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Current Motor Neurons News and Events, Motor Neurons News Articles.
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Study: Sizzling Southwest summers can cause pavement burns in seconds
When temperatures in the Southwestern US climb to over 100 degrees, the pavement can get hot enough to cause second-degree burns in seconds. In a new study, a team of UNLV School of Medicine surgeons reviewed pavement burn admissions into a Las Vegas area burn center over five years. The team compared the outdoor temperatures at the time of each patient admission to, in essence, determine how hot is too hot. (2019-07-26)

Brain region linked to altered social interactions in autism model
Neuroscientists identify brain region linked to altered social interactions autism model. Restoring activity of a specific forebrain region also reversed social traits associated with autism. (2019-07-26)

Physics of life: Motor proteins and membrane dynamics
Motility is an essential property of many cell types, and is driven by molecular motors. A Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU)in M has now discovered that the motor protein myosin VI contributes directly to the deformation of the cell membrane, as required for locomotion or endocytosis. (2019-07-25)

How neuromuscular connections are maintained after nerve lesions
After nerve injury, the protein complex mTORC1 takes over an important function in skeletal muscle to maintain the neuromuscular junction, the synapse between the nerve and muscle fiber. Researchers at the University of Basel's Biozentrum have now shown that the activation of mTORC1 must be tightly balanced for a proper response of the muscle to nerve injury. The study published in «Nature Communications» opens new insights into muscle weakness related to neuromuscular diseases or caused by ageing. (2019-07-25)

Researchers discover the science behind giving up
Findings, reported July 25 in Cell, offer new insight into the complex world of motivation and reward by discovering the science behind giving up. The study is among the first to describe the effects of the complex nociception modulatory system. The researchers said this discovery could lead to helping people find motivation when they are depressed and conversely decrease motivation for drugs in substance abuse disorders, like addiction. (2019-07-25)

One or the other: Why strength training might come at the expense of endurance muscles
The neurotransmitter brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) acts in the muscle, so that during strength training endurance muscle fiber number is decreased. Researchers at the University of Basel's Biozentrum have more closely investigated this factor, from the group of myokines, and demonstrated that it is produced by the muscle and acts on both muscles and synapses. The results published in PNAS also provide new insights into age-related muscle atrophy. (2019-07-25)

Study shows stimulation of the ear can help manage Parkinson's symptoms
This study shows stimulation of the ear can help manage Parkinson's symptoms. (2019-07-24)

Decoding the causes of motor neuron disease: A new study shows the impact of genetics
Researchers from Trinity College Dublin have conducted the largest ever study involving 1117 people diagnosed with motor neurone disease to address the question of ''nature versus nurture'' in the causes of MND. The team from the Trinity MND Research Group found that one in 347 men and one in 436 women can be expected to develop motor neurone disease (MND) during their lifetime. Their research has been published in the American medical journal JAMA Neurology. (2019-07-24)

Molecule reduces accumulation of toxic protein in Parkinson's disease model
The discovery supports GM1 ganglioside as a potential target for Parkinson's therapy. (2019-07-24)

What do dragonflies teach us about missile defense?
Research at Sandia National Laboratories is examining whether dragonfly-inspired computing could improve missile defense systems, which have the similar task of intercepting an object in flight, by making on-board computers smaller without sacrificing speed or accuracy. (2019-07-24)

Hidden dynamics detected in neuronal networks
Neuronal networks in the brain can process information particularly well when they are close to a critical. However, experimental investigations of brain activity revealed much fewer indicators of such critical states than expected. Scientists from Forschungszentrum Jülich and RWTH Aachen University have now proposed a possible explanation. They showed that neuronal networks can assume a second, previously unknown critical mode whose hidden dynamics are almost impossible to measure with conventional methods. (2019-07-23)

How do brains remember decisions?
Mammal brains -- including those of humans -- store and recall impressive amounts of information based on our good and bad decisions and interactions in an ever-changing world. Now, in a series of new experiments with mice, scientists at Johns Hopkins Medicine report they have added to evidence that such 'decision-based' memories are stored in very particular parts of the brain. (2019-07-23)

