Current Multiple Sclerosis News and Events

Current Multiple Sclerosis News and Events, Multiple Sclerosis News Articles.
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ALS neuron damage reversed with new compound
Scientists have identified the first compound that eliminates the ongoing degeneration of upper motor neurons that become diseased and are a key contributor to ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis), a swift and fatal neurodegenerative disease that paralyzes its victims. In ALS, movement-initiating nerve cells in the brain and muscle-controlling nerve cells in the spinal cord die. After administering the new compound,, the diseased brain neurons stopped degenerating so much that they became similar to healthy control neurons after 60 days of treatment. (2021-02-23)

Researchers find evidence of protein folding at site of intracellular droplets
Researchers at the University of Notre Dame found that elevated concentrations of proteins within the droplets triggered a folding event, increasing the potential for protein aggregation -- or misfolding -- which has been linked to neurological diseases including Alzheimer's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). (2021-02-19)

Mimicking a chronic immune response changes the brain
Abnormal production of Inflammatory cytokines by the immune system is responsible for a host of autoimmune disorders. One important cytokine is IL-17A, which is also involved in neurological diseases. Researchers at Tsukuba University in Japan made a mouse model of chronically high IL-17A and to study its effect on the brain. They show that it leads to reduced activity and density of microglia in the brain's hippocampus, but no obvious memory deficits. (2021-02-17)

COVID-19 associated with leukoencephalopathy on brain MRI
According to an open-access article in ARRS' American Journal of Roentgenology (AJR), COVID-19-related disseminated leukoencephalopathy (CRDL) represents an important--albeit uncommon--differential consideration in patients with neurologic manifestations of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). (2021-02-17)

Metabolic response behind reduced cancer cell growth
Researchers from Uppsala University show in a new study that inhibition of the protein EZH2 can reduce the growth of cancer cells in the blood cancer multiple myeloma. The reduction is caused by changes in the cancer cells' metabolism. These changes can be used as markers to discriminate whether a patient would respond to treatment by EZH2 inhibition. The study has been published in the journal Cell Death & Disease. (2021-02-12)

TalTech scientists developed novel immune diagnostics of multiple sclerosis
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common neurological disease in young adults, affecting more than 2 million individuals worldwide, with about 1500 cases in Estonia. About 20% of MS patients experience optic neuritis (ON) as the presenting symptom, but not all ON patients develop MS. (2021-02-11)

Substance in the blood of pregnant women fights pathological immune reaction
Scientists studied the effect of trophoblastic β1-glycoprotein in the blood of pregnant women on pro-inflammatory immune cells. Thanks to trophoblastic β1-glycoprotein, a woman's body does not adversely react to the fetus and supports its normal development until birth. It turned out that trophoblastic β1-glycoproteins also suppressed the development of pro-inflammatory lymphocytes and reduced their activity. (2021-02-10)

Innovation from Vienna: Ultrasound in the treatment of brain diseases
Ultrasound is not only used as an imaging technique but targeted pulses of ultrasound can be used as a highly accurate treatment for a range of brain diseases. A review jointly written by MedUni Vienna and the University of Toronto shows that the new treatments are already on the brink of broad clinical application. (2021-02-04)

Solving a puzzle
University of New Mexico scientists tease out the underlying mechanism of tuberous sclerosis complex (2021-02-03)

Could playing host to hookworms help prevent ageing?
Parasitic worms could hold the key to living longer and free of chronic disease, according to a review article published today in the open-access eLife journal. (2021-02-02)

Remyelinating drug could improve vision in patients with multiple sclerosis
A team led by a biomedical scientist at the University of California, Riverside, reports a drug -- an estrogen receptor ligand called indazole chloride (IndCl) -- has the potential to improve vision in patients with multiple sclerosis, or MS. The study, performed on mice induced with a model of MS and the first to investigate IndCl's effect on the pathology and function of the complete afferent visual pathway, is published in Brain Pathology. (2021-02-02)

Childhood trauma could affect development, treatment of multiple sclerosis
Childhood trauma could affect the trajectory of multiple sclerosis development and response to treatment in adulthood, a new study in mice found. Mice that had experienced stress when young were more likely to develop the autoimmune disorder and less likely to respond to a common treatment, researchers at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign found. However, treatment that activated an immune-cell receptor mitigated the effects of childhood stress in the mice. (2021-01-29)

Scientists find key function of molecule in cells crucial for regulating immunity
UNC School of Medicine scientists led by Jenny Ting, PhD, the William Kenan Distinguished Professor of Genetics, and Yisong Wan, PhD, professor of microbiology and immunology, discovered that AIM2 is important for the proper function of regulatory T cells, or Treg cells, and plays a key role in mitigating autoimmune disease. Treg cells are a seminal population of adaptive immune cells that prevents an overzealous immune response, such as those that occurs in autoimmune diseases. (2021-01-28)

