Current Neurobiology News and Events | Page 2

Current Neurobiology News and Events, Neurobiology News Articles.
Sort By: Most Relevant | Most Viewed
Page 2 of 17 | 658 Results
What drives circadian rhythms at the poles?
Circadian clocks coordinate the organism to the alternating cycles of day and night. Scientists from the University of Würzburg have studied how these clocks work in polar regions where days or nights can last for weeks. (2019-11-04)

Cycles of reward: New insight into ADHD treatment
Researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) in collaboration with scientists at the University of Otago and the University of Auckland in New Zealand, investigated the actions of the drug in rats. Using dopamine cell recordings, electrochemical monitoring and computer modeling, they discovered a type of feedback loop that modulates dopamine levels in the rats' brains in response to the drug. This regulatory process may shed light on methylphenidate's therapeutic properties in ADHD. (2019-10-30)

Artificial networks shed light on human face recognition
Our brains are so primed to recognize faces - or to tell people apart - that we rarely even stop to think about it, but what happens in the brain when it engages in such recognition is still far from understood. In a new study reported today in Nature Communications, researchers at the Weizmann Institute of Science have shed new light on this issue. They found a striking similarity between the way in which faces are encoded in the brain and in successfully performing artificial intelligence systems known as deep neural networks. (2019-10-30)

Nerve cell protection free from side effects
The hormone erythropoietin (Epo) is a well-known doping substance that has a history of abuse in endurance sports. In addition to promoting red blood cell production, Epo protects nerve cells from death. To use this effect to cure neurodegenerative diseases, negative effects need to be prevented. Researchers at the University of Göttingen have now discovered another Epo receptor that could have protective effects in humans without side-effects. The results appeared in Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience. (2019-10-25)

Findings bridge knowledge gap between pheromone sensitivity and courtship
Neurobiologists have made a series of discoveries about fruit fly fertility and smell. The findings solve a long-standing puzzle of whether and how courtship-promoting signals are amplified by olfactory receptor neurons, or ORNs. The researchers found that a channel known as PPK25 amplifies courtship signals in the ORNs of male flies. Biologically, PPK25 heightens males' sensitivity to their mates' odors at the age of peak fertility, thus promoting courtship when flies are most fertile. (2019-10-16)

Scientists identify genetic variation linked to severity of ALS
A discovery made several years ago in a lab researching asthma at Wake Forest School of Medicine may now have implications for the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a disease with no known cure and only two FDA-approved drugs to treat its progression and severity. (2019-10-16)

Gene regulators work together for oversized impact on schizophrenia risk
Researchers have discovered that gene expression regulators work together to raise an individual's risk of developing schizophrenia. Such synergistic interactions seen with schizophrenia-like gene expression changes in modeled induced human neurons matched changes found in patients' brains. (2019-09-23)

UCI study reveals critical role of brain circuits in improving learning and memory
A University of California, Irvine-led team of scientists has discovered how newly identified neural circuits in the brain's hippocampal formation play a critical role in object-location learning and memory. (2019-09-23)

Up-close and personal with neuronal networks
Researchers from Harvard University have developed an electronic chip that can perform high-sensitivity intracellular recording from thousands of connected neurons simultaneously. This breakthrough allowed them to map synaptic connectivity at an unprecedented level, identifying hundreds of synaptic connections. (2019-09-23)

How relapse happens: Opiates reduce the brain's ability to form, maintain synapses
Exposure to heroin sharply reduces levels of the protein necessary for developing and maintaining the brain's synapses, a preclinical study by University at Buffalo researchers has found. (2019-09-12)

Researchers and rats play 'hide and seek,' illuminating playful behavior in animals
Rats can be taught to play hide and seek with humans and can become quite skilled at the game, according to a new study, which presents a novel paradigm for studying insights into the neurobiology of playful behavior in animals. (2019-09-12)

Tracing the evolution of vision
The function of the visual photopigment rhodopsin and its action in the retina to facilitate vision is well understood. However, there remain questions about other biological functions of this family of proteins (opsins) and this has ramifications for our understanding of several evolutionary pathways. Now, an international research team led by the University of Göttingen has shown there are other functions of opsin outside vision and this provides insights into how the eye evolved. Their research was published in Current Biology. (2019-08-22)

Spaceflight consistently affects the gut
A new Northwestern University study discovered that spaceflight -- both aboard a space shuttle or the International Space Station (ISS) -- has a consistent effect on the gut microbiome. (2019-08-21)

