory information highly efficiently
Extracting information from a small fraction of neurons, according to a study published in Nature Communications, involving Rubén Moreno-Bote, a researcher at the Center for Brain and Cognition, together with researchers from the University of Zaragoza and the University of the Basque Country, led by Harvard University (USA). (2021-02-01)

Researchers describe a molecular mechanism involved in the pathology's neurodegeneration
Protein alteration in the family of lamins causes several diseases, known as laminopathies, such as progeria or precocious ageing. A study in which UB researchers have taken part states that alterations in the levels of one of these proteins, lamin B1, contribute to the degeneration of neuronal populations in Huntington's disease. Caused by a mutation in the huntingtin gen, this pathology features involuntary movements, cognitive deficit and psychiatric disorders, and has no cure yet. (2021-02-01)

Imaging zebrafish movements in 3D to better understand ALS disease
An interdisciplinary team of the Institut national de la recherche scientifique (INRS) used an innovative imaging technique for a better understanding of motor deficits in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). The researchers were able to follow the escape behaviour of normal and disease zebrafish models, in 3D. Their results have recently been published in Optica, the flagship journal of the Optical Society (OSA). (2021-01-29)

Childhood trauma could affect development, treatment of multiple sclerosis
Childhood trauma could affect the trajectory of multiple sclerosis development and response to treatment in adulthood, a new study in mice found. Mice that had experienced stress when young were more likely to develop the autoimmune disorder and less likely to respond to a common treatment, researchers at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign found. However, treatment that activated an immune-cell receptor mitigated the effects of childhood stress in the mice. (2021-01-29)

Scientists solve long-standing mystery by a whisker
A team of neuroscientists at the University of California, Riverside, has experimented on mice to identify the brain region that functions beyond sensory encoding and motor encoding, potentially opening up new directions to studying the cellular and circuit mechanisms of sensory-motor transformations. The researchers report a cortical region traditionally defined as whisker motor cortex in mice is most directly related to the transformation process. (2021-01-29)

Newly licensed autistic drivers crash less than other young drivers
A collaborative study found that compared with their non-autistic peers, young autistic drivers have lower rates of moving violations and license suspensions, as well as similar to lower crash rates. (2021-01-28)

Scientists identify individual neurons responsible for complex social reasoning in humans
Until now, how neurons represent another individual's belief and thoughts was unknown. Prior to undergoing planned neurosurgery, patients agreed to perform brief behavioral tasks as neuroscientists recorded the activity of individual neurons. The study revealed the basic cellular mechanism involved in a fundamental cognitive process vital to successful social interactions. Now researchers have a framework to investigate disorders in which social behavior is affected. (2021-01-27)

A NEAT reduction of complex neuronal models accelerates brain research
Unlike their simple counterparts in artificial intelligence (AI) applications, neurons in the brain use dendrites - their intricate tree-like branches - to find relevant chunks of information. Now, neuroscientists from the University of Bern have discovered a new computational method to make complex dendrite models much simpler. These faithful reductions may lead AI applications to process information much like the brain does. (2021-01-27)

In a tight spot
A newly discovered circuit helps fish to prioritize. (2021-01-27)

Parkinson's disease risk and severity is tied to a channel in cells' 'recycling centers
Genetic variations associated with both increases and reductions in risk of the neurodegenerative disease alter the action of ion channels within cellular organelles called lysosomes, a new Penn study finds. (2021-01-27)

At three days old, newborn mice remember their moms
For mice, the earliest social memories can form at three days old and last into adulthood, scientists report on January 26 in the journal Cell Reports. They show that mouse pups prefer their mothers to unfamiliar mouse mothers as newborns and remember them after up to 100 days apart--although they prefer unfamiliar mouse mothers as adults. (2021-01-26)

Epilepsy research focused on astrocytes
A significant number of epilepsy patients does not respond to currently available drugs. A collaboration between researchers in Japan and at the Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf (HHU) now addressed a cell type in the brain that has so far not received much attention in epilepsy therapy. In the current edition of the Journal of Neuroscience, they describe that astrocytes might be a potential new target to better treat this disease. (2021-01-25)

Watching decision making in the brain
A team of neuroscientists and engineers have developed a system that can show the neural process of decision making in real time, including the mental process of flipping between options before expressing a final choice. (2021-01-25)

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