Current Nerve Impulses News and Events

Current Nerve Impulses News and Events, Nerve Impulses News Articles.
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BU researchers identify biochemical process responsible for producing toxic tau
Tau is a protein that helps stabilize the internal skeleton of nerve cells (neurons) in the brain. Groups of toxic tau protein, termed tau oligomers, drive disease progression and memory loss in Alzheimer's disease (AD). A new study from Boston University School of Medicine (BUSM) shows how these tau oligomers form, and, correspondingly, how they can be prevented. (2021-02-22)

How bacteria hunt bacteria
The research team led by Dr. Christine Kaimer from the Microbial Biology department at Ruhr-Universität Bochum (RUB) has taken a close look at predatory bacteria, which feed on other bacteria. Through microscopic examinations and protein analyses, they characterized the strategies used by the soil bacterium Myxococcus xanthus: It combines several mechanisms to kill structurally different prey bacteria, and also works in groups where necessary. (2021-02-16)

Nanotechnologies reduce friction and improve durability of materials
A team of scientists from the National Research Nuclear University MEPhI and Immanuel Kant Baltic State Federal University suggested using innovative thin films to considerably reduce friction and thus increase the durability of surfaces in mechanisms. This discovery can be important for many fields, from medicine to space technologies. (2021-02-16)

Regular caffeine consumption affects brain structure
Coffee, cola or an energy drink: caffeine is the world's most widely consumed psychoactive substance. Researchers from the University of Basel have now shown in a study that regular caffeine intake can change the gray matter of the brain. However, the effect appears to be temporary. (2021-02-15)

Function identified of 'mystery protein' that kills brain cells of people with Parkinson's
Scientists have made a 'vital step' towards understanding the origins of Parkinson's Disease - the fastest growing neurological condition in the world. A study published in Nature Communications today (Wednesday 10 February) presents a compelling new evidence about what a key protein called alpha-synuclein actually does in neurons in the brain. (2021-02-10)

Venus flytraps found to produce magnetic fields
The Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) is a carnivorous plant that encloses its prey using modified leaves as a trap. During this process, electrical signals known as action potentials trigger the closure of the leaf lobes. An interdisciplinary team of scientists has now shown that these electrical signals generate measurable magnetic fields. (2021-02-02)

Remyelinating drug could improve vision in patients with multiple sclerosis
A team led by a biomedical scientist at the University of California, Riverside, reports a drug -- an estrogen receptor ligand called indazole chloride (IndCl) -- has the potential to improve vision in patients with multiple sclerosis, or MS. The study, performed on mice induced with a model of MS and the first to investigate IndCl's effect on the pathology and function of the complete afferent visual pathway, is published in Brain Pathology. (2021-02-02)

Neurons: 'String of lights' indicates excitation propagation
A type of novel molecular voltage sensor makes it possible to watch nerve cells at work. The principle of the method has been known for some time. However, researchers at the University of Bonn and the University of California in Los Angeles have now succeeded in significantly improving it. It allows the propagation of electrical signals in living nerve cells to be observed with high temporal and spatial resolution. (2021-02-02)

Accurate drug dosages with proton traps
Researchers at Linköping University, Sweden, have developed a proton trap that makes organic electronic ion pumps more precise when delivering drugs. The new technique may reduce drug side effects, and in the long term, ion pumps may help patients with symptoms of neurological diseases for which effective treatments are not available. The results have been published in Science Advances. (2021-01-29)

Multiple sclerosis: Immune cells silence neurons by removing synapses
Damage to the brain gray matter plays an important role in the progression of multiple sclerosis. This study now shows that such damage can be caused by inflammatory reactions that lead to loss of synapses, which impairs neural activity. (2021-01-26)

Mouse study: gabapentin prevents harmful structural changes in spinal cord
Research led by The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center and College of Medicine found that the widely prescribed pain-relief drug gabapentin can prevent harmful structural changes in the injured spinal cords of mice, and also block cardiovascular changes and immune suppression caused by spinal cord injury. (2021-01-26)

Epilepsy research focused on astrocytes
A significant number of epilepsy patients does not respond to currently available drugs. A collaboration between researchers in Japan and at the Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf (HHU) now addressed a cell type in the brain that has so far not received much attention in epilepsy therapy. In the current edition of the Journal of Neuroscience, they describe that astrocytes might be a potential new target to better treat this disease. (2021-01-25)