The brain inspires a new type of artificial intelligence
Using advanced experiments on neuronal cultures and large scale simulations, scientists at Bar-Ilan University have demonstrated a new type of ultrafast artifical intelligence algorithms -- based on the very slow brain dynamics -- which outperform learning rates achieved to date by state-of-the-art learning algorithms. In an article in Scientific Reports, the researchers rebuild the bridge between neuroscience and advanced artificial intelligence algorithms that has been left virtually useless for almost 70 years. (2019-08-09)

Manufacture of light-activated proteins
A new strategy for designing light-sensitive proteins has been developed by researchers at Ruhr-Universität Bochum. Such proteins, also known as optogenetic tools, can be switched on and off through light impulses, thus triggering specific cellular processes. So far, researchers developing optogenetic tools have been pretty much forced to resort to trial-and-error. A combination of computer-aided and experimental methods has now paved the way for a more targeted approach. (2019-08-02)

Call it Mighty Mouse: Breakthrough leaps Alzheimer's research hurdle
University of California, Irvine researchers have made it possible to learn how key human brain cells respond to Alzheimer's, vaulting a major obstacle in the quest to understand and one day vanquish it. By developing a way for human brain immune cells known as microglia to grow and function in mice, scientists now have an unprecedented view of crucial mechanisms contributing to the disease. (2019-07-31)

Newly discovered neural pathway processes acute light to affect sleep
Either to check the time or waste time, people often look at their smartphones after waking in the middle of the night. While this acute burst of light does make it more difficult to fall back to sleep, a new Northwestern University study reports that it won't interfere with the body's overall circadian rhythms. (2019-07-19)

Stimulating life-like perceptual experiences in brains of mice
Using a new and improved optogenetic technique, researchers report the ability to control -- and even create -- novel visual experiences in the brains of living mice, even in the absence of natural sensory input, according to a new study. (2019-07-18)

First step to induce self-repair in the central nervous system
Injured axons instruct Schwann cells to build specialized actin spheres to break down and remove axon fragments, thereby starting the regeneration process. (2019-07-11)

Plants don't think, they grow: The case against plant consciousness
If a tree falls, and no one's there to hear it, does it feel pain and loneliness? No, experts argue in an opinion article publishing on July 3 in the journal Trends in Plant Science. They draw this conclusion from the research of Todd Feinberg and Jon Mallatt, which explores the evolution of consciousness through comparative studies of simple and complex animal brains. (2019-07-03)

Deciphering how the brain encodes color and shape
There are hundreds of thousands of distinct colors and shapes that a person can distinguish visually, but how does the brain process all of this information? Scientists previously believed that the visual system initially encodes shape and color with different sets of neurons and then combines them much later. But a new study from Salk researchers, published in Science on June 27, 2019, shows that there are neurons that respond selectively to particular combinations of color and shape. (2019-06-27)

Antibiotic treatment alleviates Alzheimer's disease symptoms in male mice, study reveals
Researchers at The University of Chicago have demonstrated that the type of bacteria living in the gut can influence the development of Alzheimer's disease symptoms in mice. The study, which will be published May 16, 2019 in the Journal of Experimental Medicine, shows that, by altering the gut microbiome, long-term antibiotic treatment reduces inflammation and slows the growth of amyloid plaques in the brains of male mice, though the same treatment has no effect on female animals. (2019-05-16)

A nerve cell serves as a 'single' for studies
Nerve cells derived from human stem cells often serve as the basis for research into brain diseases. However, these cells differ considerably in their quality and produce varying results. Scientists are therefore looking for simple cell models that lead to consistent results. Research teams from the University of Bonn, the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam and the Max Planck Institute for Experimental Medicine in Göttingen describe a model that consists of only one human nerve cell. (2019-05-14)

Easy on the eyes
New computer program uses artificial intelligence to determine what visual neurons like to see. Algorithm generates synthetic images that morph into 'super stimulus' for neurons, removing inherent bias of using natural images to gauge preferences. The approach could shed light on learning disabilities, autism spectrum disorders and other neurologic conditions. (2019-05-02)

Barrow researcher discovers critical RNA processing aberrations
Research by a Barrow Neurological Center scientist on mechanisms of dysfunctional RNA processing in ALS and frontaltemporal dementia (FTD) was published in the April issue of Acta Neuropathologica. The research was conducted by Dr. Rita Sattler and her graduate student Stephen Moore in her laboratory at the Department of Neurobiology at Barrow Neurological Institute, which is dedicated to understanding the mechanisms of disease in ALS, FTD and related neurodegenerative diseases. (2019-04-18)

Adenosine kinase deficiency makes liver more susceptible to carcinogen
A new study has shown that reduced adenosine kinase expression in the liver can make it more susceptible to carcinogenic damage and the development of liver cancer. (2019-04-10)

