Current Organic Compounds News and Events | Page 25

Current Organic Compounds News and Events, Organic Compounds News Articles.
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Researchers enrich silver chemistry
Researchers from Russia and Saudi Arabia have proposed an efficient method for obtaining fundamental data necessary for understanding chemical and physical processes involving substances in the gaseous state. The proposed numerical protocol predicts the thermal effect of gas-phase formation of silver compounds and their absolute entropy. This includes first-ever such data for over 90 compounds. The findings are important for the practical applications of substances containing silver: in water and wound disinfection, photography, rainmaking via cloud seeding, etc. (2019-07-30)

Technological developments in radiation detectors enhance global nuclear security
Nuclear power plants can withstand most inclement weather and do not emit harmful greenhouse gases. However, trafficking of the nuclear materials to furnish them with fuel remains a serious issue as security technology continues to be developed. Two physicists conducted research to enhance global nuclear security by improving radiation detectors. According to them, improving radiation detectors requires the identification of better sensor materials and the development of smarter algorithms to process detector signals. (2019-07-30)

Improving efficiency, brightness of perovskite LEDs
Advances in organic phosphorescent materials are opening new opportunities for organic light-emitting diodes for combined electronics and light applications, including solar cells, photodiodes, optical fibers and lasers. While low-dimensional luminescent materials, like the calcium titanium oxide mineral perovskite, have promising optical properties, their performance remains insufficient compared to conventional organic LEDs. A recent study, in this week's Applied Physics Reviews, explores a new approach using an exciton confinement effect to optimize highly efficient perovskite LEDs. (2019-07-30)

Next step in producing magnetic organic molecules
A team from the Ruhr Explores Solvation Cluster of Excellence at Ruhr-Universität Bochum has created new molecules with magnetic properties. In contrast to many earlier organic magnets, the molecules were stable in the presence of water and oxygen. Their magnetic properties were retained up to minus 110 degrees Celsius -- which is relatively warm for these compounds. (2019-07-30)

New, portable tech sniffs out plant disease in the field
Researchers have developed portable technology that allows farmers to identify plant diseases in the field. The handheld device, which is plugged into a smartphone, works by sampling the airborne volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that plants release through their leaves. (2019-07-29)

Extraordinarily thick organic light-emitting diodes solve nagging issues
By combining thin organic layers with thick layers of hybrid perovskite, researchers at Kyushu University in Japan have developed micrometer-thick organic light-emitting diodes that could improve the affordability and viewing angles of high-performance displays and televisions in the near future. (2019-07-29)

Simpler than expected: A microbial community with small diversity cleans up algal blooms
Algae blooms regularly make for pretty, swirly satellite photos of lakes and oceans. They also make the news occasionally for poisoning fish, people and other animals. What's less frequently discussed is the outsize role they play in global carbon cycling. A recent study now reveals surprising facts about carbon flow in phytoplankton blooms. Unexpectedly few bacterial clades with a restricted set of genes are responsible for a major part of the degradation of algal sugars. (2019-07-29)

Electricity-driven undersea reactions may have been important for the emergence of life
In deep sea hydrothermal vents, water heated by Earth's mantle flows into the ocean, precipitating various minerals, including metal sulfides. These minerals form channels for the vent water, and since the metal sulfides are electrically conductive and the vent and ocean water are compositionally different, an electric current is created. ELSI scientists have shown this current can reduce metal sulfides to metals, which can reduce organic compounds. These reactions could have helped jump-start life's chemistry. (2019-07-25)

Fracking likely to result in high emissions
Natural gas releases fewer greenhouse gases than other fossil fuels. That's why it is often seen as a bridge technology to a low-carbon future. A study by the Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies (IASS) has estimated emissions from shale gas production through fracking in Germany and the UK. It shows that CO2-eq. emissions would exceed the estimated current emissions from conventional gas production in Germany. The potential risks make strict adherence to environmental standards vital. (2019-07-25)

An apple carries about 100 million bacteria -- good luck washing them off
Published in Frontiers in Microbiology, a new study shows that organic apples harbor a more diverse and balanced bacterial community -- which could make them healthier and tastier than conventional apples, as well as better for the environment. (2019-07-24)

Does one size does fit all? A new model for organic semiconductors
A team including researchers from Osaka University has used a single rubrene crystal to investigate the room temperature behavior of organic single crystals, and in so doing have dispelled previously-held assumptions based on inorganic semiconductor behavior. It is hoped that these insights into the specific behavior of organic conducting materials will accelerate the development of flexible conducting devices with high functionality. (2019-07-24)

Fungal compound deodorizes skunk smell
Being sprayed by a skunk is no fun for people or their pets, and the strong, stinky secretions can serve as a nasty reminder of the wildlife encounter for days or weeks. Available 'de-skunking' formulas often either don't work well or can irritate the skin and eyes. Now, researchers reporting in ACS' Journal of Natural Products have identified a compound from fungi that safely and effectively neutralizes skunk spray odor. (2019-07-24)