Size of connections between nerve cells determines their signaling strength
Nerve cells communicate with one another via synapses. Neuroscientists at the University of Zurich and ETH Zurich have now found that these connections seem to be much more powerful than previously thought. The larger the synapse, the stronger the signal it transmits. These findings will enable a better understanding of how the brain functions and how neurological disorders arise. (2021-01-21)

Balancing brain cell activity
Electrical trigger sites in neurons surprisingly change with experience; they are either becoming smaller with increasing number of experiences and, vice versa, they grow larger when less input arrives in the brain. (2021-01-20)

Brain cell network supplies neurons with energy
Until recently, oligodendrocytes were primarily thought to be a kind of cellular insulating tape that accelerates the transmission of electrical signals in the brain. A study by the University of Bonn (Germany) now shows that they are also important for the energy supply of neurons in some brain regions. The findings are published in the journal Cell Reports. (2021-01-19)

Parkinson's: Initial steps to show nerves their growth direction magnetically
One reason why nerve damage in the brain cannot regenerate easily is that the neurites do not know in which direction they should grow. A team of researchers from Ruhr-Universität Bochum (RUB), Sorbonne University Paris, and the Technische Universität Braunschweig is now working on showing them the direction using magnetic nanoparticles. (2021-01-18)

Guppies have varying levels of self-control
Just like humans trying to stick to New Year's resolutions, guppies have varying levels of self-control, a new study shows. (2021-01-15)

Designer cytokine makes paralyzed mice walk again
To date, paralysis resulting from spinal cord damage has been irreparable. With a new therapeutic approach, scientists from the Department for Cell Physiology at Ruhr-Universität Bochum (RUB) headed by Professor Dietmar Fischer have succeeded for the first time in getting paralyzed mice to walk again. The keys to this are the protein hyper-interleukin-6, which stimulates nerve cells to regenerate, and the way how it is supplied to the animals. (2021-01-15)

T cells linked to myelin implicated in MS-like disease in monkeys
Scientists have uncovered new clues implicating a type of herpes virus as the cause of a central nervous system disease in monkeys that's similar to multiple sclerosis in people. By linking two specific T cells to the loss of myelin, scientists say the new study opens the possibility of developing an antiviral therapy that could be especially useful for newly diagnosed cases of multiple sclerosis. (2021-01-15)

A rift in the retina may help repair the optic nerve
In experiments in mouse tissues and human cells, Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers say they have found that removing a membrane that lines the back of the eye may improve the success rate for regrowing nerve cells damaged by blinding diseases. (2021-01-14)

Study suggests compound protects myelin, nerve fibers
A compound developed at Oregon Health & Science University appears to protect nerve fibers and the fatty sheath, called myelin, that covers nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord. The new research in a mouse model advances earlier work to develop the compound - known as sobetirome - that has already showed promise in stimulating the repair of myelin. (2021-01-13)

Post-surgical patch releases non-opioid painkiller directly to the wound
A Duke-led team of scientists has developed a bio-compatible surgical patch that releases non-opioid painkillers directly to the site of a wound for days and then dissolves away. The polymer patch provides a controlled release of a drug that blocks the enzyme COX-2 (cyclooxygenase-2,) which drives pain and inflammation. The study appears Jan. 10, 2021 in the Journal of Controlled Release. (2021-01-11)

Tiny wireless device sheds light on combating obesity
In a new study, researchers at Texas A&M University have described a medical device that might help with weight loss and requires a simpler operative procedure for implantation. (2021-01-08)

New strategy to fight botulinum toxin - expert available
Published research shows a new ''Trojan horse'' approach that produces strong antidotal efficacy in treating lethal botulism. (2021-01-06)

Large transporter protein linked to schizophrenia
Scientists have suspected mutations in a cellular cholesterol transport protein are associated with psychiatric disorders, but have found it difficult to prove this and to pinpoint how it happens. Now, Kazumitsu Ueda of Kyoto University's Institute for Integrated Cell-Material Sciences (iCeMS) and colleagues in Japan have provided evidence that mice with disrupted ABCA13 protein demonstrate a hallmark behaviour of schizophrenia. The team investigated ABCA13's functions and published their findings in the Journal of Biological Chemistry. (2020-12-29)

Brain stem cells divide over months
For the first time, scientists at the University of Zurich have been able to observe the way stem cells in the adult brains of mice divide over the course of months to create new nerve cells. Their study shows that brain stem cells are active over a long period, and thus provides new insights that will feed into stem cell research. (2020-12-21)

