Current Neural Circuits News and Events

Current Neural Circuits News and Events, Neural Circuits News Articles.
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Politics and the brain: Attention perks up when politicians break with party lines
Building upon previous work studying the brain and politics, Ingrid Haas, associate professor of political science affiliated with Nebraska's Center for Brain, Biology and Behavior, examined the insula and anterior cingular cortex in 58 individuals using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and learned that the human brain processes politically incongruent statements differently. (2021-02-22)

Artificial intelligence predicts nonlinear ultrafast dynamics in optics
Researchers at Tampere University have successfully used artificial intelligence to predict nonlinear dynamics that take place when ultrashort light pulses interact with matter. This novel solution can be used for efficient and fast numerical modelling, for example, in imaging, manufacturing and surgery. The findings were published in the prestigious Nature Machine Intelligence journal. (2021-02-19)

New technology enables predictive design of engineered human cells
Northwestern University synthetic biologists have developed a design-driven process to build complex genetic circuits for cellular engineering. The new technology utilizes computational modeling to more efficiently identify useful genetic designs before building them in the lab. Faced with myriad possibilities, modeling points researchers to designs that offer real opportunity. The researchers constructed a variety of genetic programs to carry out desired and useful functions in human cells and found the programs worked as predicted. And the designs worked the first time. (2021-02-19)

Neural pathway critical to correcting behavioral errors related to psych disorders found
Mount Sinai researchers have identified a neural pathway through which the brain detects errors and guides subsequent behavioral improvement (2021-02-19)

Deep learning may help doctors choose better lung cancer treatments
Researchers have developed a deep learning model that, in certain conditions, is more than 71 percent accurate in predicting survival expectancy of lung cancer patients, significantly better than traditional machine learning models that the team tested. The other machine learning models the team tested had about a 61 percent accuracy rate. (2021-02-18)

How the 'noise' in our brain influences our behavior
The brain's neural activity is irregular, changing from one moment to the next. To date, this apparent ''noise'' has been thought to be due to random natural variations or measurement error. However, researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Human Development have shown that this neural variability may provide a unique window into brain function. (2021-02-17)

This robot doesn't need any electronics
Engineers at the University of California San Diego have created a four-legged soft robot that doesn't need any electronics to work. The robot only needs a constant source of pressurized air for all its functions, including its controls and locomotion systems. The team, led by Michael T. Tolley, a professor of mechanical engineering at the Jacobs School of Engineering at UC San Diego, details its findings in the Feb. 17, 2021 issue of Science Robotics. (2021-02-17)

Neural network could help clinicians look for 'ugly duckling' pre-cancerous skin lesions
A neural network system that analyzes photographs can rank and distinguish suspicious, potentially precancerous skin lesions, which can turn into the deadly skin malignancy melanoma if not caught and removed early. (2021-02-17)

Small 'window of opportunity' for best recovery after stroke
An international study has shown, for the first time, that the capacity of the human brain to recover and rewire itself peaks around two weeks after a stroke and diminishes over time. (2021-02-16)

Predicting words' grammatical properties helps us read faster
Psycholinguists from the HSE Centre for Language and Brain found that when reading, people are not only able to predict specific words, but also words' grammatical properties, which helps them to read faster. Researchers have also discovered that predictability of words and grammatical features can be successfully modelled with the use of neural networks. The study was published in the journal PLOS ONE. (2021-02-16)

Peeking at the pathfinding strategies of the hippocampus in the brain
The Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST) announced that the research team led by Sebastien Royer uncovered that place cells in the hippocampus encode spatial information using interchangeably two distinct information processing mechanisms referred to as a rate code and a phase code, somewhat analogue to the number and spatial arrangement of bars in bar codes. In addition, the research team found that parallel neural circuits and information processing mechanisms are used depending on the complexity of the landmarks along the path. (2021-02-15)

Algorithm that performs as accurately as dermatologists
A study has now been presented that boosts the evidence for using AI solutions in skin cancer diagnostics. With an algorithm they devised themselves, scientists at the University of Gothenburg show the capacity of technology to perform at the same level as dermatologists in assessing the severity of skin melanoma. (2021-02-12)

Study suggests sounds influence the developing brain earlier than previously thought
In experiments in newborn mice, scientists at Johns Hopkins report that sounds appear to change ''wiring'' patterns in areas of the brain that process sound earlier than scientists assumed and even before the ear canal opens. (2021-02-12)

