Current Neurons News and Events

Current Neurons News and Events, Neurons News Articles.
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ALS neuron damage reversed with new compound
Scientists have identified the first compound that eliminates the ongoing degeneration of upper motor neurons that become diseased and are a key contributor to ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis), a swift and fatal neurodegenerative disease that paralyzes its victims. In ALS, movement-initiating nerve cells in the brain and muscle-controlling nerve cells in the spinal cord die. After administering the new compound,, the diseased brain neurons stopped degenerating so much that they became similar to healthy control neurons after 60 days of treatment. (2021-02-23)

Sleep is vital to associating emotion with memory, according to U-M study
When you slip into sleep, it's easy to imagine that your brain shuts down, but University of Michigan research suggests that groups of neurons activated during prior learning keep humming, tattooing memories into your brain. (2021-02-22)

BU researchers identify biochemical process responsible for producing toxic tau
Tau is a protein that helps stabilize the internal skeleton of nerve cells (neurons) in the brain. Groups of toxic tau protein, termed tau oligomers, drive disease progression and memory loss in Alzheimer's disease (AD). A new study from Boston University School of Medicine (BUSM) shows how these tau oligomers form, and, correspondingly, how they can be prevented. (2021-02-22)

'Walking' molecule superstructures could help create neurons for regenerative medicine
By discovering a new printable biomaterial that can mimic properties of brain tissue, Northwestern University researchers are now closer to developing a platform capable of conditions using regenerative medicine. (2021-02-22)

Making sense of the mass data generated from firing neurons
Scientists reveal technological breakthrough which may help answer key questions about how animals process information and adapt to environmental changes. Researchers at the University of Sussex and University of Kyoto have developed a new framework capable of analysing the masses of data created when studying the thousands of neutrons within an animal's brain. (2021-02-19)

Study reveals how a longevity gene protects brain stem cells from stress
A gene linked to unusually long lifespans in humans protects brain stem cells from the harmful effects of stress, according to a new study by Weill Cornell Medicine investigators. (2021-02-19)

Columbia researchers uncover altered brain connectivity after prolonged anesthesia
A body of evidence supports the association between prolonged anesthesia and cognitive impairment, but the Columbia study is first to address the effect of the procedure on neural connections. (2021-02-17)

Study shows how some neurons compensate for death of their neighbors
By studying several neuron pairs that innervate distinct muscles in a fruit fly model, researchers found that some neurons compensate for the loss of a neighboring partner. (2021-02-17)

Biodegradable microcapsules deliver nerve growth factor to guide neuronal development
Researchers from Skoltech and their colleagues have demonstrated that nanoengineered biodegradable microcapsules can guide the development of hippocampal neurons in an in vitro experiment. The microcapsules deliver nerve growth factor, a peptide necessary for neuron growth. (2021-02-16)

UTEP professor's study may lead to solutions for overeating
The 10-member team made discoveries about a specific area of the brain tied to recollection and the desire to seek and consume food. It could lead to a way to inhibit the desire to overeat. (2021-02-12)

Study suggests sounds influence the developing brain earlier than previously thought
In experiments in newborn mice, scientists at Johns Hopkins report that sounds appear to change ''wiring'' patterns in areas of the brain that process sound earlier than scientists assumed and even before the ear canal opens. (2021-02-12)

Tiny population of neurons may have big role in depression
Medical College of Georgia scientists and their colleagues report the first evidence that, not short-term stress, like a series of tough college exams, rather chronic, unpredictable stress like that which erupts in our personal and professional lives, induces changes in the function of AgRP neurons that may contribute to depression (2021-02-11)

Cold sores: Discovery reveals how stress, illness and even sunburn trigger flareups
The finding could lead to new ways to prevent cold sores and herpes-related eye disease from reoccurring, the researchers report. (2021-02-11)

Compounds from apples may boost brain function
Natural compounds found in apples and other fruits may help stimulate the production of new brain cells, which may have implications for learning and memory, according to a new study in mice published in Stem Cell Reports. (2021-02-11)

Where and when is economic decision-making represented in the brain?
Researchers at the University of Tsukuba report two areas of the monkey brain that represent expected value when making economic decisions. Analyses showed that neuronal activity in the VS and the cOFC provided stable representations of expected value, while other regions that are part of the reward network in the brain did not. State-space analysis revealed that the way expected value was represented over time differed in these two areas. (2021-02-10)

