Current Nuclei News and Events

Current Nuclei News and Events, Nuclei News Articles.
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The perfect recipe for efficient perovskite solar cells
A long-cherished dream of materials researchers is a solar cell that converts sunlight into electrical energy as efficiently as silicon, but that can be easily and inexpensively fabricated from abundant materials. Scientists at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin have now come a step closer to achieving this. (2021-02-22)

Atomic nuclei in the quantum swing
The extremely precise control of nuclear excitations opens up possibilities of ultra-precise atomic clocks and powerful nuclear batteries. (2021-02-19)

Physics of tumours: Cancer cells become fluidised and squeeze through tissue
Working with colleagues from Germany and the US, researchers at Leipzig University have achieved a breakthrough in research into how cancer cells spread. The team of biophysicists led by Professor Josef Alfons Käs, Steffen Grosser and Jürgen Lippoldt demonstrated for the first time how cells deform in order to move in dense tumour tissues and squeeze past neighbouring cells. They have now published their findings in 'Physical Review X'. (2021-02-18)

Investigating the wave properties of matter with vibrating molecules
The working group led by Prof. Stephan Schiller, Ph.D. from Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf (HHU) has used a novel, high-precision laser spectroscopic experiment to measure the internal vibration of the simplest molecule. This allowed the researchers to investigate the wave character of the motion of atomic nuclei with unprecedented accuracy. They present their findings in the current edition of Nature Physics. (2021-02-18)

Light used to detect quantum information stored in 100,000 nuclear quantum bits
Researchers have found a way to use light and a single electron to communicate with a cloud of quantum bits and sense their behaviour, making it possible to detect a single quantum bit in a dense cloud. (2021-02-15)

Iodine oxoacids drive rapid aerosol formation in pristine atmospheric areas
Iodine plays a bigger role than thought in rapid new particle formation (NPF) in relatively pristine regions of the atmosphere, such as along marine coasts, in the Arctic boundary layer or in the upper free troposphere, according to a new study. (2021-02-04)

Charge radii of exotic potassium isotopes challenge nuclear structure theory
In nuclear physics so-called magic number are such nuclear proton and/or neutron numbers, for which the nucleus is more stable compared to neighboring isotopes on the nuclear chart. An international research team studied the nuclear charge radii of potassium isotopes. Isotopes were studied by using the collinear resonance ionization spectroscopy technique. The results indicated that the potassium isotope with a neutron number of 32 does not conform with criteria of magic neutron number. The results were published in Nature Physics journal. (2021-02-04)

In symbiosis: Plants control the genetics of microbes
Researchers from the University of Ottawa have discovered that plants may be able to control the genetics of their intimate root symbionts - the organism with which they live in symbiosis - thereby providing a better understanding of their growth. In addition to having a significant impact on all terrestrial ecosystems, their discovery may lead to improved eco-friendly agricultural applications. (2021-02-04)

"Ghost particle" ML model permits full quantum description of the solvated electron
Pinning down the nature of bulk hydrated electrons has proven difficult experimentally because of their short lifetime and high reactivity. Theoretical exploration has been limited by the high level of electronic structure theory needed to achieve predictive accuracy. Now, joint work from teams at the University of Zurich and EPFL has resulted in a highly accurate machine-learning model inexpensive enough to allow for a full quantum statistical and dynamical description. (2021-02-03)

Solving complex physics problems at lightning speed
A calculation so complex that it takes twenty years to complete on a powerful desktop computer can now be done in one hour on a regular laptop. Physicist Andreas Ekström at Chalmers University of Technology, together with international research colleagues, has designed a new method to calculate the properties of atomic nuclei incredibly quickly. (2021-02-01)

Dalian coherent light source reveals the origin of interstellar medium S2 fragments
Researchers observed the C+S2 product channel from CS2 photodissociation for the first time using a home-made Time-Sliced Velocity Map Ion Imaging (TS-VMI) experimental setup, based on the Dalian Coherent Light Source (DCLS). (2021-01-28)

Size of helium nucleus measured more precisely than ever before
In experiments at the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI, an international research collaboration has measured the radius of the atomic nucleus of helium five times more precisely than ever before. With the aid of the new value, fundamental physical theories can be tested and natural constants can be determined even more precisely (2021-01-27)

Cell death shines a light on the origins of complex life
Organelles continue to thrive after the cells within which they exist die, a team of University of Bristol scientists have found, overturning previous assumptions that organelles decay too quickly to be fossilised. (2021-01-27)