Wake-up call for neural stem cells
A brain enzyme activates dormant neural stem cells, revealing how defects in its gene could lead to neurodevelopmental disorders. (2021-02-11)

Winner-takes-all synthetic gene circuit process opens new pathways to disease treatment
Multicellular synthetic circuits will be a much more effective way to treat cancer. (2021-02-08)

Correspondence between representations in visual cortices and neural networks
A research group led by Nobuhiko Wagatsuma, Lecturer at Toho University, Akinori Hidaka, Associate Professor at Tokyo Denki University, and Hiroshi Tamura, Associate Professor at Osaka University, found that the neural network structure of attention prediction, based on deep learning used in the development of artificial intelligence, has similar characteristics to the cerebral mechanism of primates. (2021-02-08)

Silicon waveguides move us closer to faster, light-based logic circuits
IBM researchers have succeeded in guiding visible light through a silicon wire efficiently, an important milestone in the exploration towards a new breed of faster, more efficient logic circuits. (2021-02-08)

The quantum advantage: a novel demonstration
Scientists have just proved that a quantum machine can perform a given verification task in seconds when the same exercise would take a time equivalent to the age of the universe for a conventional computer. For this demonstration, they combined a complex interactive algorithm that solves a certain type of mathematical problem with limited information and a simple experimental photonics system that can be made in all advanced photonics laboratories. (2021-02-08)

AI researchers ask: What's going on inside the black box?
Brain-like artificial networks are often referred to as a ''black box'' because researchers do not know how they learn and make predictions. Researchers at CSHL reported a way to peek inside the box and identify key features on which the computer relies, particularly when trying to identify complex DNA sequences. (2021-02-08)

Breakthrough in quantum photonics promises a new era in optical circuits
In recently published work, researchers at USC have shown that single photons can be emitted in a uniform way from quantum dots arranged in a precise pattern. The team has used such methods to create single-quantum dots, with their remarkable single-photon emission characteristics. It is expected that the ability to precisely align uniformly-emitting quantum dots will enable the production of optical circuits, potentially leading to novel advancements in quantum computing and communications technologies (2021-02-05)

RUDN University mathematicians reduced neural network size six times without post-training
A team of mathematicians from RUDN University found a way to reduce the size of a trained neural network six times without spending additional resources on re-training it. The approach is based on finding a correlation between the weights of neural connections in the initial system and its simplified version. (2021-02-05)

Blink! The link between aerobic fitness and cognition
Researchers from the University of Tsukuba have found evidence that spontaneous eye blink activity, which reflects activity in the dopaminergic system, explains the connection between fitness and cognitive function. This is the first study to indicate that dopamine has an essential role in linking aerobic fitness and cognition. These findings open the door to new research regarding the mechanisms by which exercise improves brain function, and may lead to novel fitness strategies for enhancing cognition. (2021-02-03)

Supercomputer in your bedroom
University of Sussex academics have established a method of turbocharging desktop PCs to give them the same capability as supercomputers worth tens of millions of pounds. (2021-02-02)

A study reveals that the brain distributes sensory information highly efficiently
Extracting information from a small fraction of neurons, according to a study published in Nature Communications, involving Rubén Moreno-Bote, a researcher at the Center for Brain and Cognition, together with researchers from the University of Zaragoza and the University of the Basque Country, led by Harvard University (USA). (2021-02-01)

Turning on the switch for plasticity in the human brain
Shigeki Watanabe and colleagues describe how glutamate signals are transmitted across synapses to turn on the switch for synapatic plasticity, the ability of synapses to strengthen or weaken over time in response to increases or decreases in their activity. (2021-01-29)

"Liquid" machine-learning system adapts to changing conditions
MIT researchers developed a neural network that learns on the job, not just during training. The ''liquid'' network varies its equations' parameters, enhancing its ability to analyze time series data. The advance could boost autonomous driving, medical diagnosis, and more. (2021-01-28)

New treatment helps patients with a spinal cord injury
Spinal cord injuries disrupt the mechanism by which our bodies regulate blood pressure. A team of Swiss and Canadian scientists have developed a treatment that allows patients to regain control of their blood pressure, using targeted electrical spinal-cord stimulation. No medication is required. The team's findings were published today in Nature. (2021-01-28)