Is adenosine the missing link in restless leg syndrome?
Researchers have identified a common mechanism implicating adenosine in the cause of restless leg syndrome (RLS) symptoms -- the periodic limb movements characteristic of RLS and the state of enhanced arousal that both disrupt sleep. (2019-04-03)

Unique patterns of brain activity predict treatment responses in patients with PTSD
A neuroimaging study of 184 patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has identified unique patterns of brain activity that predict poorer responses to talk therapy (or psychotherapy), the current gold standard and only effective treatment for addressing PTSD. (2019-04-03)

Controlling and visualizing receptor signals in neural cells with light
Using a novel optogenetic tool, researchers have successfully controlled, reproduced and visualized serotonin receptor signals in neural cells. To this end, they modified a photosensitive membrane receptor in the eye, namely melanopsin. They were able to switch the receptor on and off using light; it also acted like a sensor indicating via fluorescence if specific signalling pathways in the cell had been activated. The sensor was, moreover, specifically designed to migrate to those domains in the neural cells that are sensitive to the neurotransmitter serotonin. (2019-02-14)

Fight or flight: Serotonin neurons prompt brain to make the right call
Known for its role in relieving depression, the neurochemical serotonin may also help the brain execute instantaneous, appropriate behaviors in emergency situations, according to a new Cornell study published Feb. 1 in Science. (2019-01-31)

Nerve growth factor: Early studies and recent clinical trials
NGF is the first discovered member of a family of neurotrophic factors, collectively indicated as neurotrophins, (which include brain-derived neurotrophic factor, neurotrophin-3 and neurotrophin 4/5). NGF was discovered for its action on the survival and differentiation of selected populations of peripheral neurons. (2019-01-18)

New role for brain's support cells in controlling circadian rhythms
An Medical Research Council funded study published today in the journal Science, has found that astrocytes, previously thought of as just supporting neurons in regulating circadian rhythms, can actually lead the tempo of the body's internal clock and have been shown for the first time to be able to control patterns of daily behaviour in mammals. (2019-01-10)

Thriving on teamwork: new research shows how brain cells filter information in groups
For decades, scientists studying the visual system thought that individual brain cells, called neurons, operate as filters. Some neurons would prefer coarse details of the visual scene and ignore fine details, while others would do the opposite. Every neuron was thought to do its own filtering. A new study led by Salk Institute researchers reveals that the same neurons that prefer coarse details could change to prefer finer details under different conditions. (2018-12-31)

Glutamate receptor affects the development of brain cells after birth
It had been previously assumed that this protein is only relevant in adults. But this is not the case. (2018-12-06)

New methods to identify Alzheimer's drug candidates with anti-aging properties
Old age is the greatest risk factor for many diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cancer. Geroprotectors are a recently identified class of anti-aging compounds. New Salk research has now identified a unique subclass of these compounds, dubbed geroneuroprotectors (GNPs), which are AD drug candidates and slow the aging process in mice. (2018-11-13)

Biomarkers facilitate early detection of glaucoma
Researchers at Ruhr-Universität Bochum have identified new potential biomarkers that may facilitate early detection of glaucoma in patients. Moreover, they ascertained that the mutation of a certain gene in mice causes intraocular pressure elevation. This, in turn, is one of the main risk factors for glaucoma. (2018-10-25)

Cellular 'tuning mechanism' builds elegant eyes
Scientists discover a molecular 'brake' that helps control eye lens development in zebrafish. (2018-10-15)

Smoking cessation: a genetic mutation involved in relapse
Why is it so difficult to stop smoking? Why do some people relapse months after giving up? Scientists from the Institut Pasteur and the CNRS, in collaboration with Sorbonne University and Inserm, have demonstrated that a genetic mutation already known to be involved in sensitivity to nicotine also plays a role in relapse behavior after cessation in rats. The findings will be published in the journal Current Biology on Oct. 4, 2018. (2018-10-04)

Even mild physical activity immediately improves memory function, UCI-led study finds
Researchers at the University of California, Irvine, and Japan's University of Tsukuba found that even very light workouts can increase the connectivity between parts of the brain responsible for memory formation and storage. (2018-09-24)

Prenatal exposure to cannabis impacts sociability of male offspring only
Taking cannabinoids during pregnancy can cause behavioural and neuronal deficits in adult male offspring, while females remain unaffected, says new research published in eLife. (2018-09-11)

Page 2 of 17 | 658 Results
   First   Previous   Next      Last   
Brightsurf.com is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com.