Change of course on the journey to the island of stability
An international research team succeeded in gaining new insights into the artificially produced superheavy element flerovium, element 114, at the accelerator facilities of the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt, Germany. Under the leadership of Lund University in Sweden and with significant participation of Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) as well as the Helmholtz Institute Mainz (HIM) in Germany and other partners, flerovium was produced and investigated to determine whether it has a closed proton shell. (2021-01-26)

Nuclear physicist's voyage towards a mythical island
Theories were introduced as far back as the 1960s about the possible existence of superheavy elements. Their most long-lived atomic nuclei could give rise to a so-called ''island of stability'' far beyond the element uranium. However, a new study, led by nuclear physicists at Lund University, shows that a 50-year-old nuclear physics manifesto must now be revised. (2021-01-26)

Compelling evidence of neutrino process opens physics possibilities
The COHERENT particle physics experiment at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory has firmly established the existence of a new kind of neutrino interaction. Because neutrinos are electrically neutral and interact only weakly with matter, the quest to observe this interaction drove advances in detector technology and has added new information to theories aiming to explain mysteries of the cosmos. (2021-01-26)

Alpha particles lurk at the surface of neutron-rich nuclei
Scientists from an international collaboration have found evidence of alpha particles at the surface of neutron-rich heavy nuclei, providing new insights into the structure of neutron stars, as well as the process of alpha decay. (2021-01-21)

Helium nuclei at the surface of heavy nuclei discovered
Scientists are able to selectively knockout nucleons and preformed nuclear clusters from atomic nuclei using high-energy proton beams. In an experiment the existence of preformed helium nuclei at the surface of several tin isotopes could be identified in a reaction. The results confirm a theory, which predicts the formation of helium clusters in low-density nuclear matter and at the surface of heavy nuclei. (2021-01-15)

How aerosols are formed
ETH Zurich researchers conducted an experiment to investigate the initial steps in the formation of aerosols. Their findings are now aiding efforts to better understand and model that process - for example, the formation of clouds in the atmosphere. (2021-01-14)

Limits of atomic nuclei predicted
Novel calculations have enabled the study of nearly 700 isotopes between helium and iron, showing which nuclei can exist and which cannot. In an article published in Physical Review Letters, scientists from TU Darmstadt, the University of Washington, the Canadian laboratory TRIUMF, and the University of Mainz report how they simulated for the first time using innovative theoretical methods a large region of the chart of nuclides based on the theory of the strong interaction. (2021-01-13)

Same difference: predicting divergent paths of genetically identical cells
DALLAS - Jan. 11, 2021 - A set of biomarkers not traditionally associated with cell fate can accurately predict how genetically identical cells behave differently under stress, according to a UT Southwestern study. The findings, published by Cell Reports as a Dec. 1 cover story, could eventually lead to more predictable responses to pharmaceutical treatments. (2021-01-11)

We hear what we expect to hear
Dresden neuroscientists show that the entire auditory pathway represents sounds according to prior expectations. Their findings have now been published in the renowned scientific journal eLife. (2021-01-08)

The map of nuclear deformation takes the form of a mountain landscape
Until recently, scientists believed that only very massive nuclei could have excited zero-spin states of increased stability with a significantly deformed shape. Meanwhile, an international team of researchers from Romania, France, Italy, the USA and Poland showed in their latest article that such states also exist in much lighter nickel nuclei. Positive verification of the theoretical model used in these experiments allows describing the properties of nuclei unavailable in Earth laboratories. (2020-12-30)

Digging deep for differences in Duchenne muscular dystrophy
A UT Southwestern research team has catalogued gene activity in the skeletal muscle of mice, comparing healthy animals to those carrying a genetic mutation that causes Duchene muscular dystrophy (DMD) in humans. The findings, published online recently in PNAS, could lead to new treatments for this devastating degenerative disease and insights into factors that affect muscle development. (2020-12-21)

2D material controls light twice stronger
POSTECH research team identifies second-harmonics generation interference in 2D heterobilayers. (2020-12-17)

Characterising cold fusion in 2D models
Through a study published in EPJ D, researchers show theoretically how cold fusion driven by muon capture would unfold within 2D systems, without any need for approximations. (2020-12-16)

Muscle cell secrets
A muscle fiber consists of just one cell, but many nuclei. A team at the MDC led by Professor Carmen Birchmeier has now shown just how varied these nuclei are. The study, which has been published in Nature Communications, can help us better understand muscle diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy. (2020-12-11)

