Current Olfactory News and Events

Current Olfactory News and Events, Olfactory News Articles.
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Toward a disease-sniffing device that rivals a dog's nose
A new system can detect the chemical and microbial content of an air sample with even greater sensitivity than a dog's nose. Researchers at MIT and elsewhere coupled this to a machine-learning process that can identify the distinctive characteristics of the disease-bearing samples. (2021-02-17)

Non-teleost ray-finned fishes exhibit mosaic genomic features of lobe- and ray-finned fishes
A research team led by Prof. HE Shunping from the Institute of Hydrobiology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences has discovered through genome sequencing that the non-teleost ray-finned fishes--bichir, paddlefish, bowfin and alligator gar--exhibit mosaic genomic features of lobe- and ray-finned fishes. (2021-02-05)

Neurons: 'String of lights' indicates excitation propagation
A type of novel molecular voltage sensor makes it possible to watch nerve cells at work. The principle of the method has been known for some time. However, researchers at the University of Bonn and the University of California in Los Angeles have now succeeded in significantly improving it. It allows the propagation of electrical signals in living nerve cells to be observed with high temporal and spatial resolution. (2021-02-02)

How does your computer smell?
A keen sense of smell is a powerful ability shared by many organisms. However, it has proven difficult to replicate by artificial means. Researchers combined biological and engineered elements to create what is known as a biohybrid component. Their volatile organic compound sensor can effectively detect odors in gaseous form. They hope to refine the concept for use in medical diagnosis and the detection of hazardous materials. (2021-01-13)

Social transmission of pain, fear has different targets in mouse brain
Social contact can transfer the feeling of pain or fear in several animal species, including humans, but the exact neural mechanisms for this transmission are still being studied. (2021-01-07)

Study reports patient-reported loss of smell in 86% of mild COVID-19 cases
A reduced sense of smell, or olfactory dysfunction, is one of the most common symptoms of COVID-19. A recent study published the Journal of Internal Medicine has examined it prevalence and recovery in patients with varying degrees of severity of COVID-19. (2021-01-06)

Journal article reviews century of data showing COVID-19 likely to impact the brain
Decades of data paint a compelling case for why COVID-19 survivors, even those with few symptoms, could experience long-term effects on the brain and central nervous system. A global research program supported by the Alzheimer's Association includes researchers from the Glenn Biggs Institute for Alzheimer's and Neurodegenerative Diseases at The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio. (2021-01-05)

NIH study uncovers blood vessel damage & inflammation in COVID-19 patients' brains but no infection
In an in-depth study of how COVID-19 affects a patient's brain, National Institutes of Health researchers consistently spotted hallmarks of damage caused by thinning and leaky brain blood vessels in tissue samples from patients who died shortly after contracting the disease. In addition, they saw no signs of SARS-CoV-2 in the tissue samples, suggesting the damage was not caused by a direct viral attack on the brain. (2020-12-30)

Research strongly suggests COVID-19 virus enters the brain
The SARS-CoV-2 virus, like many viruses before it, is bad news for the brain. In a study published Dec. 16, 2020 in Nature Neuroscience, researchers found that the spike protein, often depicted as the red arms of the virus, can cross the blood-brain barrier in mice. The spike proteins alone can cause brain fog. Since the spike protein enters the brain, the virus also is likely to cross into the brain. (2020-12-17)

How 'smell training' could help overcome post-viral smell distortions
Smell loss is a prominent symptom of Covid-19 and the pandemic is leaving many people with long-term smell loss or smell distortions such as parosmia. Parosmia happens when people experience strange and often unpleasant smell distortions. Instead of smelling lemon you may smell petrol. New research shows that parosmia is associated with a recovery of smell performance among patients who undergo 'smell training' (sniffing at least four different odours twice a day every day for several months). (2020-11-30)

How SARS-CoV-2 reaches the brain
Using post-mortem tissue samples, researchers from Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin have studied the mechanisms by which the novel coronavirus can reach the brains of patients with COVID-19. The results show that SARS-CoV-2 enters the brain via nerve cells in the olfactory mucosa. For the first time, researchers have been able to produce electron microscope images of intact coronavirus particles inside the olfactory mucosa. (2020-11-30)

Sniffing your way to the gym
On a near daily basis, the internet spews out numerous tips and tricks for exercise motivation. Now we can add smell to the long and growing list. A research team led by a scientist at the University of California, Riverside, has found olfaction--or smell--may play an important role in motivating mammals to engage in voluntary exercise. Performed in lab mice, the study may open up new areas of research and have relevance for humans. (2020-11-25)