Clues on how soils may respond to climate change found
Rock core samples from a period of warming millions of years ago indicate soils contributed to a rapid rise in atmospheric greenhouse gas and suggest modern climate models may overestimate Earth's ability to mitigate future warming, according to an international team of scientists. (2019-07-24)

Garlic on broccoli: A smelly approach to repel a major pest
New University of Vermont study offers a novel framework to test strategies for managing invasive pests. Applying the framework to swede midge, a new invasive fly causing 100% crop losses for organic broccoli growers, the researchers uncover which odors are most effective at repelling the pest. (2019-07-23)

Ozone threat from climate change
We know the recent extreme heat is something that we can expect more of as a result of increasing temperatures due to climate change. But a new study from the University of Delaware warns that there's another impact -- worsened air quality due to an increase in the number and intensity of 'ozone alert' days. (2019-07-23)

Heart disease biomarker linked to paleo diet
People who follow the paleo diet have twice the amount of a key blood biomarker linked closely to heart disease, the world's first major study examining the impact of the diet on gut bacteria has found. (2019-07-22)

NIH study links air pollution to increase in newborn intensive care admissions
Infants born to women exposed to high levels of air pollution in the week before delivery are more likely to be admitted to a newborn intensive care unit (NICU), suggests an analysis by researchers at the National Institutes of Health. (2019-07-19)

Cleaning our water with groundbreaking 'bioinspired' chemistry
Synthetic chemicals, including pesticides, medications and household cleaners, often end up in our waterways. Even in small amounts these substances can affect wildlife, plants and humans, and a number of them have shown resistance to normal water treatment methods. Researchers at Carnegie Mellon University blazed the trail for a new field of sustainable chemistry by unveiling powerful, safe and inexpensive oxidation catalysts inspired by biological processes that break down even the most stubborn micropollutants. (2019-07-18)

A new material for the battery of the future, made in UCLouvain
UCLouvain's researchers have discovered a new high performance and safe battery material (LTPS) capable of speeding up charge and discharge to a level never observed so far. Practically, if the first tests are confirmed, this new material could be used in the batteries of the future with better energy storage, faster charge and discharge and higher safety targeting many uses from smartphones, to electric bicycle and cars. These results are published in the prestigious journal Chem from Cell Press. (2019-07-17)

Study: PFAS move from mom to fetus at higher rate in women with gestational diabetes
A University of Massachusetts Amherst environmental epidemiologist studying the presence of PFAS compounds in new mothers and their babies found that women with gestational diabetes had a 'significantly higher' rate of transferring the synthetic chemicals to their fetus. (2019-07-17)

The interlayers help perovskite crystallisation for high-performance light-emitting diodes
Scientists at Linkoping University working with colleagues from China have shown how to achieve efficient perovskite light-emitting diodes (LEDs). In an article published in Nature Communications, they provide guidelines on fabricating high-quality perovskite light emitters, and consequently high-efficiency perovskite LEDs. (2019-07-16)

Breakthrough material could lead to cheaper, more widespread solar panels and electronics
Two physics research groups at the University of Kansas have generated free electrons from organic semiconductors when combined with a single atomic layer of molybdenum disulfide, a recently discovered two-dimensional semiconductor. (2019-07-16)

Turbo chip for drug development
In spite of increasing demand, the number of newly developed drugs decreased continuously in the past decades. The search for new active substances, their production, characterization, and screening for biological effectiveness are very complex and costly. One of the reasons is that all three steps have been carried out separately so far. Scientists of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) have now succeeded in combining these processes on a chip and, hence, facilitating and accelerating the procedures to produce promising substances. (2019-07-15)

Biocompound from Atlantic Rainforest combats leishmaniasis and Chagas disease
Researchers find that substances synthesized from plant species endemic to the biodiversity hotspot can kill the parasites that cause these neglected diseases. (2019-07-15)

An itch to scratch: NCATS, NIDCR scientists identify potential approach to chronic problem
While scientists have some clues to the causes of troubling chronic itch, effective therapies have been elusive. Now, by sorting through more than 86,000 compounds at the same time, National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences researchers and their colleagues report a new strategy that may eventually help alleviate chronic itch. They've shown that blocking a receptor, or docking station, found on the surface of both mouse and human spinal cord neurons could be key. (2019-07-12)

Dresden physicists use nanostructures to free photons for highly efficient white OLEDs
Thanks to intensive research in the past three decades, organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have been steadily conquering the electronics market -- from OLED mobile phone displays to roll-out television screens, the list of applications is long. Current OLED research focuses in particular on improving the performance of white OLEDs for lighting elements such as ceiling or car interior lighting. These components are subject to much stricter requirements in terms of stability, angular emission and power efficiency. (2019-07-11)