Breakthrough in nuclear physics
The positively charged protons in atomic nuclei should actually repel each other, and yet even heavy nuclei with many protons and neutrons stick together. The so-called strong interaction is responsible for this. Prof. Laura Fabbietti and her research group at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have now developed a method to precisely measure the strong interaction utilizing particle collisions in the ALICE experiment at CERN in Geneva. (2020-12-09)

Detecting solar neutrinos with the Borexino experiment
A paper published in EPJ C by a team of authors including XueFeng Ding, Postdoc Associate of Physics at Princeton University, United States, documents the attempts of the Borexino experiment to measure low-energy neutrinos from the sun's carbon-nitrogen-oxygen (CNO) cycle for the first time. (2020-12-04)

Sun model completely confirmed for the first time
The Borexino experiment research team has succeeded in detecting neutrinos from the sun's second fusion process, the Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen cycle (CNO cycle) for the first time. This means that all of the theoretical predictions on how energy is generated within the sun have now also been experimentally verified. The findings are the result of years of efforts devoted to bringing the background sources in the energy range of the CNO neutrinos under control. (2020-11-26)

Alternative gene control mechanism based on organization of DNA within nucleus
Researchers at the University of Tokyo have identified how the architecture of the cell nucleus can change gene activity in plants. This discovery reveals fundamental knowledge about genome regulation and points towards future methods for potentially manipulating the expression of many genes simultaneously. (2020-11-20)

Understanding astrophysics with laser-accelerated protons
Bringing huge amounts of protons up to speed in the shortest distance in fractions of a second -- that's what laser acceleration technology, greatly improved in recent years, can do. An international research team from the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung and the Helmholtz Institute Jena, a branch of GSI, in collaboration with the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA, has succeeded in using protons accelerated with the GSI high-power laser PHELIX to split other nuclei and to analyze them. (2020-11-16)

Boosted signal
First introduced into wide use in the middle of the 20th century, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has since become an indispensable technique for examining materials down to their atoms, revealing molecular structure and other details without interfering with the material itself. (2020-11-16)

Chemists discover the structure of a key coronavirus protein
MIT chemists have determined the molecular structure of a protein found in the SARS-CoV-2 virus. This protein forms a cation-selective channel and plays a key role in the virus's ability to replicate itself. If researchers could devise ways to block this channel, they may be able to reduce the pathogenicity of the virus and interfere with viral replication. (2020-11-12)

Black hole or no black hole: On the outcome of neutron star collisions
A new study lead by GSI scientists and international colleagues investigates black-hole formation in neutron star mergers. Computer simulations show that the properties of dense nuclear matter play a crucial role, which directly links the astrophysical merger event to heavy-ion collision experiments at GSI and FAIR. These properties will be studied more precisely at the future FAIR facility. The results have now been published in Physical Review Letters. (2020-11-10)

Surrey helps to produce the world's first neutron-rich, radioactive tantalum ions
An international team of scientists have unveiled the world's first production of a purified beam of neutron-rich, radioactive tantalum ions. (2020-11-10)

No matter the size of a nuclear party, some protons and neutrons will pair up and dance
No matter the size of a nuclear party, certain protons and neutrons will always pair up and dance, a new MIT study finds. The results will help map the workings within neutron stars and heavy radioactive nuclei. (2020-11-09)

City, University of London academics develop algorithm to analyse HeLa cancer cells
Dr Constantino Carlos Reyes-Aldasoro and Dr Cefa Karabag collaborate with the Francis Crick Institute on a novel approach published in the PLoS ONE journal, which significantly reduces the amount of time taken to analyse the cell line named after Henrietta Lacks, an African-American woman whose contribution to medical science was only formally acknowledged decades after her death. (2020-10-26)

The new heavy isotope mendelevium-244 and a puzzling short-lived fission activity
A team of scientists from GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung Darmstadt, University Mainz (JGU), Helmholtz Institute Mainz (HIM) and the University of Jyvaeskylae, Finland, has provided new insights into the fission processes in exotic nuclei and for this, has produced the hitherto unknown nucleus mendelevium-244. The experiments were part of ''FAIR Phase 0'', the first stage of the FAIR experimental program. The results have now been published in the journal ''Physical Review Letters''. (2020-10-21)

AI methods of analyzing social networks find new cell types in tissue
In situ sequencing enables gene activity inside body tissues to be depicted in microscope images. To facilitate interpretation of the vast quantities of information generated, Uppsala University researchers have now developed an entirely new method of image analysis. Based on algorithms used in artificial intelligence, the method was originally devised to enhance understanding of social networks. The researchers' study is published in The FEBS Journal. (2020-10-19)

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