Current Nerve Cells News and Events

Current Nerve Cells News and Events, Nerve Cells News Articles.
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ALS neuron damage reversed with new compound
Scientists have identified the first compound that eliminates the ongoing degeneration of upper motor neurons that become diseased and are a key contributor to ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis), a swift and fatal neurodegenerative disease that paralyzes its victims. In ALS, movement-initiating nerve cells in the brain and muscle-controlling nerve cells in the spinal cord die. After administering the new compound,, the diseased brain neurons stopped degenerating so much that they became similar to healthy control neurons after 60 days of treatment. (2021-02-23)

BU researchers identify biochemical process responsible for producing toxic tau
Tau is a protein that helps stabilize the internal skeleton of nerve cells (neurons) in the brain. Groups of toxic tau protein, termed tau oligomers, drive disease progression and memory loss in Alzheimer's disease (AD). A new study from Boston University School of Medicine (BUSM) shows how these tau oligomers form, and, correspondingly, how they can be prevented. (2021-02-22)

Three longtime antibiotics could offer alternative to addictive opioid pain relievers
Three decades-old antibiotics administered together can block a type of pain triggered by nerve damage in an animal model, UT Southwestern researchers report. The finding, published online today in PNAS, could offer an alternative to opioid-based painkillers, addictive prescription medications that are responsible for an epidemic of abuse in the US. (2021-02-22)

A 'twisted elevator' could be key to understanding neurological diseases
For the first time, researchers have found one of the most important molecular machines in our cells uses a 'twisting elevator' mechanism, solving a mystery of how it transports crucial chemical signals from one cell to another. (2021-02-17)

A boost for plant research
Optogenetics can be used to activate and study cells in a targeted manner using light. Scientists at the University of Würzburg have now succeeded in transferring this technique to plants. (2021-02-16)

Regular caffeine consumption affects brain structure
Coffee, cola or an energy drink: caffeine is the world's most widely consumed psychoactive substance. Researchers from the University of Basel have now shown in a study that regular caffeine intake can change the gray matter of the brain. However, the effect appears to be temporary. (2021-02-15)

Function identified of 'mystery protein' that kills brain cells of people with Parkinson's
Scientists have made a 'vital step' towards understanding the origins of Parkinson's Disease - the fastest growing neurological condition in the world. A study published in Nature Communications today (Wednesday 10 February) presents a compelling new evidence about what a key protein called alpha-synuclein actually does in neurons in the brain. (2021-02-10)

Generation of conjunctivae in a dish
Researchers from Osaka University generated functional conjunctival tissue in a dish. By identifying the protein epidermal growth factor and keratinocyte growth factor for the development and maturation of conjunctival cells, respectively, they showed functional, mucin-producing conjunctival tissues can be formed from human induced pluripotent stem cells. This study could help with identifying novel drugs for dry eye syndrome and could further open new avenues for regenerative therapies. (2021-02-02)

Neurons: 'String of lights' indicates excitation propagation
A type of novel molecular voltage sensor makes it possible to watch nerve cells at work. The principle of the method has been known for some time. However, researchers at the University of Bonn and the University of California in Los Angeles have now succeeded in significantly improving it. It allows the propagation of electrical signals in living nerve cells to be observed with high temporal and spatial resolution. (2021-02-02)

Accurate drug dosages with proton traps
Researchers at Linköping University, Sweden, have developed a proton trap that makes organic electronic ion pumps more precise when delivering drugs. The new technique may reduce drug side effects, and in the long term, ion pumps may help patients with symptoms of neurological diseases for which effective treatments are not available. The results have been published in Science Advances. (2021-01-29)

Multiple sclerosis: Immune cells silence neurons by removing synapses
Damage to the brain gray matter plays an important role in the progression of multiple sclerosis. This study now shows that such damage can be caused by inflammatory reactions that lead to loss of synapses, which impairs neural activity. (2021-01-26)

Mouse study: gabapentin prevents harmful structural changes in spinal cord
Research led by The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center and College of Medicine found that the widely prescribed pain-relief drug gabapentin can prevent harmful structural changes in the injured spinal cords of mice, and also block cardiovascular changes and immune suppression caused by spinal cord injury. (2021-01-26)