Study looks at stem cells for answers to how a type of autism develops
The lab of Yongchao Ma, Ph.D., from Stanley Manne Children's Research Institute at Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago, discovered how the genetic defect in fragile X syndrome -- a type of autism -- delays production of neurons (nerve cells) at a critical time in the embryo's brain development. (2019-07-23)

UTSA reduces seizures by removing newborn neurons
Epileptic seizures happen in one of every 10 people who have experienced a traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, new research at The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA) has uncovered an innovative approach to possibly slow the progression of epilepsy. Researchers at UTSA have successfully removed new neurons that have developed after a brain injury to reduce seizures in mice. They believe that the technique could potentially reduce post-injury epilepsy. (2019-07-22)

Fruit flies find their way by setting navigational goals
Navigating fruit flies do not have the luxury of GPS, but they do have a kind of neural compass. In a new study, researchers found that the animals decide which way to turn by comparing this internal compass needle to a fixed goal. (2019-07-22)

Gut microbes may affect the course of ALS
Researchers isolated a molecule that may be under-produced in the guts of patients. (2019-07-22)

Hypothalamus pathway drives defense behaviors
Scientists have identified a previously unknown pathway connecting the hypothalamus and midbrain that drives defensive behaviors, according to research in mice published in eNeuro. Further research on this pathway could increase understanding of anxiety disorders. (2019-07-22)

Boosting the discovery of new drugs to treat spinal cord injuries using zebrafish
A research team led by Leonor Saúde, Principal Investigator at Instituto de Medicina Molecular, in partnership with the company Technophage, SA, has designed a simple and efficient platform that uses zebrafish to discover and identify new drugs to treat spinal cord lesions. This study, published today in Scientific Reports, is the proof-of-concept for the use of this zebrafish platform that, combined with drug repurposing, has the potential to accelerate the translation period from the discovery to the clinics. (2019-07-19)

Taking out the protein garbage becomes more difficult as neurons age
As cells age, their ability to shed harmful refuse declines. New research suggests that the deterioration of autophagy in aged neurons could be a risk factor for a suite of neurodegenerative diseases such as ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis), Alzheimer's, and Parkinson's. (2019-07-19)

Identification of autophagy gene regulation mechanism related to dementia and Lou Gehrig's disease
An international Research Team led by Dr. Jeong Yoon-ha at Korea Brain Research Institute has published the results of its research in 'Autophagy'. Expected to develop the treatment for neurodegenerative disease utilizing TDP-43 protein. (2019-07-18)

Brown neuroscientists discover neuron type that acts as brain's metronome
By measuring the fast electrical spikes of individual neurons in the touch region of the brain, Brown University neuroscientists have discovered a new type of cell that keeps time so regularly that it may serve as the brain's long-hypothesized clock or metronome. (2019-07-18)

How mammals' brains evolved to distinguish odors is nothing to sniff at
Neuroscientists from the Salk Institute and UC San Diego have discovered that at least six types of mammals--from mice to cats--distinguish odors in roughly the same way, using circuitry in the brain that's evolutionarily preserved across species. (2019-07-18)

Stanford team stimulates neurons to induce particular perceptions in mice's minds
Hallucinations are spooky and, fortunately, fairly rare. But, a new study suggests, the real question isn't so much why some people occasionally experience them. It's why all of us aren't hallucinating all the time. (2019-07-18)

Parkinson's: New study associates oxidative stress with the spreading of aberrant proteins
Oxidative stress could be a driving force in the spreading of aberrant proteins involved in Parkinson's disease. This is the result of lab studies by researchers of the German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE). The findings are published in the 'Journal of Clinical Investigation'. (2019-07-17)

Study pinpoints cell types affected in brains of multiple sclerosis patients
Scientists have discovered that a specific brain cell known as a 'projection neuron' has a central role to play in the brain changes seen in multiple sclerosis (MS). The research, published today in Nature, shows that projection neurons are damaged by the body's own immune cells, and that this damage could underpin the brain shrinkage and cognitive changes associated with MS. These new findings provide a platform for specific new MS therapies that target damaged brain cells to be developed. (2019-07-17)

Can gut infection trigger Parkinson's disease?
Results suggest some forms of PD are an autoimmune disease triggered years before noticeable symptoms. (2019-07-17)