How does the immune system keep tabs on the brain?
Researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have found that immune cells stationed in the meninges, the tissue that covers the brain and spinal cord, monitor the brain and initiate an immune response if they detect a problem. (2021-01-27)

Multiple sclerosis: Immune cells silence neurons by removing synapses
Damage to the brain gray matter plays an important role in the progression of multiple sclerosis. This study now shows that such damage can be caused by inflammatory reactions that lead to loss of synapses, which impairs neural activity. (2021-01-26)

A new mechanism protects against cancer cell migration and neuron hyperexcitability
G3BP proteins inhibit the metabolic driver MTOR - a signaling protein that plays a central role in tumor diseases and developmental disorders of the brain. This is reported in this week´s issue of the renowned journal Cell. The study was led by scientists from the University of Innsbruck and the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) in collaboration with the Medical University of Innsbruck and a Europe-wide research network. (2021-01-25)

Hematopoietic stem cell transplants may provide long-term benefit for people with MS
A new study shows that intense immunosuppression followed by a hematopoietic stem cell transplant may prevent disability associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) from getting worse in 71% of people with relapsing-remitting MS for up to 10 years after the treatment. The research is published in the January 20, 2021, online issue of Neurology®, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology. The study also found that in some people their disability improved over 10 years after treatment. (2021-01-20)

Study finds COVID-19 attack on brain, not lungs, triggers severe disease in mice
Georgia State University biology researchers have found that infecting the nasal passages of mice with the virus that causes COVID-19 led to a rapid, escalating attack on the brain that triggered severe illness, even after the lungs were successfully clearing themselves of the virus. (2021-01-19)

Fatty acid may help combat multiple sclerosis
The abnormal immune system response that causes multiple sclerosis (MS) by attacking and damaging the central nervous system can be triggered by the lack of a specific fatty acid in fat tissue, according to a new Yale study. The finding suggests that dietary change might help treat some people with the autoimmune disease. (2021-01-19)

T cells linked to myelin implicated in MS-like disease in monkeys
Scientists have uncovered new clues implicating a type of herpes virus as the cause of a central nervous system disease in monkeys that's similar to multiple sclerosis in people. By linking two specific T cells to the loss of myelin, scientists say the new study opens the possibility of developing an antiviral therapy that could be especially useful for newly diagnosed cases of multiple sclerosis. (2021-01-15)

New molecular structures associated with ALS
Researchers from the University of Seville and the University of Pavia have identified a link between Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and the accumulation of DNA-RNA hybrids in the genome. The accumulation of these hybrids causes increased genomic damage and boosts genetic instability. This finding will make it possible to better understand the molecular basis of the disease, as well as to propose new solutions to curb it. (2021-01-13)

Study suggests compound protects myelin, nerve fibers
A compound developed at Oregon Health & Science University appears to protect nerve fibers and the fatty sheath, called myelin, that covers nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord. The new research in a mouse model advances earlier work to develop the compound - known as sobetirome - that has already showed promise in stimulating the repair of myelin. (2021-01-13)

Gene therapy strategy found effective in mouse model of hereditary disease TSC
Patients with a genetic disorder called tuberous sclerosis complex have noncancerous tumors growing in numerous organs, and their treatment options are limited. A gene therapy strategy effectively treated mice that express one of the mutated genes that cause the disease. (2021-01-08)

Autoimmune diseases: similar molecular signatures in target tissues
A study conducted by Professor Decio L. Eizirik's group - ULB Center for Diabetes Research - and published in Sciences Advances shows that autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes, must be studied in their entirety, taking into account not only the immune system but also the target tissues. Indeed, the key mechanisms induced by inflammation, potentially shared between type 1 diabetes, systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis, could generate similar molecular signatures at the target tissue level. (2021-01-07)

Treating an autoimmune disease in mice with an mRNA vaccine
Christina Krienke and colleagues have designed an mRNA vaccine that delayed the onset of and reduced the severity of multiple sclerosis-like disease in mice. (2021-01-07)

A new approach to study autoimmune diseases
A team of researchers led by the Indiana Biosciences Research Institute Diabetes Center's Scientific Director Decio L. Eizirik, MD, PhD, has found that identifying new treatments for autoimmune diseases requires studying together the immune system AND target tissues. This study, ''Gene expression signatures of target tissues in type 1 diabetes, lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis,'' is featured in the Jan. 6, 2021, edition of Science Advances. (2021-01-06)