Immune cells found in the brain are behind the depression experienced in inflammation
Special immune cells found in the brain, microglia, play a key role in the processes that make you feel uneasy and depressed in correlation with inflammation. This is the conclusion of a study using mice carried out by researchers at Linköping University, Sweden. The results have been published in the scientific journal Immunity, and suggest that microglial cells contribute to the negative mood experienced during several neurological diseases, and maybe also depression. (2021-01-25)

Epilepsy research focused on astrocytes
A significant number of epilepsy patients does not respond to currently available drugs. A collaboration between researchers in Japan and at the Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf (HHU) now addressed a cell type in the brain that has so far not received much attention in epilepsy therapy. In the current edition of the Journal of Neuroscience, they describe that astrocytes might be a potential new target to better treat this disease. (2021-01-25)

Newly discovered subset of brain cells fight inflammation with instructions from the gut
A team led by researchers from Brigham and Women's Hospital, has shown that a specific astrocyte sub-population can do the opposite, instead serving a protective, anti-inflammatory function within the brain based on signals regulated by the bacteria that reside in the gut. (2021-01-25)

Size of connections between nerve cells determines their signaling strength
Nerve cells communicate with one another via synapses. Neuroscientists at the University of Zurich and ETH Zurich have now found that these connections seem to be much more powerful than previously thought. The larger the synapse, the stronger the signal it transmits. These findings will enable a better understanding of how the brain functions and how neurological disorders arise. (2021-01-21)

Balancing brain cell activity
Electrical trigger sites in neurons surprisingly change with experience; they are either becoming smaller with increasing number of experiences and, vice versa, they grow larger when less input arrives in the brain. (2021-01-20)

Different types of neurons interact to make reaching-and-grasping tasks possible
Picking up that cup of coffee? New research from the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University finds that one type of neuron is necessary for the early part of the movement, another for aiming for the cup. (2021-01-19)

Brain cell network supplies neurons with energy
Until recently, oligodendrocytes were primarily thought to be a kind of cellular insulating tape that accelerates the transmission of electrical signals in the brain. A study by the University of Bonn (Germany) now shows that they are also important for the energy supply of neurons in some brain regions. The findings are published in the journal Cell Reports. (2021-01-19)

Parkinson's: Initial steps to show nerves their growth direction magnetically
One reason why nerve damage in the brain cannot regenerate easily is that the neurites do not know in which direction they should grow. A team of researchers from Ruhr-Universität Bochum (RUB), Sorbonne University Paris, and the Technische Universität Braunschweig is now working on showing them the direction using magnetic nanoparticles. (2021-01-18)

Designer cytokine makes paralyzed mice walk again
To date, paralysis resulting from spinal cord damage has been irreparable. With a new therapeutic approach, scientists from the Department for Cell Physiology at Ruhr-Universität Bochum (RUB) headed by Professor Dietmar Fischer have succeeded for the first time in getting paralyzed mice to walk again. The keys to this are the protein hyper-interleukin-6, which stimulates nerve cells to regenerate, and the way how it is supplied to the animals. (2021-01-15)

T cells linked to myelin implicated in MS-like disease in monkeys
Scientists have uncovered new clues implicating a type of herpes virus as the cause of a central nervous system disease in monkeys that's similar to multiple sclerosis in people. By linking two specific T cells to the loss of myelin, scientists say the new study opens the possibility of developing an antiviral therapy that could be especially useful for newly diagnosed cases of multiple sclerosis. (2021-01-15)

A rift in the retina may help repair the optic nerve
In experiments in mouse tissues and human cells, Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers say they have found that removing a membrane that lines the back of the eye may improve the success rate for regrowing nerve cells damaged by blinding diseases. (2021-01-14)

Study suggests compound protects myelin, nerve fibers
A compound developed at Oregon Health & Science University appears to protect nerve fibers and the fatty sheath, called myelin, that covers nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord. The new research in a mouse model advances earlier work to develop the compound - known as sobetirome - that has already showed promise in stimulating the repair of myelin. (2021-01-13)

Post-surgical patch releases non-opioid painkiller directly to the wound
A Duke-led team of scientists has developed a bio-compatible surgical patch that releases non-opioid painkillers directly to the site of a wound for days and then dissolves away. The polymer patch provides a controlled release of a drug that blocks the enzyme COX-2 (cyclooxygenase-2,) which drives pain and inflammation. The study appears Jan. 10, 2021 in the Journal of Controlled Release. (2021-01-11)

Scientists paint multi-color atlas of the brain
Columbia scientists have engineered a coloring technique, known as NeuroPAL (a Neuronal Polychromatic Atlas of Landmarks), which makes it possible to identify every single neuron in the mind of a worm. (2021-01-08)

