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Current Nuclear Weapons News and Events, Nuclear Weapons News Articles.
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Scientists achieve higher precision weak force measurement between protons, neutrons
Through a one-of-a-kind experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, nuclear physicists have precisely measured the weak interaction between protons and neutrons. The result quantifies the weak force theory as predicted by the Standard Model of Particle Physics. (2020-09-24)

Increasing the effectiveness of cancer treatments: Anti-PD-L1 immunotherapy
Researh teams of Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU) and Harvard Medical School (HMS) have uncovered how to increase the efficacy of anti-PD-L1 immunotherapy. Using a combination of molecular, biochemical, and bioinformatics approaches, they discovered that the nuclear localization of PD-L1 is controlled by acetylation at a single, specific, Lys site. In the nucleus, PD-L1 controls the expression of immune related genes. Therefore, targeting PD-L1 nuclear localization could enhance the efficacy of PD-1/PD-L1 blockade based immunotherapies. (2020-09-18)

New cause of syndromic microcephaly identified
A team of international collaborators identifies a new cause of syndromic microcephaly caused by LMNB1 mutations that disrupt the nuclear envelope. The report is published in the October issue of the American Journal of Human Genetics. (2020-09-17)

PET/MRI improves lesion detection, reduces radiation exposure
A single-center observational study of more than 1,000 oncological examinations has demonstrated that positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) facilitates cancer staging as well as PET/computed tomography (PET/CT) and improves lesion detectability in select cancers, potentially helping to promote fast, efficient local and whole-body staging in one step. (2020-09-17)

Elements of surprise: neutron stars contribute little, but something's making gold, research finds
Neutron star collisions do not create the quantity of chemical elements previously assumed, a new analysis of galaxy evolution finds. The research also reveals that current models can't explain the amount of gold in the cosmos - creating an astronomical mystery. The work has produced a new-look Periodic Table, showing the stellar origins of naturally occurring elements from carbon to uranium. (2020-09-15)

Dipanjan Pan demonstrates new method to produce gold nanoparticles in cancer cells
Researchers published a seminal study in Nature Communications that demonstrates for the first time a method of biosynthesizing plasmonic gold nanoparticles within cancer cells, without the need for conventional bench-top lab methods. It has the potential to notably expand biomedical applications. (2020-09-11)

Innate immune system -- How cGAS is kept bottled up
In higher organisms, detection of DNA in the cytoplasm triggers an immune reaction. The enzyme that senses 'misplaced' DNA is also found in the nucleus, but nuclear DNA has no such effect. Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich researchers now report why that is so. (2020-09-10)

Tear gas should be banned, researchers find; here's why
Tear gas should be banned as it is inherently indiscriminate and frequently abused when deployed against peaceful assemblies, in enclosed spaces, in excessive quantities and against vulnerable populations. It cannot distinguish between the young and the elderly, the healthy and the sick, the peaceful and the violent. Its deployment can also cause myriad health harms, including severe injuries and death. (2020-09-03)

Cell division: Cleaning the nucleus without detergents
A team of researchers, spearheaded by the Gerlich lab at IMBA, has uncovered how cells remove unwanted components from the nucleus following mitosis. The results, published in the journal Nature, stem from a fruitful collaboration between the Gerlich lab and former IMBA Postdoc Sara Cuylen-Häring, who recently established her own group at EMBL. (2020-09-03)

Scientists develop first drug-like compounds to inhibit elusive cancer-linked enzymes
Structural biology techniques helped researchers target the nuclear receptor-binding SET domain family for the first time; its malfunction is associated with several types of cancer. (2020-08-31)

Genetic mutations may be linked to infertility, early menopause
A new study from Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis identifies a specific gene's previously unknown role in fertility. When the gene is missing in fruit flies, roundworms, zebrafish and mice, the animals are infertile or lose their fertility unusually early but appear otherwise healthy. Analyzing genetic data in people, the researchers found an association between mutations in this gene and early menopause. (2020-08-31)

Ancient star explosions revealed in the deep sea
A mystery surrounding the space around our solar system is unfolding thanks to evidence of supernovae found in deep-sea sediments. (2020-08-24)

