Current Nuclear Physics News and Events

Current Nuclear Physics News and Events, Nuclear Physics News Articles.
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High energy radiotherapy could 'paint' tumours to avoid harming healthy tissue
A radiotherapy technique which 'paints' tumours by targeting them precisely, and avoiding healthy tissue, has been devised in research led by the University of Strathclyde. (2021-02-23)

Scientists propose a new heavy particle similar to the Higgs boson
Unlike the Higgs boson, discovered at CERN's Large Hadron Collider in 2012 after a 40-year quest, the new particle proposed by these researchers is so heavy that it could not be produced directly even in this collider The University of Granada is among the participants in this major scientific advancement in Theoretical Physics, which could help unravel the mysteries of dark matter (2021-02-23)

Scientists claim that all high-energy cosmic neutrinos are born by quasars
Scientists of the P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (LPI RAS), the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT) and the Institute for Nuclear Research of RAS (INR RAS) studied the arrival directions of astrophysical neutrinos with energies more than a trillion electronvolts (TeV) and came to an unexpected conclusion: all of them are born near black holes in the centers of distant active galaxies - powerful radio sources. (2021-02-22)

Atomic nuclei in the quantum swing
The extremely precise control of nuclear excitations opens up possibilities of ultra-precise atomic clocks and powerful nuclear batteries. (2021-02-19)

A new piece of the HIV infection puzzle explored
Researchers from the European Molecular Biology Laboratory and Heidelberg University Hospital combine high-resolution imaging to observe the infection process in cell nuclei, opening the door for new therapeutics. (2021-02-18)

Physics of tumours: Cancer cells become fluidised and squeeze through tissue
Working with colleagues from Germany and the US, researchers at Leipzig University have achieved a breakthrough in research into how cancer cells spread. The team of biophysicists led by Professor Josef Alfons Käs, Steffen Grosser and Jürgen Lippoldt demonstrated for the first time how cells deform in order to move in dense tumour tissues and squeeze past neighbouring cells. They have now published their findings in 'Physical Review X'. (2021-02-18)

LHC/ATLAS: A unique observation of particle pair creation in photon-photon collisions
Creation of matter in an interaction of two photons belongs to a class of very rare phenomena. From the data of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, collected with the new AFP proton detectors at the highest energies available to-date, a more accurate - and more interesting - picture of the phenomena occurring during photon collisions is emerging. (2021-02-18)

Investigating the wave properties of matter with vibrating molecules
The working group led by Prof. Stephan Schiller, Ph.D. from Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf (HHU) has used a novel, high-precision laser spectroscopic experiment to measure the internal vibration of the simplest molecule. This allowed the researchers to investigate the wave character of the motion of atomic nuclei with unprecedented accuracy. They present their findings in the current edition of Nature Physics. (2021-02-18)

Evolution's game of rock-paper-scissors
A group of scientists at Lehigh University led by Gregory Lang, associate professor in the Department of Biological Sciences, has recently provided empirical evidence that evolution can be nontransitive. Lang and his team identify a nontransitive evolutionary sequence through a 1,000-generation yeast evolution experiment. In the experiment, an evolved clone outcompetes a recent ancestor but loses in direct competition with a distant ancestor. (2021-02-16)

Plant as superhero during nuclear power plant accidents
A collaborative study by a group of scientists from Iwate University, The University of Tokyo and Shimane University, Japan demonstrated for the first time that two ATP binding cassette proteins ABCG33 and ABCG37 function as potassium-independent cesium uptake carriers. (2021-02-16)

Molecular imaging determines effectiveness of novel metastatic breast cancer treatment
Molecular imaging can successfully predict response to a novel treatment for ER-positive, HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer patients who are resistant to hormonal therapy. According to research published in the February issue of The Journal of Nuclear Medicine, positron emission tomography (PET) imaging using an imaging agent called 18F-fluoroestradiol can help to determine which patients could benefit from treatments that could spare them from unnecessary chemotherapy. (2021-02-16)

New physics rules tested on quantum computer
Simulation of non-Hermitian quantum mechanics using a quantum computer goes beyond centuries old conventions (2021-02-15)

Light used to detect quantum information stored in 100,000 nuclear quantum bits
Researchers have found a way to use light and a single electron to communicate with a cloud of quantum bits and sense their behaviour, making it possible to detect a single quantum bit in a dense cloud. (2021-02-15)

