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Current Neural Circuits News and Events, Neural Circuits News Articles.
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MicroLED neural probe for neuroscience
Associate Professor Hiroto Sekiguchi and Ph.D. candidate Hiroki Yasunaga at Toyohashi University of Technology have developed a MicroLED neural probe for neuroscience. This MicroLED tool can optogenetically control and observe neural activity in the brain. Neural activity was successfully recorded using the neural probe, and sufficient light output was obtained from the MicroLED to activate neural activity. The developed MicroLED tool will contribute to the development of neuroscience research-purposed optogenetic technology. (2021-01-12)

Turbulent dynamics in the human brain could revolutionize the understanding of its functionality
According to a new study, published on 8 December in Cell Reports, by Gustavo Deco, director of the Center for Brain and Cognition, and Morten L. Kringelbach, researcher at the Department of Psychiatry of the University of Oxford (United Kingdom) and the Center for Music in the Brain of the University of Aarhus (Denmark). (2021-01-12)

Neuroscientists identify brain circuit that encodes timing of events
MIT neuroscientists shed new light on how the timing of a memory is encoded in the hippocampus, and suggest that time and space are encoded separately. (2021-01-11)

GridTape: An automated electron microscopy platform
Scientists have developed an automated, faster, and more rapid electron microscopy technique, called GridTape, that enables them to label and read the location of every neuron in a tissue sample. The team used GridTape to map the circuity of the spinal cord nerve of the fruit fly. The technique not only provides a comprehensive map of neuronal circuits; it can also be used to study nerve circuitry in larger animal systems. (2021-01-11)

Liquid metal ink liberates form
POSTECH-Yonsei University joint research team develops liquid metal ink for 3D circuit lines. (2021-01-10)

Accelerating AI computing to the speed of light
A University of Washington-led team has come up with a system that could help speed up AI performance and find ways to reduce its energy consumption: an optical computing core prototype that uses phase-change material. (2021-01-08)

Social transmission of pain, fear has different targets in mouse brain
Social contact can transfer the feeling of pain or fear in several animal species, including humans, but the exact neural mechanisms for this transmission are still being studied. (2021-01-07)

Neuronal circuits for fine motor skills
Writing, driving a screw or throwing darts are only some of the activities that demand a high level of skill. How the brain masters such exquisite movements has now been described in the journal ''Nature'' by a team of researchers at the University of Basel and the Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research. A map of brainstem circuits reveals which neurons control the fine motor skills of the arm and hand. (2021-01-06)

A better pen-and-ink system for drawing flexible circuits
Conductive ink is a great tool for printing flexible electronic circuits on surfaces. But these inks can be costly, they do not work on some materials, and devices to apply them can plug up. Now, scientists report in ACS Applied Electronic Materials that they have developed inexpensive conductive inks for clog-free ballpoint pens that can allow users to 'write' circuits almost anywhere -- even on human skin. (2021-01-06)

Old silicon learns new tricks
Researchers from Nara Institute of Science and Technology fabricated regular arrays of iron-coated silicon crystals that are atomically smooth. The defect-free pyramidal composition of the crystals impart magnetic properties that will enhance the functionality of 3D spintronics and other technologies. (2021-01-06)

Light-carrying chips advance machine learning
An international team of researchers found that so-called photonic processors, with which data is processed by means of light, can process information very much more rapidly and in parallel than electronic chips. The results have been published in the scientific journal ''Nature''. (2021-01-06)

Light-based processors boost machine-learning processing
An international team of scientists have developed a photonic processor that uses rays of light inside silicon chips to process information much faster than conventional electronic chips. Published in Nature, the breakthrough study was carried out by scientists from EPFL, the Universities of Oxford, Münster, Exeter, Pittsburgh, and IBM Research - Zurich. (2021-01-06)

Swinburne-led research team demonstrates world's fastest optical neuromorphic processor
A Swinburne-led team has demonstrated the world's fastest and most powerful optical neuromorphic processor for artificial intelligence. The neuromorphic processor operates faster than 10 trillion operations per second and is capable of processing ultra-large scale data. (2021-01-06)

Scientists discover how our brains track where we and others go
For the first time, scientists have recorded how our brains navigate physical space and keep track of others' location. Researchers used a special backpack to wirelessly monitor the brain waves of epilepsy patients as each one walked around an empty room hunting for a hidden, two-foot spot or watched others do the same. (2020-12-23)