Mustering a milder mustard
Cruciferous vegetables -- the mustards, broccolis and cabbages of the world -- share a distinct taste. But the same compounds that make them bitter also make them toxic at some levels. Biologists have mapped the crystal structure of a key protein that makes the metabolites responsible for the bitter taste in Brassicas. A study published this month in the journal The Plant Cell is the first snapshot of how the protein evolved and came to churn out such diverse byproducts in this agriculturally significant group of plants. (2019-07-11)

Nitrogen from biosolids can help urban soils and plant growth
Research determines bioavailable nitrogen content of different biosolid products. (2019-07-10)

Mattresses could emit higher levels of VOCs during sleep
Hundreds of household items, including furniture, paint and electronics, emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which at high levels can pose health risks. Now, researchers reporting in ACS' Environmental Science & Technology have measured the emission rates of the gaseous compounds released by several types of polyurethane mattresses under simulated sleeping conditions, finding levels of some VOCs that could be worrisome for children and infants. However, so far there is no evidence of adverse health effects. (2019-07-10)

On the way to printable organic light emitting diodes
OLEDs are used today in many electronic devices for display applications. Scientists at the Max-Planck-Institute for Polymer Research have now developed a new design for these LEDs. They have reduced the number of different layers that make up an OLED to just one. In the future, this could allow light-emitting diodes that can be inkjet-printed. The first prototype of the developed diode can already compete with commercially available OLEDs in terms of luminosity and efficiency. (2019-07-10)

Study contributes to the production of flexible electronic devices
Research conducted by Brazilian and Italian scientists ordered the structure of polythiophene to enhance the optical and electronic properties of this organic conductive polymer. (2019-07-10)

Organic solar cells will last 10 years in space
Scientists from the Skoltech Center for Energy Science and Technology, the Institute for Problems of Chemical Physics of RAS, and the Department of Chemistry of MSU presented solar cells based on conjugated polymers and fullerene derivatives, that demonstrated record-high radiation stability and withstand gamma radiation of >6,000 Gy raising hopes for their stable operation on the near-earth orbit during 10 years or even longer. The results of the study were published in ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces. (2019-07-09)

Charge transfer within transition-metal dyes analysed
Transition-metal complexes in dye-based solar cells are responsible for converting light into electrical energy. A model of spatial charge separation within the molecule has been used to describe this conversion. However, an analysis at BESSY II shows that this description of the process is too simple. (2019-07-09)

Small-volume, high-throughput organic synthesis
University of Groningen Professor of Drug Design, Alexander Dömling, has devised a method to rapidly synthesize thousands of new molecules and evaluate their properties as potential drugs. In a paper published by Science Advances on 5 July, he shows that this method works well when applied to boronic acid chemistry, an important technique in synthetic organic chemistry. The study also produced an inhibitor of the phosphatase MptpB, a virulence factor of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (2019-07-09)

Hinge-like protein may open new doors in cystic fibrosis treatment
Drugs known as potentiators alleviate some symptoms of cystic fibrosis. Researchers recently figured out how these compounds work--a finding that may lead to better drugs that patients can more easily afford. (2019-07-09)

Tuning the energy levels of organic semiconductors
Physicists from the Dresden Integrated Center for Applied Physics and Photonic Materials (IAPP) and the Center for Advancing Electronics Dresden (cfaed) at the TU Dresden, together with researchers from Tübingen, Potsdam and Mainz were able to demonstrate how electronic energies in organic semiconductor films can be tuned by electrostatic forces. (2019-07-08)

Most powerful and mildest reagents obtained based on eco-friendly iodine
An international team of chemists from Tomsk Polytechnic University, USA, Great Britain, Canada, Belgium, and France has synthesized environmentally friendly reagents for the pharmaceutical industry. Polyvalent iodine-based reagents are a promising replacement of conventional reagents based on toxic compounds such as vanadium and nitrous oxide, which can work at room temperature. (2019-07-08)

Human waste an asset to economy, environment, study finds
Human waste might be an unpleasant public health burden, but scientists at the University of Illinois see sanitation as a valuable facet of global ecosystems and an overlooked source of nutrients, organic material and water. (2019-07-08)

Left out to dry: A more efficient way to harvest algae biomass
Researchers at the University of Tsukuba develop a new system for evaporating the water from algae biomass with reusable nanoporous graphene, which can lead to cheaper, more environmentally friendly biofuels and fine chemicals. (2019-07-08)

X-rays reveal monolayer phase in organic semiconductor
An international team of researchers has investigated how the electrical properties of dihexyl-quarterthiophene thin films depend on their structure. This material is an organic semiconductor with prospects for flexible electronics. It turned out that once the thin films undergo a transition from the crystal to the liquid-crystal state, they lose some of their electrical conductivity. The team also discovered a ''third phase'' that does not occur in bulk material and corresponds to a monomolecular layer of the semiconductor. (2019-07-08)

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