Adult neurogenesis may hold clues for more effective treatment of alcoholism
Neuroplasticity, the remarkable ability of the brain to modify and reorganize itself, is affected by or in response to excessive alcohol, whether through individual consumption or exposure in the womb. It is now well accepted that the birth and integration of new neurons continue beyond development and into adulthood. New discoveries and insights on how alcohol impacts this and other plastic processes are discussed in ''Alcohol and Neural Plasticity,'' a special issue of Brain Plasticity. (2021-02-10)

New "molecular" tool helps shed light on individual synapses in brain cells
Optogenetics, or genetically engineering neurons to respond to light, is an important technique for studying how neurons work. However, manipulating individual synapses (gaps between neurons), where signaling transmission occurs, has been challenging until now. Researchers at National Institute of Physiological Sciences, Japan, have now generated a light-activated signaling protein that can help study signaling-related physiological changes in single neurons--a breakthrough that will be valuable for neuroscience. (2021-02-09)

As you look around, mental images bounce between right and left brain
A new study in Neuron explains how the brain helps us remember what we've seen, even as it shifts around in our visual system. That ability--to remember that something is the same thing no matter how it's moving around relative to our eyes--is what gives us the freedom to control where we look. (2021-02-08)

Study reveals neurons responsible for rapidly stopping behaviors, actions
For the first time in humans, investigators at Cedars-Sinai have identified the neurons responsible for canceling planned behaviors or actions--a highly adaptive skill that when lost, can lead to unwanted movements. (2021-02-03)

Researchers explore link between 'Alzheimer's gene' and COVID-19
A City of Hope-led research team found that the same gene that increases the risk for Alzheimer's disease, ApoE4, can increase the susceptibility to and severity of COVID-19. ''Our study provides a causal link between the Alzheimer's disease risk factor ApoE4 and COVID-19 and explains why some (e.g., ApoE4 carriers) but not all COVID-19 patients exhibit neurological manifestations'' said City of Hope's Yanhong Shi, Ph.D., co-corresponding author of the Cell Stem Cell study. (2021-02-03)

A study reveals that the brain distributes sensory information highly efficiently
Extracting information from a small fraction of neurons, according to a study published in Nature Communications, involving Rubén Moreno-Bote, a researcher at the Center for Brain and Cognition, together with researchers from the University of Zaragoza and the University of the Basque Country, led by Harvard University (USA). (2021-02-01)

Scientists solve long-standing mystery by a whisker
A team of neuroscientists at the University of California, Riverside, has experimented on mice to identify the brain region that functions beyond sensory encoding and motor encoding, potentially opening up new directions to studying the cellular and circuit mechanisms of sensory-motor transformations. The researchers report a cortical region traditionally defined as whisker motor cortex in mice is most directly related to the transformation process. (2021-01-29)

Scientists identify individual neurons responsible for complex social reasoning in humans
Until now, how neurons represent another individual's belief and thoughts was unknown. Prior to undergoing planned neurosurgery, patients agreed to perform brief behavioral tasks as neuroscientists recorded the activity of individual neurons. The study revealed the basic cellular mechanism involved in a fundamental cognitive process vital to successful social interactions. Now researchers have a framework to investigate disorders in which social behavior is affected. (2021-01-27)

A NEAT reduction of complex neuronal models accelerates brain research
Unlike their simple counterparts in artificial intelligence (AI) applications, neurons in the brain use dendrites - their intricate tree-like branches - to find relevant chunks of information. Now, neuroscientists from the University of Bern have discovered a new computational method to make complex dendrite models much simpler. These faithful reductions may lead AI applications to process information much like the brain does. (2021-01-27)

In a tight spot
A newly discovered circuit helps fish to prioritize. (2021-01-27)

Parkinson's disease risk and severity is tied to a channel in cells' 'recycling centers
Genetic variations associated with both increases and reductions in risk of the neurodegenerative disease alter the action of ion channels within cellular organelles called lysosomes, a new Penn study finds. (2021-01-27)

Epilepsy research focused on astrocytes
A significant number of epilepsy patients does not respond to currently available drugs. A collaboration between researchers in Japan and at the Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf (HHU) now addressed a cell type in the brain that has so far not received much attention in epilepsy therapy. In the current edition of the Journal of Neuroscience, they describe that astrocytes might be a potential new target to better treat this disease. (2021-01-25)