Foiling illicit cryptocurrency mining with artificial intelligence
Los Alamos National Laboratory computer scientists have developed a new artificial intelligence (AI) system that may be able to identify malicious codes that hijack supercomputers to mine for cryptocurrency such as Bitcoin and Monero. (2020-08-20)

Machine learning unearths signature of slow-slip quake origins in seismic data
Combing through historical seismic data, researchers using a machine learning model have unearthed distinct statistical features marking the formative stage of slow-slip ruptures in the earth's crust months before tremor or GPS data detected a slip in the tectonic plates. (2020-08-18)

Surrey academics develop a new method to determine the origin of stardust in meteorites
Scientists have made a key discovery thanks to stardust found in meteorites, shedding light on the origin of crucial chemical elements. (2020-08-11)

Physicists cast doubt on neutrino theory
University of Cincinnati physicists, as part of an international research team, are raising doubts about the existence of an exotic subatomic particle that failed to show up in twin experiments. (2020-08-11)

New approach for calculating radiation dosimetry allows for individualized therapy
Researchers have developed a simplified process that could enhance personalization of cancer therapy based on a single nuclear medicine scan. The novel method uses a follow-up single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) scan to obtain reliable radiation dose estimates to tumors and at-risk organs. The study is published in The Journal of Nuclear Medicine. (2020-08-11)

Explosive nuclear astrophysics
An international team has made a key discovery related to 'presolar grains' found in some meteorites. This discovery has shed light on stellar explosions and the origin of chemical elements. It has also provided a new method for astronomical research. (2020-08-10)

New multiple myeloma therapy shows promise in preclinical study
A new alpha-radioimmunotherapy, 212Pb-anti-CD38, has proven effective in preventing tumor growth and increasing survival in multiple myeloma tumor-bearing mice, according to new research published in the July issue of The Journal of Nuclear Medicine. Given the long half-life, central production and worldwide distribution of 212Pb-anti-CD38, researchers have determined that the α-radioimmunotherapy is not only effective but also clinically feasible as a multiple myeloma treatment. (2020-08-06)

Identifying and contending with radioisotopes of concern at Fukushima
In this Perspective, Ken Buesseler describes the enormous challenges that remain in doing clean-up on land in Japan following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant disaster in 2011, even as some progress has been made offshore. (2020-08-06)

Improved modelling of nuclear structure in francium aids searches for new physics
Thanks to researchers from The University of Queensland, we now know with much greater certainty the nuclear magnetic moments of francium atoms. (2020-08-04)

Simulating quantum 'time travel' disproves butterfly effect in quantum realm
Using a quantum computer to simulate time travel, researchers have demonstrated that, in the quantum realm, there is no 'butterfly effect.' In the research, information--qubits, or quantum bits--'time travel' into the simulated past. (2020-07-29)

Nondestructive positron beams probe damage, support safety advances in radiation environments
A multi-institution team has used positron beams to probe the nature of radiation effects, providing new insight into how damage is produced in iron films. (2020-07-29)

Media coverage fostered support for gun control in wake of NZ mosque shootings
Media coverage of the March 2019 Christchurch mosque shootings contributed to an increase in public support for gun control, a study by researchers at the University of Otago, Wellington has found. (2020-07-28)

Genomic signature explains FDG-avidity of PSMA-suppressed prostate tumors
Scientists have uncovered the genomic signature to explain why 18F-FDG imaging performs better than PSMA-targeted imaging for prostate cancer patients with low or no expression of the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA). In a study published in The Journal of Nuclear Medicine, researchers determined that a neuroendocrine gene signature associates with a distinct differential expression of glucose transporters and hexokinase proteins, which allows for a more favorable uptake of 18F-FDG than PSMA-targeted radioligands. (2020-07-22)

Study shows how traumatic experiences can leave their mark on a person's eyes
New research by Welsh academics shows that a patient's pupils can reveal if they have suffered a traumatic experience in the past. The study examined how an individual's eyes responded when shown threatening images. (2020-07-17)

Atomtronic device could probe boundary between quantum, everyday worlds
A new device that relies on flowing clouds of ultracold atoms promises potential tests of the intersection between the weirdness of the quantum world and the familiarity of the macroscopic world we experience every day. (2020-07-17)