Astrocytes eat connections to maintain plasticity in adult brains
Developing brains constantly sprout new neuronal connections called synapses as they learn and remember. Important connections -- the ones that are repeatedly introduced, such as how to avoid danger -- are nurtured and reinforced, while connections deemed unnecessary are pruned away. Adult brains undergo similar pruning, but it was unclear how or why synapses in the adult brain get eliminated. Now, a team of researchers based in Korea has found the mechanism underlying plasticity and, potentially, neurological disorders in adult brains. (2020-12-23)

Mouse-controlled mouse helps researchers understand intentional control
Researchers at the Sainsbury Wellcome Centre have devised a brain machine interface (BMI) that allows mice to learn to guide a cursor using only their brain activity. By monitoring this mouse-controlled mouse moving to a target location to receive a reward, the researchers were able to study how the brain represents intentional control. (2020-12-22)

Scientists uncover mechanisms that wire the brain's cerebral cortex
A research team at the Fralin Biomedical Research Institute at VTC has identified the type of brain cell that produces a protein that is crucial for the formation of inhibitory circuits in the brain. This insight could one day help scientists establish the basis for developing new drugs that mature or repair cellular networks. (2020-12-21)

Study sheds new light on how the brain distinguishes speech from noise
For the first time, researchers have provided physiological evidence that a pervasive neuromodulation system - a group of neurons that regulate the functioning of more specialized neurons - strongly influences sound processing in an important auditory region of the brain. The neuromodulator, acetylcholine, may even help the main auditory brain circuitry distinguish speech from noise. (2020-12-20)

New curriculum improves students' understanding of electric circuits in schools
The topic of electricity often poses difficulties for many secondary school students in physics lessons. Physics Education Researchers at the Goethe University and the University of Tübingen have developed and empirically evaluated a new, intuitive curriculum as part of a major comparative study. The result: not only do secondary school students gain a better conceptual understanding of electric circuits, but teachers also perceive the curriculum as a significant improvement in their teaching. (2020-12-18)

Developing smarter, faster machine intelligence with light
Researchers at the George Washington University, together with researchers at the University of California, Los Angeles, and the deep-tech venture startup Optelligence LLC, have developed an optical convolutional neural network accelerator capable of processing large amounts of information, on the order of petabytes, per second. (2020-12-18)

HSE researchers use neural networks to study DNA
HSE scientists have proposed a way to improve the accuracy of finding Z-DNA, or DNA regions that are twisted to the left instead of to the right. To do this, they used neural networks and a dataset of more than 30,000 experiments conducted by different laboratories around the world. Details of the study are published in Scientific Reports. (2020-12-17)

New insights into Fragile X syndrome and the fetal brain
Researchers at Tohoku University have revealed further insight into the fetal development of our brain and the potential causes of Fragile X syndrome (FSX). (2020-12-16)

Some neurons target tiny cerebral blood vessel dilation
Neurons control blood flow in tiny vessels in the brain, but researchers know little about this relationship. Now a team of Penn State engineers has found a connection between nitric oxide expressing neurons and changes in arterial diameters in mice, which may shed light on brain function and aging. (2020-12-16)

This is your brain on code: JHU deciphers neural mechanics of computer programming
By mapping the brain activity of expert computer programmers while they puzzled over code, Johns Hopkins University scientists have found the neural mechanics behind this increasingly vital skill. (2020-12-15)

Accurate neural network computer vision without the 'black box'
New research by a team at Duke University offers clues to what goes on inside the minds of machines as they learn to see. Instead of attempting to account for a neural network's decision-making on a post hoc basis, their method shows how the network learns along the way, by revealing how much the network calls to mind different concepts to help decipher what it sees as the image travels through successive layers. (2020-12-15)

Researchers reveal how our brains know when something's different
NIH scientists discovered how a set of high frequency brain waves may help us unconsciously know when something's different by comparing memories of the past with present experiences. (2020-12-14)

Emerging from the fog: Little understood post-stroke cognitive issues are verified
For the first time, researchers at the University of Maryland have measured the physical evidence of diminished neural processing within the brain after a stroke. (2020-12-14)