Trace amine-associated receptor 5 (TAAR5) to rewire your brain naturally
Researchers have found a new role for recently discovered neurotransmitter system that uses the trace amine-associated receptor 5 (TAAR5) for neurotransmission. It has been observed that lack of TAAR5 in mice leads to a higher number of dopamine neurons and an increase in adult neurogenesis, i.e. the process by which new neurons are formed in the brain. (2020-11-10)

Western diet impairs odor-related learning and olfactory memory in mice
Problems with the sense of smell appear to be an early indicator of cognitive decline in people with type 2 diabetes. However, it's unknown whether factors such as diet and obesity play a role in who develops these symptoms. Now, researchers reporting in ACS Chemical Neuroscience found that mice fed a moderate-fat, high-sugar chow (simulating a Western diet) showed a faster decline in their ability to learn and remember new odors. (2020-11-04)

Comparing canine brains using 3D-endocast modelling
Based on digital endocranial cast models the canine brain does not increase proportionally with body size. Researchers at ELTE Eötvös Loránd and Kaposvár University in Hungary reconstructed the surface morphology of 28 canine brains, including various dog breeds, wolves, coyotes, and jackals. The shortening of the facial skeleton greatly influences the ratio of certain brain regions, primarily the olfactory bulb and the frontal lobe. These changes might have profound implications for olfactory and problem-solving abilities. (2020-10-22)

Two studies point to an unrecognized avenue for anti-viral therapies against COVID-19
Helping to explain what makes SARS-CoV-2 so capable of infecting human cells, researchers in two independent studies discovered that the virus's spike protein recognizes and binds a protein on the human cell surface called neuropilin-1. (2020-10-20)

Odors as navigational cues for pigeons
Volatile organic compounds identified that can be used for olfactory navigation by homing pigeons. (2020-10-19)

There's a gene for detecting that fishy smell, olfactory GWAS shows
Some people carry a mutation in a particular gene that makes the smell of fish less intense, reports a paper publishing October 8 in the journal Current Biology. The study, which is the largest genome-wide association study (GWAS) of olfactory genes in humans involving a sniff test and looked at over 9,000 people from Iceland, also shows that people vary in their ability to discern the smell of licorice and cinnamon. (2020-10-08)

Study finds odor-sensing neuron regeneration process is adaptive
Results show that diminished odor stimulation reduces the number of newly-generated neurons that express particular odorant receptors, indicating a selective alteration in the neurogenesis of these neuron subtypes. (2020-10-06)

Repeated pregnancy loss may be tied to the olfactory system
Understanding the connection could lead to a new search for the causes of unexplained spontaneous miscarriage (2020-09-29)

Study suggests link between unexplained miscarriages and how women perceive men's body odor
Women who have suffered unexplained repeated pregnancy loss (uRPL) have altered perceptions and brain responses to male body odours, in comparison to those with no history of uRPL, suggests a new study published today in eLife. (2020-09-29)

Nose's response to odors more than just a simple sum of parts
Based on highly sensitive recordings of neuron activity in the noses of mice, researchers from Kyushu University have found that olfactory sensory neurons can exhibit suppression or enhancement of response when odors are mixed, overturning a long-standing view that the response is a simple sum with more complex processing only happening at later stages. (2020-09-18)

Diamondback moth uses plant defense substances as oviposition cues
Researchers showed that isothiocyanates produced by cruciferous plants to fend off pests serve as oviposition cues. The scientists identified two olfactory receptors whose sole function is to detect these defense substances and to guide female moths to the ideal sites to lay their eggs. They uncovered the molecular mechanism that explains why some insects that specialize in feeding on certain host plants are attracted by substances that are supposed to keep pests away. (2020-09-10)

Scent-sensing cells have a better way to fight influenza
Smell receptors that line the nose get hit by Influenza B just like other cells, but they are able to clear the infection without dying. A new Duke University paper in Cell Reports reveals not only the cells' successful strategy against viral infection, but also the diversity of immune responses from one kind of cell to another. (2020-09-01)

Study adds to evidence that cells in the nose are key entry point for SARS CoV-2
Scientists at Johns Hopkins Medicine, experimenting with a small number of human cell samples, report that the 'hook' of cells used by SARS-CoV-2 to latch onto and infect cells is up to 700 times more prevalent in the olfactory supporting cells lining the inside of the upper part of the nose than in the lining cells of the rest of the nose and windpipe that leads to the lungs. (2020-08-20)