New technique to fast-track pain research
Scientists have for the first time established a sensory neuron model able to mass-reproduce two key sensory neuron types involved in pain sensation, enabling the easy generation of large numbers of the cells to fast-track chronic pain research. Using a new technique, researchers at Flinders University have found a way to reproduce millions of the cells, providing ample resources for the simultaneous testing of thousands of samples or potential drug libraries. (2021-01-21)

Memory fail controlled by dopamine circuit, study finds
Distraction can make you momentarily forget things. But how? Davis lab at Scripps Research, Florida uncovers a mechanism in fruit flies. (2021-01-21)

How the brain learns that earmuffs are not valuable at the beach
A collaboration between the University of Tsukuba and the NEI in the US has discovered that fast-spiking neurons in the basal ganglia allow monkeys to associate different values with the same objects based on the surrounding environment. Blocking input from these cells inhibited learning of new scene-based values, but did not erase already learned associations. This could help understand clinical conditions such as Tourette syndrome, which is characterized by reduced input from these cells. (2021-01-21)

Tiny high-tech probes reveal how information flows across the brain
A new study from researchers at the Allen Institute collected and analyzed the largest single dataset of neurons' electrical activity to glean principles of how we perceive the visual world around us. The study, published Wednesday in the journal Nature, captures the hundreds of split-second electrical signals that fire when an animal is interpreting what it sees. (2021-01-20)

A neuronal cocktail for motivation
'A journey of a thousand miles begins with a single step' is a popular adage that talks about the initial thrust required to embark on a task. However, once begun, how do we persevere on the job and not let it fall apart like a New Year resolution? How do we stay motivated? (2021-01-19)

Different types of neurons interact to make reaching-and-grasping tasks possible
Picking up that cup of coffee? New research from the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University finds that one type of neuron is necessary for the early part of the movement, another for aiming for the cup. (2021-01-19)

Brain cell network supplies neurons with energy
Until recently, oligodendrocytes were primarily thought to be a kind of cellular insulating tape that accelerates the transmission of electrical signals in the brain. A study by the University of Bonn (Germany) now shows that they are also important for the energy supply of neurons in some brain regions. The findings are published in the journal Cell Reports. (2021-01-19)

Parkinson's: Initial steps to show nerves their growth direction magnetically
One reason why nerve damage in the brain cannot regenerate easily is that the neurites do not know in which direction they should grow. A team of researchers from Ruhr-Universität Bochum (RUB), Sorbonne University Paris, and the Technische Universität Braunschweig is now working on showing them the direction using magnetic nanoparticles. (2021-01-18)

Artificial Intelligence beats us in chess, but not in memory
A new piece of research shows that the brain strategy for storing memories may lead to imperfect memories, but in turn, allows it to store more memories, and with less hassle than AI. The new study, carried out by SISSA scientists in collaboration with Kavli Institute for Systems Neuroscience & Centre for Neural Computation, Trondheim, Norway, has just been published in Physical Review Letters. (2021-01-15)

How the brain paralyzes you while you sleep
Researchers from the University of Tsukuba have discovered a group of neurons in the mouse brainstem that control muscle tone. Inhibiting these neuronal cells caused mice to move during REM sleep, reminiscent of REM sleep behavior disorders. These neurons were also responsible for episodes of cataplexy in a mouse model of narcolepsy; inhibiting them reduced the number of cataplexic bouts. These circuits could thus be a new target for treating these sleep disorders. (2021-01-14)

Master designers: Architects of the brain revealed
In a study published in Cell Reports, researchers at Kanazawa University identify pathways in the brain which enable neurons to assemble into functional units resembling tall columns. (2021-01-12)

SARS-CoV-2 can infect neurons and damage brain tissue, study indicates
Using both mouse and human brain tissue, researchers at Yale School of Medicine have discovered that SARS-CoV-2 can directly infect the central nervous system and have begun to unravel some of the virus's effects on brain cells. The study, published today in the Journal of Experimental Medicine (JEM), may help researchers develop treatments for the various neurological symptoms associated with COVID-19. (2021-01-12)

Study: New insights on the role of the MLL4 gene in Kabuki syndrome
Research suggests that MLL4 controls the production of neurons that secrete growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) in a part of the brain called the hypothalamus. (2021-01-11)

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