New map for radioactive soil contamination in Western Europe
An international consortium of scientists has refined the map of caesium and plutonium radionuclide concentrations in soils in Switzerland and several neighbouring countries. Using an archive of European soil samples, the team led by Katrin Meusburger from the University of Basel, now at the WSL research institute, was able to trace the sources of radioactive fallout between 1960 and 2009. This study was published in Scientific Reports. (2020-07-16)

New very short-lived isotope 222Np is observed
In a recent study, researchers at the Institute of Modern Physics (IMP) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and their collaborators reported the first discovery of 222Np, a new very short-lived Np isotope, and validated the N = 126 shell effect in Np isotopes. The experiment, led by Prof. GAN Zaiguo of IMP, was carried out at the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou. (2020-07-16)

SNMMI Image of the Year: Super-agers show resistance to tau and amyloid accumulation
Super-agers, or individuals whose cognitive skills are above the norm even at an advanced age, have been found to have increased resistance to tau and amyloid proteins, according to research presented at the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI) 2020 Annual Meeting. (2020-07-15)

FSU news: Scientists discover heavy element chemistry can change at high pressures
An international team of researchers has demonstrated how curium -- element 96 in the periodic table and one of the last that can be seen with the naked eye -- responds to the application of high pressure created by squeezing a sample between two diamonds. (2020-07-15)

A rapid finger-stick blood test quickly estimates radiation exposure in mice
A new finger-stick test can use a single drop of blood to quickly estimate how much harmful radiation mice have been exposed to, according to a study. (2020-07-15)

Particulate plutonium released from the Fukushima Daiichi meltdowns
Small amounts of plutonium (Pu) were released from the damaged Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) reactors into the environment during the site's 2011 nuclear disaster. However, the physical, chemical, and isotopic form of the released Pu has remained unknown. Now, recent work published in the journal ''Science of the Total Environment'' has shown that Pu was included inside cesium-rich microparticles (CsMPs) that were emitted from the site. (2020-07-14)

Twisting magnetic fields for extreme plasma compression
A new spin on the magnetic compression of plasmas could improve materials science, nuclear fusion research, X-ray generation and laboratory astrophysics, research led by the University of Michigan suggests. (2020-07-14)

New PET/MRI approach pinpoints chronic pain location, alters management
A new molecular imaging approach utilizing 18F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can precisely identify the location of pain generators in chronic pain sufferers, often precipitating a new management plan for patients. This research was presented at the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging 2020 Annual Meeting. (2020-07-13)

New theranostic agents show efficacy in prostate cancer treatment in preclinical studies
Researchers have developed a new pair of agents that show exceptional effectiveness for precision diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer in preclinical studies. The agents, which target prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), can be easily and economically synthesized without specialized equipment. This research was presented at the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging's 2020 Annual Meeting on July 11-14, 2020. (2020-07-13)

Novel radiotracer measures synaptic activity after stroke
A new radiotracer, 18F-SynVesT-2, can directly assess synaptic density changes in the brain, providing an objective and quantitative measure of disease progression after stroke. Research presented at the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging 2020 Annual Meeting shows that the radiotracer may also offer a primary endpoint to evaluate treatment efficacy of novel therapeutics for stroke in clinical trials. (2020-07-13)

In recurrent prostate cancer, PSMA PET/CT changes management in two-thirds of cases
New research confirms the high impact of PSMA PET/CT in the detection and management of recurrent disease in prostate cancer patients. In initial results from a multicenter trial assessing the impact of 18F-DCFPyL prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PSMA PET/CT), a PET-directed change in management was observed in two-thirds of patients. The research was presented at the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging's 2020 Virtual Annual Meeting. (2020-07-13)

Total-body dynamic PET successfully detects metastatic cancer; first patient results
Results from the first study using uEXPLORER to conduct total-body dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) scans in cancer patients show that it can be used to generate high-quality images of metastatic cancer. The research was presented at the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging 2020 Virtual Annual Meeting on July 11-14, 2020. (2020-07-13)

Novel bone imaging approach provides insights into the progression of knee osteoarthritis
A new approach to functional bone imaging has established that bone metabolism is abnormally elevated in patients with knee osteoarthritis. This physiological information provides a new functional measure to help assess degeneration of the knee joint. The research was presented at the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging 2020 Virtual Annual Meeting, July 11-14, 2020. (2020-07-13)

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