Machine intelligence accelerates research into mapping brains
Scientists in Japan's brain science project have used machine intelligence to improve the accuracy and reliability of a powerful brain-mapping technique, a new study reports. Their development, published on December 18th in Scientific Reports, gives researchers more confidence in using the technique to untangle the human brain's wiring and to better understand the changes in this wiring that accompany neurological or mental disorders such as Parkinson's or Alzheimer's disease. (2020-12-18)

Modulating cells' chloride channels
Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST) researchers gain deeper insight into a cell membrane channel, with potential implications for drug development. (2020-12-16)

Fighting hypertension through electrical impulses
Electrical impulses applied to a particular branch of the vagus nerve could be used in the future to reduce complications of arterial hypertension. These are the results of a research conducted, on animal models, by the Department of Angiocardioneurology and Translational Medicine of the I.R.C.C.S. Neuromed, in Italy, and published in the scientific journal Cell Reports. (2020-12-15)

Researchers discover clue to how to protect neurons and encourage their growth
Researchers have identified a family of enzymes whose inhibition both protects neurons and encourages their growth, a pathway to potential new treatments for neurodegenerative diseases from Alzheimer's to glaucoma. (2020-12-14)

FEFU scientists suggest using neuromodulation to treat patients with spinal cord injuries
Scientists from Far Eastern Federal University (FEFU) together with leading international experts suggest reconsidering the existing treatment protocol for severe spasticity, one of the main complications after spinal cord injury with partial spinal cord disruption. Spasticity aggravates a patient's state and dramatically reduces the prospects of rehabilitation. The new treatment protocol has been run at FEFU Medical Center. A related article was published in the Progress in Brain Research journal. (2020-12-10)

Five-minute EEG recordings: a key to the symptoms of Parkinson's disease
Pathological changes related to the disability of Parkinson's patients can already be detected in signals from the scalp without the need to open the skull. Researchers from Leipzig University Hospital and the Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences recently published these new findings in the journal Brain. (2020-12-09)

Damage to brain cells reverberates to 'bystander' cells, study finds
Injury or disease that afflicts a relatively small number of brain cells causes a chain reaction that stops activity across a vast network of neural circuits, according to new research. The study may help to explain why people can suffer from temporary but severe loss of cognitive function in cases of traumatic brain injury or disease. (2020-12-08)

Split wave
Neural networks are some of the most important tools in AI. So far, they run on traditional processors in the form of adaptive software, but experts are working on an alternative concept, the ''neuromorphic computer''. In this case, neurons are not simulated by software but reconstructed in hardware components. A team of researchers at HZDR has now demonstrated a new approach to such hardware - targeted magnetic waves that are generated and divided in micrometer-sized wafers. (2020-12-07)

Feeling out fine differences in touch sensitivity
We have known about a skin touch sensor for more than 160 years. MDC scientists now publish in Nature Neuroscience some of the first proof of its involvement in detecting tiny vibrations that help us to distinguish between a rough or a smooth surface. (2020-12-07)

Radicals seem to be good for the brain
Scientists of the German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE) report in the journal Cell Stem Cell that reactive oxygen molecules, also known as 'free radicals.' are important for the brain's ability to adapt -- at least in mice. (2020-12-04)

Potential means of improving learning and memory in people with mental illnesses
More than a dozen drugs are known to treat symptoms such as hallucinations, erratic behaviors, disordered thinking and emotional extremes associated with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and other severe mental illnesses. But, drug treatments specifically able to target the learning, memory and concentration problems that may accompany such disorders remain elusive. (2020-12-03)

Restoring a rudimentary form of vision in the blind
Restoration of vision in blind people through a brain implant is on the verge of becoming reality. Recent discoveries at the Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience (NIN) show that newly developed high-resolution implants in the visual cortex make it possible to recognize artificially induced shapes and percepts. The findings were published in Science on 3 December. (2020-12-03)

Human Brain Project-supported innovation published in Science
Human Brain Project research has helped lay the foundation for a brain implant that could one day give blind people their sight back. Recent discoveries at the Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience (NIN) show that in monkeys, newly developed high-resolution implants in the visual cortex make it possible to recognize artificially induced images. The findings were published in Science on 3 December. For further development towards application in humans, the high-resolution 3D digital brain atlases of HBP's EBRAINS Research Infrastructure will become instrumental. (2020-12-03)

Hidden network of enzymes accounts for loss of brain synapses in Alzheimer's
A new study on Alzheimer's disease by Scripps Research scientists has revealed a previously unknown biochemical cascade in the brain that leads to the destruction of synapses, the connections between nerve cells that are responsible for memory and cognition. (2020-12-03)

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