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Current Ozone Layer News and Events, Ozone Layer News Articles.
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Angstrom multilayer metrology by combining spectral measurements and machine learning
The 3D-NAND is the most commercially successful 3D memory device today, and its demand is growing exponentially. As each layer thickness corresponds to the effective channel length, accurate characterization and control of layer-by-layer thickness is critical. Engineers in South Korea invented a nondestructive thickness characterization method of each layer in semiconductor multilayer stacks with more than 200 layers used for 3D-NAND. The method will provide new ways for total inspection in 3D semiconductor device manufacturing. (2021-01-20)

Purely organic hole transporter
Durable, high-performing perovskite solar cells also require durable, high-performing charge-transporting layers. Scientists have developed the first organic hole transporter that does not need a dopant to attain high charge mobility and stability. According to the study published in the journal Angewandte Chemie, this novel hole-transporting layer outperforms reference materials and protects the perovskite organic cell from air humidity. (2021-01-18)

CMOS-compatible 3D ferroelectric memory with ultralow power and high speed
POSTECH Professor Jang-Sik Lee's research team develops ferroelectric NAND flash memory. (2021-01-18)

Early COVID-19 lockdowns had less impact on urban air quality than first believed
The first COVID-19 lockdowns led to significant changes in urban air pollution levels around the world, but the changes were smaller than expected - a new study reveals. (2021-01-13)

Researchers develop laser-based process to 3D print detailed glass objects
Researchers have developed a new laser-based process for 3D printing intricate parts made of glass. With further development, the new method could be useful for making complex optics for vision, imaging, illumination or laser-based applications. (2021-01-12)

Scientists discover key enzyme responsible for skin blistering in the elderly
The Granzyme B (GzmB) enzyme, which accumulates in certain tissues as we age, has been identified as a driver of itchy and sometimes life-threatening autoimmune conditions known as pemphigoid diseases (PDs), which cause blistering and skin erosion below the skin's surface. New research led by University of British Columbia (UBC) and Vancouver Coastal Health Research Institute (VCHRI) scientists has found that a gel containing a specific and potent inhibitor of GzmB activity, VTI-1002, resulted in significant improvements on skin affected by PDs. (2021-01-12)

Study shows tweaking one layer of atoms on a catalyst's surface can make it work better
When an LNO catalyst with a nickel-rich surface carries out a water-splitting reaction, its surface atoms rearrange from a cubic to a hexagonal pattern and its efficiency doubles. Deliberately engineering the surface to take advantage of this phenomenon offers a way to design better catalysts. (2021-01-11)

Tracking the formation of the early heart, cell by cell
Richard Tyser and colleagues have mapped the origins of the embryonic mouse heart at single-cell resolution, helping to define the cell types that make up the heart in the earliest days of development. (2021-01-07)

Researcher cracks the hidden strengthening mechanism in biological ceramics
In addition to adding strength, this design allows the structure to use its crack patterns to minimize damage into the inner shell. (2021-01-06)

Surrey unveils breakthrough manufacturing process of ultra-thin sensor for smart contact lenses
Smart contact lenses could soon become mainstream thanks to a new manufacturing process that has allowed the University of Surrey to develop a multifunctional ultra-thin sensor layer. (2021-01-06)

Bionic idea boosts lithium-ion extraction
Chinese researchers from Prof. WEN Liping's team at the Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry and Prof. ZHANG Qianfan's team from Beihang University have recently made progress in the preparation and application of a bioinspired material that is capable of achieving controlled ion transport and sieving, especially for lithium-ion extraction. (2020-12-30)

New report reveals human, economic toll of air pollution in India
Air pollution has devastating consequences for India, accounting for 1.67 million deaths in 2019 and economic losses of $36.8 billion (US), according to a new report by an international group of scientists led by researchers from Boston College's Global Observatory on Pollution and Health, the Indian Council of Medical Research, and the Public Health Foundation of India. (2020-12-22)

The upside of volatile space weather
Although stellar flares are typically viewed as a detriment to habitability, study shows ''life might still have a fighting chance.'' Researchers find that flares drive a planets atmospheric composition to a new chemical equilibrium. (2020-12-21)

Big step with small whirls
Skyrmions are small magnetic objects that could revolutionize the data storage industry and also enable new computer architectures. However, there are a number of challenges that need to be overcome. A team of Empa researchers has succeeded for the first time in producing a tunable multilayer system in which two different types of skyrmions - the future bits for ''0'' and ''1'' - can exist at room temperature, as they reported in the journal Nature Communications. (2020-12-21)

Potentially damaging surface ozone levels rose in lockdown
Less traffic on the roads during the first lockdown led to a reduction in air pollution but may have caused potentially damaging surface ozone levels to rise, a new study has revealed. (2020-12-18)

How does the brain project manage its learning?
In a paper published today in the prestigious journal Science, a collaboration between University of Ottawa and Humbolt University of Berlin reveals a critical role for a brain area called the perirhinal cortex in managing this learning process. (2020-12-18)

Nanotechnology -- nanoparticles as weapons against cancer
Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich researchers have developed a novel type of nanoparticle that efficiently and selectively kills cancer cells, thus opening up new therapeutic options for the treatment of tumors. (2020-12-18)

Fibrous protein finding may lead to improved bioprinting, tissue engineering
Fibrous proteins such as collagen and fibrinogen form a thin solid layer on the surface of an aqueous solution similar to the 'skin' that forms on warm milk, according to a team of Penn State Researchers, who believe this finding could lead to more efficient bioprinting and tissue engineering. (2020-12-17)