Scientists discovered new physical effects important for the ITER reactor operation
The energy of the future lies in the area of the controlled thermonuclear fusion. Researchers discovered new effects, which affect the energy flow in the reactor. The theoretical predictions were confirmed by the experiments on two tokamaks. The research results were published in the scientific journal 'Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion'. (2021-02-11)

Joint radionuclide therapy-immunotherapy approach effective in prostate cancer model
A combination of radionuclide therapy and immunotherapy has proven successful in slowing the progression of prostate cancer and increasing survival time, according to new research published in the February issue of The Journal of Nuclear Medicine. The results of the murine study indicate that radionuclide therapy promotes prostate cancer immunogenicity, provoking a cellular response that makes the tumors more receptive to immunotherapy. (2021-02-08)

A magnetic twist to graphene
By combining ferromagnets and two rotated layers of graphene, researchers open up a new platform for strongly interacting states using graphene's unique quantum degree of freedom. (2021-02-08)

Mathematics developed new classes of stellar dynamics systems solutions
The Vlasov-Poisson equations describe many important physical phenomena such as the distribution of gravitating particles in the interstellar space, high-temperature plasma kinetics, and the Landau damping effect. A joint team of scientists from the Mathematical Institute of RUDN University and the Mathematical Institute of the University of Munich suggested a new method to obtain stationary solutions for a system of Vlasov-Poisson equations in a three-dimensional case. (2021-02-05)

A new tool in the search for axions
Researchers have discovered a new avenue to search for axions--a hypothetical particle that is one of the candidates of dark matter particles. The group, which usually performs ultra-high precision measurements of the fundamental properties of trapped antimatter, has for the first time used the ultra-sensitive superconducting single antiproton detection system of their advanced Penning trap experiment as a sensitive dark matter antenna. (2021-02-04)

Charge radii of exotic potassium isotopes challenge nuclear structure theory
In nuclear physics so-called magic number are such nuclear proton and/or neutron numbers, for which the nucleus is more stable compared to neighboring isotopes on the nuclear chart. An international research team studied the nuclear charge radii of potassium isotopes. Isotopes were studied by using the collinear resonance ionization spectroscopy technique. The results indicated that the potassium isotope with a neutron number of 32 does not conform with criteria of magic neutron number. The results were published in Nature Physics journal. (2021-02-04)

Dynamics of radiocesium in forests after the Fukushima disaster: Concerns and some hope
The 2011 nuclear disaster at Fukushima, Japan caused a great amount of radioactive cesium to spread to nearby forests. Now, in a chapter in the latest technical document of the International Atomic Energy Agency, researchers from Japan, in collaboration with experts in Europe, explore the dynamic flow of these radionuclides in forest ecosystems. Their compilation of data and analyses on radiocesium dynamics will help us develop better forest remediation strategies. (2021-02-03)

Aging-US: Sulforaphane promotes C. elegans longevity and healthspan
'The results in this Aging-US research output, indicate that sulforaphane prolongs the lifespan and healthspan of C. elegans through insulin/IGF-1 signaling.' (2021-02-03)

Pollinator host-switches and fig hybridization dominate fig-wasp coevolution
Together with colleagues from 11 institutions from home and abroad, researchers from the Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden (XTBG) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences have recently shown that the fig hybridization mediated by pollinator host-switching in the obligate fig-wasp pollination system is more common than previously thought. (2021-02-02)

Solving complex physics problems at lightning speed
A calculation so complex that it takes twenty years to complete on a powerful desktop computer can now be done in one hour on a regular laptop. Physicist Andreas Ekström at Chalmers University of Technology, together with international research colleagues, has designed a new method to calculate the properties of atomic nuclei incredibly quickly. (2021-02-01)

Paving the way for effective field theories
This special issue, published in EPJ A, presents a coherent collection of work by theoretical experts from around the world regarding the use of effective field theories. Several unanswered questions are addressed and clarified, leading to detailed assessments of the philosophical foundations of effective field theories. (2021-02-01)

Optimized LIBS technique improves analysis of nuclear reactor materials
In a new study, investigators report an optimized approach to using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for analyzing hydrogen isotopes. Their new findings could enable improved rapid identification and measurement of hydrogen and other light isotopes that are important in nuclear reactor materials and other applications. (2021-02-01)

A full-scale prototype for muon tomography
In this article of EPJ Plus, researchers build on previous studies into detection technologies and reconstruction algorithms for muon tomography, to develop a full-scale muon tomograph prototype. (2021-02-01)

