Current Myosin News and Events

Current Myosin News and Events, Myosin News Articles.
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Research breaks new ground in understanding how a molecular motor generates force
A team of biophysicists set out to tackle the long-standing question about the nature of force generation by myosin, the molecular motor responsible for muscle contraction. The key question they addressed - one of the most controversial topics in the field - was: how does myosin convert chemical energy, in the form of ATP, into mechanical work? The answer revealed new details into how myosin, the engine of muscle and related motor proteins, transduces energy. (2021-01-14)

Visualisation reveals how a protein 'hunkers down' to conserve energy
A visualisation made from nearly 100,000 electron microscope images has revealed the ingenious way a protein involved in muscle activity shuts itself down to conserve energy. The protein is called myosin and it is known as a molecular motor because of the way it interacts with other proteins and energy molecules to generate force and movement. It is found inside muscle fibres where it forms long myosin filaments made up of hundreds of individual myosin molecules. (2020-12-02)

Light-controlled nanomachine controls catalysis
The vision of the future of miniaturisation has produced a series of synthetic molecular motors that are driven by a range of energy sources and can carry out various movements. A research group at FAU has now managed to control a catalysis reaction using a light-controlled motor. (2020-11-20)

A change of heart -- new drug for HCM reduces heart mass
For the first time, a medication has impacted heart muscle thickness and function for patients with the most common inherited heart condition, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, rather than simply addressing their symptoms. (2020-11-16)

New medicine reduced risk for heart failure emergencies, hospital visits
Results from a large, Phase 3, global, cardiovascular outcomes study indicate a new medication may reduce the risk for heart failure-related events or cardiovascular deaths in people with chronic heart failure. (2020-11-13)

Study reinforces drug's potential to treat hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
WSU research sheds new light on a molecule that may be used to treat heart conditions that can lead to stroke, heart attack and other forms of heart disease. (2020-10-27)

Why can our brains learn and memorize?
The long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) of hippocampal excitatory synapse involved in learning and memory formation in brain have been separately explained, but the molecular mechanism has not been elucidated. The group focused on the competition of exocytosis and endocytosis of AMPA-type glutamate receptors dependent on the number of calcium ions that flow into the postsynaptic neurons, and demonstrated the comprehensive understanding of the LTP and LTD by a large-scale mathematical model simulation. (2020-10-21)

New dimensions in the treatment of muscle spasticity after stroke and nervous system defects
Chronic muscle spasticity after nervous system defects like stroke, traumatic brain and spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis and painful low back pain affect more than 10% of the population, with a socioeconomic cost of about 500 billion USD. Currently, there is no satisfying remedy to help these suffering people, which generates an immense medical need for a new generation antispastic drug. Drug candidate MPH-220 could mean new hope for millions of patients suffering from spasticity. (2020-10-16)

How deadly parasites 'glide' into human cells
A group of scientists led by EMBL Hamburg's Christian Löw provide insights into the molecular structure of proteins involved in the gliding movements through which the parasites causing malaria and toxoplasmosis invade human cells. (2020-10-13)

Scientists shed new light on mechanisms of malaria parasite motility
New insight on the molecular mechanisms that allow malaria parasites to move and spread disease within their hosts has been published today in the open-access eLife journal. (2020-10-13)

Anschutz researchers overturn hypothesis underlying the sensitivity of the mammalian auditory system
A new study from the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus challenges a decades-old hypothesis on adaptation, a key feature in how sensory cells of the inner ear (hair cells) detect sound. (2020-08-14)

Success in promoting plant growth for biodiesel
Scientists of Waseda University in Japan succeeded in promoting plant growth and increasing seed yield by heterologous expression of protein from Arabidopsis (artificially modified high-speed motor protein) in Camelina sativa, which is expected as a useful plant for biodiesel. The study is expected to apply to other plant resources for biodiesel, such as corn, rice, and sugar cane. (2020-08-07)

Talbot helps ID muscle gene that, when altered, causes joint disease
Jared Talbot is part of a 32-member international research team that identified a gene that, when altered, can cause bent fingers and toes, clubfoot, scoliosis, and short stature. The team discovered that partial loss of the protein coding gene MYLPF (myosin light chain, phosphorylatable, fast skeletal muscle) results in a disorder called distal arthrogryposis (DA) that's present at birth. (2020-07-29)