Constructing odor objects in the brain
A research team at RIKEN in Japan found how odors can be generalized into categories by combining brain imaging and models of brain activity. They examined a region of the fly brain that plays a central role in forming olfactory memories and discovered clustered representations of mixtures and groups of odors that are conserved across individual flies. (2020-08-18)

Researchers one step closer to bomb-sniffing cyborg locusts
Research from the McKelvey School of Engineering at Washington University in St. Louis has determined that locusts can smell explosives and determine where the smells originated -- an important step in engineering cyborg bomb-sniffing locusts. (2020-08-14)

Evidence of direct viral damage to olfactory complex in patients testing positive for SARS-CoV-2
Researchers report the clinicopathologic and autopsy findings observed in the olfactory system of two patients with SARS-CoV-2-positive nasal swabs. (2020-08-13)

Right under your nose: A more convenient way to diagnose Alzheimer's disease
Scientists from the Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology, Republic of Korea, discover a new way to diagnose Alzheimer's disease by analyzing the levels of specific proteins in nasal discharge. This simple and inexpensive method could help in timely diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, in order to start treatment as soon as possible, thus delaying disease progression. (2020-08-11)

Tradeoff between the eyes and nose helps flies find their niche
The size of a fly's eyes and nose reflect both its behaviour during mating and its habitat preferences, according to a new study published today in eLife. (2020-08-04)

New study on development of Parkinson's disease is 'on the nose'
Scientists suggest that the initial impact of environmental toxins inhaled through the nose may induce inflammation in the brain, triggering the production of Lewy bodies that can then be spread to other brain regions. However, the relationship linking olfactory dysfunction and Parkinson's disease development remains unclear. New findings from a study add weight to this theory and identify a critical signaling molecule that may be key to the domino effect kicked off by nasal inflammation. (2020-08-03)

How the brain senses smell
An Italian-American research conducted by researchers at the IIT-Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (Italian Institute of Technology) in Rovereto (Italy) and Harvard University in Boston (Usa) explains for the first time the mechanisms used by our brain to recognize specific smells. Thanks to this result, researchers will be able to think about the realization of an artificial sense of smell, to be transferred to robots and other intelligent machines in the future. (2020-07-29)

Using artificial intelligence to smell the roses
A pair of researchers at the University of California, Riverside, has used machine learning to understand what a chemical smells like -- a research breakthrough with potential applications in the food flavor and fragrance industries. (2020-07-28)

How COVID-19 causes smell loss
Loss of smell, or anosmia, is one of the earliest and most commonly reported symptoms of COVID-19. A new study identifies the olfactory cell types most vulnerable to infection by the novel coronavirus. Surprisingly, sensory neurons involved in smell are not among the vulnerable cell types. (2020-07-24)

SARS-CoV-2 infection of non-neuronal cells, not neurons, may drive loss of smell in patients with COVID-19
A new study of human olfactory cells has revealed that viral invasion of supportive cells in the nasal cavity might be driving the loss of smell seen in some patients with COVID-19. The findings show that non- (2020-07-24)

COVID-19 may attack patients' central nervous system
''There may be more central nervous system penetration of the virus than we think based on the prevalence of olfaction-associated depressed mood and anxiety and this really opens up doors for future investigations to look at how the virus may interact with the central nervous system,'' explains Ahmad Sedaghat, MD, PhD. (2020-07-14)

Sniffing out smell
Neuroscientists describe for the first time how relationships between different odors are encoded in the brain. The findings suggest a mechanism that may explain why individuals have common but highly personalized experiences with smell, and inform efforts better understand how the brain transforms information about odor chemistry into the perception of smell. (2020-07-02)

Humans navigate with stereo olfaction
A new study conducted by graduate student WU Yuli and his colleagues at the Institute of Psychology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences indicates that humans have a stereo sense of smell that subconsciously guides navigation. (2020-06-24)

UTEP researchers uncover brain mechanisms in fruit flies that may impact future learning
A research team from The University of Texas at El Paso has made strides in understanding how memories are formed through the brain mechanisms of fruit flies. Their findings could enhance our understanding of brain disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder and substance addiction. (2020-06-23)

Optogenetic odors reveal the logic of olfactory perception
Using optogenetic control, researchers have created an electrical signature that is perceived as an odor in the brain's smell-processing center, the olfactory bulb, even though the odor does not exist. (2020-06-18)

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