Searching for dark matter through the fifth dimension
Theoretical physicists of the PRISMA+ Cluster of Excellence at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz are working on a theory that goes beyond the Standard Model of particle physics. The central element is an extra dimension in spacetime. Until now, the scientists have faced the problem that the predictions of their theory could not be tested experimentally. They have now overcome this problem in a publication in the current issue of the European Physical Journal C. (2021-02-01)

Coiling them up: Synthesizing organic molecules with a long helical structure
Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology produced and extensively characterized novel organic molecules with a long helical structure. Unlike previous helical molecules, these longer compounds exhibit special interactions between coils that could give rise to interesting optical and chemical properties with applications in light polarization, catalysis, and molecular springs. (2021-01-29)

It's elemental: Ultra-trace detector tests gold purity
Ultra-trace radiation detection technique sets new global standard for measuring the nearly immeasurable (2021-01-28)

Size of helium nucleus measured more precisely than ever before
In experiments at the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI, an international research collaboration has measured the radius of the atomic nucleus of helium five times more precisely than ever before. With the aid of the new value, fundamental physical theories can be tested and natural constants can be determined even more precisely (2021-01-27)

Forests with diverse tree sizes and small clearings hinder wildland fire growth
A new 3D analysis shows that wildland fires flare up in forests populated by similar-sized trees or checkerboarded by large clearings and slow down where trees are more varied. (2021-01-27)

Change of course on the journey to the island of stability
An international research team succeeded in gaining new insights into the artificially produced superheavy element flerovium, element 114, at the accelerator facilities of the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt, Germany. Under the leadership of Lund University in Sweden and with significant participation of Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) as well as the Helmholtz Institute Mainz (HIM) in Germany and other partners, flerovium was produced and investigated to determine whether it has a closed proton shell. (2021-01-26)

Nuclear physicist's voyage towards a mythical island
Theories were introduced as far back as the 1960s about the possible existence of superheavy elements. Their most long-lived atomic nuclei could give rise to a so-called ''island of stability'' far beyond the element uranium. However, a new study, led by nuclear physicists at Lund University, shows that a 50-year-old nuclear physics manifesto must now be revised. (2021-01-26)

Compelling evidence of neutrino process opens physics possibilities
The COHERENT particle physics experiment at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory has firmly established the existence of a new kind of neutrino interaction. Because neutrinos are electrically neutral and interact only weakly with matter, the quest to observe this interaction drove advances in detector technology and has added new information to theories aiming to explain mysteries of the cosmos. (2021-01-26)

Nuclear war could trigger big El Niño and decrease seafood
A nuclear war could trigger an unprecedented El Niño-like warming episode in the equatorial Pacific Ocean, slashing algal populations by 40 percent and likely lowering the fish catch, according to a Rutgers-led study. The research, published in the journal Communications Earth & Environment, shows that turning to the oceans for food if land-based farming fails after a nuclear war is unlikely to be a successful strategy - at least in the equatorial Pacific. (2021-01-25)

Alpha particles lurk at the surface of neutron-rich nuclei
Scientists from an international collaboration have found evidence of alpha particles at the surface of neutron-rich heavy nuclei, providing new insights into the structure of neutron stars, as well as the process of alpha decay. (2021-01-21)

Search for axions from nearby star Betelgeuse comes up empty
An MIT-led search for axions from nearby star Betelgeuse has come up empty, significantly narrowing the search for hypothetical dark matter particle. (2021-01-21)

Expanded PET imaging time window adds flexibility for neuroendocrine tumor patients
The imaging time window of 64Cu-DOTATATE positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for patients with neuroendocrine neoplasms can be expanded from one hour to three hours post-injection, according to new research published in the January issue of The Journal of Nuclear Medicine. In a head-to-head comparison of scans performed at the two time intervals, there were no significant differences in the number of lesions detected, and tumor-to-normal tissue ratios remained high in all key organs. (2021-01-20)

Alcohols exhibit quantum effects
Skoltech scientists and their colleagues from the Russian Quantum Center revealed a significant role of nuclear quantum effects in the polarization of alcohol in an external electric field. The new research provides insight into the properties of liquid dielectrics. The core assumption of the model pertains to a novel understanding of dielectric polarization phenomena in polar liquids by means of nuclear quantum effects. (2021-01-19)

Helium nuclei at the surface of heavy nuclei discovered
Scientists are able to selectively knockout nucleons and preformed nuclear clusters from atomic nuclei using high-energy proton beams. In an experiment the existence of preformed helium nuclei at the surface of several tin isotopes could be identified in a reaction. The results confirm a theory, which predicts the formation of helium clusters in low-density nuclear matter and at the surface of heavy nuclei. (2021-01-15)

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