People in rural areas less likely to receive specialty care for neurologic conditions
A new study has found that while the prevalence of neurologic conditions like dementia, stroke, Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis (MS) is consistent across the U.S., the distribution of neurologists is not, and people in more rural areas may be less likely to receive specialty care for certain neurologic conditions. The study, funded by the American Academy of Neurology, is published in the December 23, 2020, online issue of Neurology®, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology. (2020-12-23)

Potential preventative treatment demonstrated for Crohn's disease
A potential preventive treatment for Crohn's disease, a form of inflammatory bowel disease, has been demonstrated in a mouse model and using immune-reactive T cells from patients with Crohn's disease. (2020-12-21)

Researchers explore why some MS patients experience seizures
A research team at the UC Riverside School of Medicine has identified a pathway involving astrocytes, a class of central nervous system support cells, that could shed light on why seizures happen in a subset of multiple sclerosis, or MS, patients. The finding improves scientific understanding of how seizures arise in MS and could provide the foundation for better therapies to manage treatment-resistant seizures in MS and other brain diseases. (2020-12-21)

Protein linked to progressive lung scarring in scleroderma patients
Osteopontin is discovered as the culprit behind systemic sclerosis patients' main cause of death: lung fibrosis. However, a repurposed immunosuppressive drug may combat the pro-inflammatory protein. (2020-12-17)

Traffic light system helps reduce clinical uncertainty, improve treatment decisions
A new study has found one in four clinical decisions made by physicians falls short of best practices, but when physicians reviewed a simple traffic light system prior to making a clinical decision, uncertainty was reduced by 70 per cent and treatment decisions improved. (2020-12-16)

NIH researchers link cases of ALS and FTD to a Huntington's disease-associated mutation
A study led by researchers at the National Institutes of Health has made a surprising connection between frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), two disorders of the nervous system, and the genetic mutation normally understood to cause Huntington's disease. This large, international project, which included a collaboration between the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) and the National Institute on Aging (NIA), opens a potentially new avenue for diagnosing and treating some individuals with FTD or ALS. (2020-12-04)

Lung tissue from COVID-19 patients and others reveals promising target to treat lung fibrosis
An analysis of lung tissues from patients with different types of pulmonary fibrosis - including cases triggered by COVID-19 - has revealed a promising molecular target to ameliorate the chronic and irreversible disease. Experiments in mouse models of lung fibrosis showed that administering blockers of (2020-12-04)

Multi-center, multi-tracer PET studies harmonized to detect neuroinflammation in ALS
A novel ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) study has pooled data from multiple sites to effectively visualize neuroinflammation, which is key to developing drugs to treat the disease. Pooling data acquired from different scanners, different neuroinflammation positron emission tomography (PET) markers and different sites enhanced researchers' ability to detect neuroinflammation in ALS patients. This research was published in the November issue of The Journal of Nuclear Medicine. (2020-12-01)

Gut-brain axis influences multiple sclerosis
A Basel-led international research team has discovered a connection between the intestinal flora and sites of inflammation in the central nervous system in multiple sclerosis. A specific class of immune cell plays a central role in this newly identified gut-brain axis. The discovery could pave the way for new treatments for MS that target the intestinal flora. (2020-11-20)

Gut immune cells may help send MS into remission
An international research team led by UCSF scientists has shown, for the first time, that gut immune cells travel to the brain during multiple sclerosis (MS) flare-ups in patients. These gut cells seem to be playing a protective role, helping drive MS symptoms back into remission. (2020-11-20)

Smartphone use offers tool to treat MS, other diseases
Monitoring how patients with multiple sclerosis or other degenerative diseases use their smartphones could provide valuable information to help get them better treatment. In the journal Chaos, researchers used an app to record the keystroke dynamics of a control group and those of subjects in various stages of MS treatment. In doing so, they observed changes in the way people with MS typed that were not seen in subjects who did not have the disease. (2020-11-17)

New ALS guideline establishes national standard for managing neurodegenerative disease
The first Canadian guideline for the care and management of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) -- Lou Gehrig's disease -- recommends a patient-focused approach, with attention to holistic and emotional aspects of well-being. The guideline, published in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal) http://www.cmaj.ca/lookup/doi/10.1503/cmaj.191721, is intended for ALS clinicians, allied health professionals and primary care providers, and contains an easy-to-reference table with comprehensive recommendations. (2020-11-16)

Promising MS drug may worsen disease, research suggests
The drug has not yet made it to human trials for multiple sclerosis, but scientists at the University of Virginia School of Medicine are urging their colleagues to move cautiously. (2020-11-13)

Researchers generate a brain cell type crucial to support neural activity
Researchers of the Department of Cellular Biology, Genetics and Physiology of the University of Malaga (UMA) have succeeded in generating human OLs from pluripotent stem cells derived from patients with nervous system diseases, specifically multiple sclerosis or ALS. (2020-11-12)

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