A new spin on DNA
For decades, researchers have chased ways to study biological machines. Every mechanical movement--from contracting a muscle to replicating DNA--relies on molecular motors that take near-undetectable steps. Trying to see them move is like trying to watch a soccer game taking place on the moon. Now, with DNA origami helicopters, researchers have captured the first recorded rotational steps of a molecular motor as it moved from one DNA base pair to another. (2019-07-17)

Antioxidant precursor molecule could improve Parkinson's
The naturally occurring molecule N-acetylcysteine (NAC) shows benefit in a clinical trial for Parkinson's Disease. (2019-07-16)

Electronic chip mimics the brain to make memories in a flash
Engineers have mimicked the human brain with an electronic chip that uses light to create and modify memories. (2019-07-16)

Differences in MS patients' cerebrospinal fluid may be key to drugs that halt progression
Effective therapies exist for managing relapsing/remitting MS, but treatment for progressive MS has proved more challenging. Now, a new paper published in the journal Brain from researchers at the Advanced Science Research Center (ASRC) at The Graduate Center, CUNY and Friedman Brain Institute at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai has identified potential mechanisms that may inform the development of therapies that effectively manage progressive MS. (2019-07-15)

How expectation influences perception
MIT neuroscientists have identified distinctive patterns of neural activity that encode prior beliefs and help the brain make sense of uncertain signals coming from the outside world. For the first time, they showed that prior beliefs exert their effect on behavior by warping the representation of sensory events in the brain. (2019-07-15)

Reducing seizures by removing newborn neurons
Removing new neurons born after a brain injury reduces seizures in mice, according to new research in JNeurosci. This approach could potentially help prevent post-injury epilepsy. (2019-07-15)

Defective potassium channels cause headache, not body pain
Defective potassium channels involved in pain detection can increase the chance of developing a headache and could be implicated in migraines, according to research in mice published in eNeuro. (2019-07-15)

Researchers describe new ALS biomarkers, potential new drug targets
Researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago have described unique populations of neurons and associated cells in the spinal cords of patients who died of ALS. (2019-07-15)

Marathon-running molecule could speed up the race for new neurological treatments
Scientists at the University of Warwick have discovered a new process that sets the fastest molecular motor on its marathon-like runs through our neurons. (2019-07-12)

An itch to scratch: NCATS, NIDCR scientists identify potential approach to chronic problem
While scientists have some clues to the causes of troubling chronic itch, effective therapies have been elusive. Now, by sorting through more than 86,000 compounds at the same time, National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences researchers and their colleagues report a new strategy that may eventually help alleviate chronic itch. They've shown that blocking a receptor, or docking station, found on the surface of both mouse and human spinal cord neurons could be key. (2019-07-12)

Area of brain linked to spatial awareness and planning also plays role in decision making
New research by neuroscientists at the University of Chicago shows that the posterior parietal cortex (PPC), an area of the brain often associated with planning movements and spatial awareness, also plays a crucial role in making decisions about images in the field of view. (2019-07-11)

Temple researchers: Sorting protein in neurons defends against neurodegenerative disease
Like a sorting machine in an assembly line, a molecule known as VPS35 detects and removes defective proteins from neurons. And similar to other quality control processes, the VPS35 system goes a long way toward protecting health, according to new work by Temple researchers. They show for the first time that VPS35 clears the brain of a potentially harmful protein called tau, which otherwise accumulates and contributes to neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease. (2019-07-09)

Linking phenotypes to genotypes: A newly devised gene-editing strategy
Taniguchi and colleagues developed a new methodology that allows the study of CRISPR-mediated effects in cells while accurately ascertaining the exact DNA changes that caused them. This novel protocol is opening up new avenues of study for neurobiology and further upgrade the already powerful abilities of CRISPR-based techniques. (2019-07-09)

Food and alcohol reduce activity in 'hunger neurons' via different brain pathways
How does the brain process rewards? Researchers at the University of Pennsylvania are investigating how the brain responds differently to two commonly ingested rewards -- food and alcohol -- to understand how they alter neural activity and behavior. Their findings were presented this week in Utrecht, Netherlands at the 2019 Annual Meeting of the Society for the Study of Ingestive Behavior (SSIB), one of the leading venues for research on eating and drinking. (2019-07-09)

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