UMass Amherst team makes artificial energy source for muscle
Muscle physiologist Ned Debold and colleagues at UMass Amherst sought an alternative energy source to replace the body's usual one, adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Such a source could control muscle activity, and might lead to new muscle spasm-calming treatments in cerebral palsy, for example, or activate or enhance skeletal muscle function in MS, ALS and chronic heart failure. They report this month that they have made a series of synthetic compounds to serve as alternative energy sources for the muscle protein myosin. (2020-07-13)

The tug-of-war at the heart of cellular symmetry
Researchers develop an artificial cell that brings to light the dynamics that govern each cell's internal symmetry. Two coexisting actomyosin networks with opposing functions exists in cells: a ring-like centripetal actomyosin that pushes toward the center, and radially-formed bulk actomyosin bridges that pull to the edges. (2020-06-25)

Fantastic muscle proteins and where to find them
Setting out to identify all proteins that make up the sarcomere, the basic contractile unit of muscle cells, resulted in an unexpected revelation, providing experimental evidence that helps explain a fundamental mystery about how muscles work. The research was published in Nature Communications. (2020-06-19)

Essential key to hearing sensitivity discovered
New research is shedding light on the biological architecture that lets us hear -- and on a genetic disorder that causes both deafness and blindness. (2020-05-26)

Enhancement of bitter taste sensor reduces salt intake and improves cardiovascular dysfunction
Researchers from China for the first time found long-term high salt intake blunted the TRPM5-mediated aversive behavior to high salt concentrations, consequently promoting high salt intake and hypertension. Moreover, they also found that activation of TRPM5 by bitter melon extract ameliorates high salt-induced cardiovascular dysfunction. (2020-05-15)

Cell muscle movements visualised for first time
The movements of cell muscles in the form of tiny filaments of proteins have been visualised at unprecedented detail by University of Warwick scientists. (2020-04-06)

Ex­tra­cel­lu­lar forces help epi­thelial cells stick to­gether
Defects in the maintenance of the superficial tissue of the body, known as epithelial tissue, can help cancer cells achieve motility and metastasise. (2020-04-02)

Muscle protein abundant in the heart plays key role in blood clotting during heart attack
A prevalent heart protein known as cardiac myosin, which is released into the body when a person suffers a heart attack, can cause blood to thicken or clot--worsening damage to heart tissue, a new study shows. A team led by John H. Griffin, PhD, a professor in the Department of Molecular Medicine at Scripps Research, made the unexpected finding after a series of experiments spanning three years and involving researchers from multiple collaborating institutions. (2020-04-02)

Mechanical forces shape animal 'origami' precisely despite 'noise'
Researchers at the RIKEN Center for Biosystems Dynamics Research (BDR) in Japan have identified a new mechanism that helps animals to develop with precise and constant form. The conclusion of this study is that the constancy of animal form requires more than just the deterministic process of genetic inheritance and genetic networks, but also relies on the stochastic and emergent behaviors of mechanical forces. (2020-03-12)

Clotting problem
New research into why some people's blood doesn't clot well identified defects in the platelet-making process, where mutant cells aren't behaving properly. Because these cells have a variety of different direction and movement issues, patients will need personalized drug therapies and treatments to treat patient-specific mutations. (2020-03-09)

Physics of Life -- Lane change in the cytoskeleton
Many amphibians and fish are able to change their color in order to better adapt to their environment. Munich-based scientists have now investigated the molecular mechanisms in the cytoskeleton necessary for this and revealed potential evolutionary paths. (2020-02-12)

Revving up the engine
Research using heart cells from squirrels, mice and people identifies an evolutionary mechanism critical for heart muscle function. (2020-01-27)

Research identifies new route for tackling drug resistance in skin cancer cells
Researchers have found that melanoma cells fight anti-cancer drugs by changing their internal skeleton (cytoskeleton) -- opening up a new therapeutic route for combating skin and other cancers that develop resistance to treatment. (2020-01-13)

Getting to the heart of heart beats: Cardiac thin filament structure and function revealed
Osaka University team uses advanced electron cryomicroscopy and image analysis to reveal the structure of vital muscle thin filaments in the heart with the highest resolution ever. This work is important for understanding the mechanisms underlying cardiac muscle contractions and may lead to treatment for mutation-caused diseases such as cardiomyopathy and cardiac hypertrophy. (2020-01-09)