Tiny wireless device sheds light on combating obesity
In a new study, researchers at Texas A&M University have described a medical device that might help with weight loss and requires a simpler operative procedure for implantation. (2021-01-08)

Sleep is irreplaceable for the recovery of the brain
Researchers at the Medical Center - University of Freiburg demonstrate, for the first time directly, that active recovery processes take place in the brain during sleep that cannot be replaced by rest / Findings relevant for optimal performance (2021-01-07)

Treating an autoimmune disease in mice with an mRNA vaccine
Christina Krienke and colleagues have designed an mRNA vaccine that delayed the onset of and reduced the severity of multiple sclerosis-like disease in mice. (2021-01-07)

Tracking the formation of the early heart, cell by cell
Richard Tyser and colleagues have mapped the origins of the embryonic mouse heart at single-cell resolution, helping to define the cell types that make up the heart in the earliest days of development. (2021-01-07)

New strategy to fight botulinum toxin - expert available
Published research shows a new ''Trojan horse'' approach that produces strong antidotal efficacy in treating lethal botulism. (2021-01-06)

Large transporter protein linked to schizophrenia
Scientists have suspected mutations in a cellular cholesterol transport protein are associated with psychiatric disorders, but have found it difficult to prove this and to pinpoint how it happens. Now, Kazumitsu Ueda of Kyoto University's Institute for Integrated Cell-Material Sciences (iCeMS) and colleagues in Japan have provided evidence that mice with disrupted ABCA13 protein demonstrate a hallmark behaviour of schizophrenia. The team investigated ABCA13's functions and published their findings in the Journal of Biological Chemistry. (2020-12-29)

Brain stem cells divide over months
For the first time, scientists at the University of Zurich have been able to observe the way stem cells in the adult brains of mice divide over the course of months to create new nerve cells. Their study shows that brain stem cells are active over a long period, and thus provides new insights that will feed into stem cell research. (2020-12-21)

Machine intelligence accelerates research into mapping brains
Scientists in Japan's brain science project have used machine intelligence to improve the accuracy and reliability of a powerful brain-mapping technique, a new study reports. Their development, published on December 18th in Scientific Reports, gives researchers more confidence in using the technique to untangle the human brain's wiring and to better understand the changes in this wiring that accompany neurological or mental disorders such as Parkinson's or Alzheimer's disease. (2020-12-18)

Modulating cells' chloride channels
Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST) researchers gain deeper insight into a cell membrane channel, with potential implications for drug development. (2020-12-16)

Hopes of new treatment strategies for glaucoma
In the search for new ways to treat the incurable eye disease glaucoma, researchers at Karolinska Institutet and St. Erik Eye Hospital in Sweden have discovered more clues as to its pathogenesis. A new study shows how metabolic disturbance of the neurons coincide with raised pressure in the eye. In animal and cell models, rapamycin and pyruvate treatments were shown to have a protective effect. The study is published in the journal PNAS. (2020-12-15)

Fighting hypertension through electrical impulses
Electrical impulses applied to a particular branch of the vagus nerve could be used in the future to reduce complications of arterial hypertension. These are the results of a research conducted, on animal models, by the Department of Angiocardioneurology and Translational Medicine of the I.R.C.C.S. Neuromed, in Italy, and published in the scientific journal Cell Reports. (2020-12-15)

Unexpected discovery leads to better understanding of migraine
Massive ''plumes'' of glutamate, a key neurotransmitter, surging in the brain could help explain the onset of migraine with aura--and potentially a broad swath of neurologic disease, including stroke and traumatic brain injury--according to an international study led by University of Utah Health scientists. (2020-12-14)

Researchers discover clue to how to protect neurons and encourage their growth
Researchers have identified a family of enzymes whose inhibition both protects neurons and encourages their growth, a pathway to potential new treatments for neurodegenerative diseases from Alzheimer's to glaucoma. (2020-12-14)

New biomarker candidate for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
A research team from the Centre for Protein Diagnostics (Prodi) at Ruhr University Bochum (RUB), in collaboration with scientists from Dresden Technical University, Essen University Hospital and University Hospital Göttingen, has developed a diagnostic tool for the rare neurological disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The study used the patented immuno-infrared sensor to analyse folding changes of proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of ALS patients after specific binding. (2020-12-09)

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