A NEAT reduction of complex neuronal models accelerates brain research
Unlike their simple counterparts in artificial intelligence (AI) applications, neurons in the brain use dendrites - their intricate tree-like branches - to find relevant chunks of information. Now, neuroscientists from the University of Bern have discovered a new computational method to make complex dendrite models much simpler. These faithful reductions may lead AI applications to process information much like the brain does. (2021-01-27)

In a tight spot
A newly discovered circuit helps fish to prioritize. (2021-01-27)

New neural network enables easy screening of sleep apnoea in patients with cerebrovascular disease
A new neural network developed by researchers at the University of Eastern Finland and Kuopio University Hospital enables an easy and accurate assessment of sleep apnoea severity in patients with cerebrovascular disease. The assessment is automated and based on a simple nocturnal pulse oximetry, making it possible to easily screen for sleep apnoea in stroke units. (2021-01-26)

Wirelessly rechargeable soft brain implant controls brain cells
Researchers have invented a smartphone-controlled soft brain implant that can be recharged wirelessly from outside the body. It enables long-term neural circuit manipulation without the need for periodic disruptive surgeries to replace the battery of the implant. Scientists believe this technology can help uncover and treat psychiatric disorders and neurodegenerative diseases such as addiction, depression, and Parkinson's. (2021-01-26)

A benchmark for single-electron circuits
Manipulating individual electrons with the goal of employing quantum effects offers new possibilities in electronics. In order to gain new insights into the physical origin and into metrological aspects of the small, but inevitable fundamental uncertainties governed by the rules of quantum mechanics, scientists from the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt(PTB) and the University of Latvia have collaborated to develop a statistical testing methodology. Their results have been published in the journal Nature Communications. (2021-01-26)

MRI helps unravel the mysteries of sleep
Scientists at EPFL and the Universities of Geneva, Cape Town and Bochum have joined forces to investigate brain activity during sleep with the help of MRI scans. It turns out our brains are much more active than we thought. (2021-01-22)

New technique to fast-track pain research
Scientists have for the first time established a sensory neuron model able to mass-reproduce two key sensory neuron types involved in pain sensation, enabling the easy generation of large numbers of the cells to fast-track chronic pain research. Using a new technique, researchers at Flinders University have found a way to reproduce millions of the cells, providing ample resources for the simultaneous testing of thousands of samples or potential drug libraries. (2021-01-21)

Personalized brain stimulation alleviates severe depression symptoms
Targeted neuromodulation tailored to individual patients' distinctive symptoms is an increasingly common way of correcting misfiring brain circuits in people with epilepsy or Parkinson's disease. Now, scientists at UC San Francisco's Dolby Family Center for Mood Disorders have demonstrated a novel personalized neuromodulation approach that -- at least in one patient -- was able to provide relief from symptoms of severe treatment-resistant depression within minutes. (2021-01-18)

Increased blood flow during sleep tied to critical brain function
Our brains experience significant changes in blood flow and neural activity during sleep, according to Penn State researchers. Such changes may help to clean out metabolic brain waste that builds up during the day. (2021-01-18)

Artificial Intelligence beats us in chess, but not in memory
A new piece of research shows that the brain strategy for storing memories may lead to imperfect memories, but in turn, allows it to store more memories, and with less hassle than AI. The new study, carried out by SISSA scientists in collaboration with Kavli Institute for Systems Neuroscience & Centre for Neural Computation, Trondheim, Norway, has just been published in Physical Review Letters. (2021-01-15)

How insects activate muscles to adapt to limbs removed
Adaptability explains why insects spread so widely and why they are the most abundant animal group on earth. Insects exhibit resilient and flexible locomotion, even with drastic changes in their body structure such as losing a limb. (2021-01-14)

Diffractive networks light the way for optical image classification
There is renewed interest in optical computing due to its potential advantages, including parallelization, power-efficiency, and computation speed. Diffractive networks utilize deep learning-based design of successive diffractive layers to all-optically process information as the light is transmitted from the input to the output plane. UCLA researchers significantly improved the statistical inference performance of diffractive optical networks using feature engineering and ensemble learning, which is important for applications including all-optical object classification and computational imaging. (2021-01-13)

Tweaking AI software to function like a human brain improves computer's learning ability
Computer-based artificial intelligence can function more like human intelligence when programmed to use a much faster technique for learning new objects, say two neuroscientists who designed such a model that was designed to mirror human visual learning. (2021-01-12)

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