New clues as to why mutations in the MYH9 gene cause broad spectrum of disorders in humans
Researchers have used the Drosophila embryo to model human disease mutations that affect myosin motor activity. Through in vivo imaging and biophysical analysis, they demonstrated that engineering human MYH9-related disease mutations into Drosophila myosin II produces motors with altered organization and dynamics that fail to drive rapid cell movements, resulting in defects in epithelial morphogenesis. (2019-10-28)

Compound may play role in halting panceatic cancer
In early test tube and mouse studies, investigators at Johns Hopkins Medicine and the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center have found that nonmuscle myosin IIC (MYH14), a protein activated in response to mechanical stress, helps promote metastatic behavior in pancreatic cancer cells, and that the compound 4-hydroxyacetophenone (4-HAP), known to stiffen myosin IIC-containing cells, can send it into overdrive, overwhelming the ability of cells to invade nearby tissue. (2019-09-18)

Biology of bat wings may hold lessons for cold-weather work, exercise
The muscles in bats' wings are much cooler than the muscles in their core, a new study finds -- and this research could one day enhance our understanding of human muscle. (2019-09-11)

Research using mechanics and physics could predict diseases that 'stress out' cells
Using ultrasonic tweezers, live imaging and a micro-mechanical substrate, NYU Tandon researchers found energy patterns in cellular allostasis that could predict the presence of disease. (2019-08-19)

Physics of life: Motor proteins and membrane dynamics
Motility is an essential property of many cell types, and is driven by molecular motors. A Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU)in M has now discovered that the motor protein myosin VI contributes directly to the deformation of the cell membrane, as required for locomotion or endocytosis. (2019-07-25)

How do muscle and tendon connections last a lifetime?
Muscles are connected to tendons to power animal movements such as running, swimming or flying. During development, these muscle-tendon attachments must be established such that they resist high mechanical forces for the entire life of the animal. An international research team from Marseille (France), Münster and Munich (both Germany) shows now in fruit flies how a protein controls mechanical stress on muscle-tendon connections. The study has been published in the journal PLOS Biology. (2019-04-04)

Multiple mechanisms behind disease associated with unexpected heart attacks
An examination of three mutations associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy -- a disease best known for revealing itself as an unexpected, fatal heart attack during strenuous exercise -- found separate mechanisms at work at the molecular level. (2019-04-04)

Study of female weightlifters crushes stereotype
A new study shows that elite women weightlifters have the same amount, and in some cases more, of the muscle fibers needed for the sport compared to their male counterparts. (2019-03-27)

Skin cancer can spread in mice by hijacking the immune system
Scientists have uncovered molecules released by invasive skin cancer that reprogram healthy immune cells to help the cancer to spread. (2019-01-31)

Bad brakes
A study in human and mouse heart cells identifies a faulty molecular brake in the most common form of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, a leading cause of sudden cardiac death in young people and athletes and the most common genetic disease of the heart The faulty brake, found about a quarter of all genetic mutations in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, interferes with the heart muscle's ability to contract and relax,. Treatment with a chemical compound successfully restores normal contractility and relaxation in human heart cells (2019-01-28)

The origins of asymmetry: A protein that makes you do the twist
Asymmetry plays a major role in biology at every scale: think of DNA spirals, the fact that the human heart is positioned on the left, our preference to use our left or right hand. An international team led by a CNRS researcher has shown how a single protein induces a spiral motion in another molecule. Through a domino effect, this causes cells, organs, and indeed the entire body to twist, triggering lateralized behaviour. (2018-11-22)

Mice need a clutch to smell
Researchers at the Nara Institute of Science and Technology (NAIST) identify shootin 1b as a clutch molecule that couples force and adhesion for the migration of neurons to the mouse olfactory bulb. The study provides new insights on how internal forces are converted into external movement and on how mechanical interactions regulate neurodevelopment. (2018-10-18)

Why heart contractions are weaker in those with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common genetic heart disease in the US and affects an estimated 1 in 500 people around the world. A protein called myosin acts as the molecular motor which makes the muscles in the heart contract. An international team has discovered that in transgenic rabbits with the R403Q mutation,, individual myosin molecules and myofibrils (the basic rod-like filaments inside muscles) produce less force and a lower maximum velocity of contraction than those isolated from healthy hearts. (2018-10-16)

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