Development of the first biohybrid artificial retina built with silk fibroin and retinal cells.
An international research led by the Complutense University of Madrid has taken a further step to solve Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD)-derived blidness problem with the development of the first biohybrid artificial retina built with silk fibroin and retinal cells. (2020-12-11)

Bristol researchers publish significant step toward quantum advantage
Researchers from the University of Bristol and quantum start-up, Phasecraft, have achieved a milestone in quantum computing research, accelerating the journey from theory to research to reality. (2020-12-10)

DeepLabCut-Live! real-time marker-less motion capture for animals
Behavioral scientists at EPFL introduce DeepLabCut-Live!, a deep-learning tool that can enable real-time feedback studies on animal movement and posture. The software features 'maker-less' real-time motion capture, can interface with lab hardware for neurological analysis, and is now available open source for use by researchers. (2020-12-09)

'Spooky Interactions', shocking adaptations discovered in electric fish of Brazil's Amazon
In findings published in the journal Frontiers, researchers have shown how a cave-adapted glass knifefish species of roughly 300 living members (Eigenmannia vicentespelea) has evolved from surface-dwelling relatives (Eigenmannia trilineata) that still live just outside their cave door -- by sacrificing their eyes and pigmentation, but gaining slightly more powerful electric organs that enhance the way they sense prey and communicate in absolute darkness. (2020-12-09)

The world's smallest high-performance magnetic tunnel junction
A research group from Tohoku University led by current president Hideo Ohno has developed the world's smallest (2.3 nm) high-performance magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs). This work is expected to accelerate the advancement of ultrahigh-density, low-power, high-performance non-volatile memory for a variety of applications, such as IoT, AI, and automobiles. (2020-12-08)

Visual short-term memory is more complex than previously assumed
Contrary to previous assumptions, visual short-term memory is not merely based on one kind of information about an object, such as only its colour or only its name. Rather, several types of information can be retained simultaneously in short-term memory. Using complex EEG analyses and deep neural networks, researchers at Beijing Normal University and Ruhr-Universität Bochum have discovered that short-term memory is more complex than previously assumed. (2020-12-08)

A role for the slow oscillations of the neocortex in epileptic spasm generation
Epileptic spasms are a type of brief seizures that are the hallmark of catastrophic seizure disorders and characterized by severe cognitive and motor deficits. Researchers from Baylor College of Medicine and Texas Children's Hospital have found the source and mechanism to explain how cortical neurons generate spasms. This is also the first study to reveal a hitherto unknown relationship between a normal brain state, like sleep, and spasms. (2020-12-08)

Damage to brain cells reverberates to 'bystander' cells, study finds
Injury or disease that afflicts a relatively small number of brain cells causes a chain reaction that stops activity across a vast network of neural circuits, according to new research. The study may help to explain why people can suffer from temporary but severe loss of cognitive function in cases of traumatic brain injury or disease. (2020-12-08)

Grasping an object - model describes complete movement planning in the brain
Neurobiologists at the German Primate Center developed a model that for the first time can completely represent the neuronal processes from seeing to grasping an object. (2020-12-07)

Maternal anxiety affects the fetal brain
Anxiety in gestating mothers appears to affect the course of brain development in their fetuses, changing neural connectivity in the womb, a new study by Children's National Hospital researchers suggests. The findings, published Dec. 7, 2020, in JAMA Open Network, could help explain longstanding links between maternal anxiety and neurodevelopmental disorders in their children and suggests an urgent need for interventions to diagnose and decrease maternal stress. (2020-12-07)

Problems with depth perception caused by too many cells
The connections that integrate information from the left and right eyes are set up early in development, but visual experiences are important for fine-tuning the circuits. Without pruning the proper cells, an adult may lack full use of their visual system. (2020-12-07)

Feeling out fine differences in touch sensitivity
We have known about a skin touch sensor for more than 160 years. MDC scientists now publish in Nature Neuroscience some of the first proof of its involvement in detecting tiny vibrations that help us to distinguish between a rough or a smooth surface. (2020-12-07)

Astrocytes improve decision-making
A study led by researchers from the Cajal Institute of the Spanish Research Council (CSIC) has demonstrated the relevance of the astrocytes (a cell type present in the Nervous System) in the decision-making process. Data published in Nature Neuroscience journal, indicate that these glial cells favor those decisions with higher etiological value for individuals. (2020-12-07)

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