The mask matters: How masks affect airflow, protection effectiveness
Even though it has been widely known that wearing a face mask will help mitigate the community spread of COVID-19, less is known regarding the specific effectiveness of masks in reducing the viral load in the respiratory tracts of those wearing them. In Physics of Fluids, researchers examined the effect of wearing a three-layer surgical mask on inspiratory airflows and the effects on the inhalation and deposition of ambient particles in the upper respiratory airways. (2020-12-15)

Mystery solved: new study shows link between hot and dry weather and air quality in Korea
Although air quality in Korea has been declining over the past few decades, the reasons behind the steady rise in ground-level ozone concentrations are a mystery. In a recent study, scientists from Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Korea, investigated the relationship between synoptic weather patterns and ozone levels, revealing another worrisome link between air pollution and climate change. (2020-12-15)

When less is more: A single layer of atoms boosts the nonlinear generation of light
A wide array of technologies, ranging from lasers and optical telecommunication to quantum computing rely on nonlinear optical interaction. Typically, these nonlinear interactions, which allow a beam of light, for example, to change its frequency, are implemented by bulk materials. (2020-12-14)

Mass extinctions of land-dwelling animals occur in 27-million-year cycle
Mass extinctions of land-dwelling animals--including amphibians, reptiles, mammals, and birds--follow a cycle of about 27 million years, coinciding with previously reported mass extinctions of ocean life, according to a new analysis published in the journal Historical Biology. (2020-12-11)

Researchers rank various mask protection, modifications against COVID-19
Some people still refuse to wear a mask during a viral pandemic. So UNC School of Medicine scientists, in collaboration with the Environmental Protection Agency, researched the protectiveness of various kinds of consumer-grade and modified masks, assuming the mask wearer was exposed to the virus, like when we interact with an unmasked infected person. (2020-12-11)

Atom-thin transistor uses half the voltage of common semiconductors, boosts current density
University at Buffalo researchers report a new, two-dimensional transistor made of graphene and molybdenum disulfide that needs less voltage and can handle more current than today's semiconductors. (2020-12-10)

Perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells on the magic threshold of 30% efficiency
An HZB team has published a report in the journal Science on the development of its current world record of 29.15% efficiency for a tandem solar cell made of perovskite and silicon. The tandem cell provided stable performance for 300 hours - even without encapsulation. To accomplish this, the group headed by Prof. Steve Albrecht investigated physical processes at the interfaces to improve the transport of the charge carriers. (2020-12-10)

New blended solar cells yield high power conversion efficiencies
Researchers at Hiroshima University in Japan have blended together various polymer and molecular semiconductors as photo-absorbers to create a solar cell with increased power efficiencies and electricity generation. (2020-12-09)

New evidence: Neandertals buried their dead
Was burial of the dead practiced by Neandertals or is it an innovation specific to our species? For the first time in Europe, however, a multi-disciplinary team led by researchers at the CNRS and the Muséum national d'histoire naturelle (France) and the University of the Basque Country (Spain) has demonstrated, using a variety of criteria, that a Neandertal child was buried, probably around 41,000 years ago, at the Ferrassie site (Dordogne, France). (2020-12-09)

Study connects diabetes, air pollution to interstitial lung disease
People with pre-diabetes or diabetes who live in ozone-polluted areas may have an increased risk for an irreversible disease with a high mortality rate. These findings are especially important today in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic, where there is a heightened concern for the convergence of health effects from air pollution and SARS-CoV-2 in susceptible populations. (2020-12-09)

Pollution from cooking remains in atmosphere for longer - study
Particulate emissions from cooking stay in the atmosphere for longer than previously thought, making a prolonged contribution to poor air quality and human health, according to a new study. (2020-12-08)

Army computer models unveil secret to quieter small drones
It's no secret the US Army wants its small unmanned aerial systems to operate quietly in densely-populated regions, but tests to achieve this can be expensive, time-consuming and labor-intensive according to researchers. (2020-12-03)

Tire-related chemical is largely responsible for adult coho salmon deaths in urban streams
A team led by researchers at the University of Washington Tacoma, UW and Washington State University Puyallup have discovered a chemical that kills coho salmon in urban streams before the fish can spawn. (2020-12-03)

Chemical derived from car tires turns streams toxic, kills coho salmon
For Pacific Northwest coho salmon, returning to spawn in the streams and creeks near urban areas can be a death sentence, thanks to a ubiquitous additive in vehicle tires, a new study reveals. (2020-12-03)

Researchers create ingredients to produce food by 3D printing
Food engineers in Brazil and France developed gels based on modified starch for use as ''ink'' to make foods and novel materials by additive manufacturing (2020-12-03)

Ozone breaks down THC deposited on surfaces from thirdhand cannabis smoke
Second- and thirdhand tobacco smoke have received lots of attention, but much less is known about the compounds deposited on surfaces from cannabis smoke. Now, researchers reporting in ACS' Environmental Science & Technology have discovered that ozone --a component of outdoor and indoor air -- can react with tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive component of cannabis, on glass or cotton surfaces to produce new compounds, which they characterized for the first time. (2020-12-02)

Killer electrons in strumming sky lights
Wisps of pulsating aurora lights are a rare, yet magical sight. Now, scientists suggest they could be associated with destruction of part of the ozone. (2020-11-30)

Electronic skin has a strong future stretching ahead
Soft, stretchy, slimline and strong electronics could accelerate the arrival of artificial skin. (2020-11-27)

Study: Clean Air Act saved 1.5 billion birds
US pollution regulations meant to protect humans from dirty air are also saving birds. So concludes a new continentwide study published today in The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Study authors found that improved air quality under a federal program to reduce ozone pollution may have averted the loss of 1.5 billion birds during the past 40 years. (2020-11-24)

Efficient and durable perovskite solar cell materials
POSTECH professor Kilwon Cho's research team fabricates highly efficient and stable perovskite solar cells through molecular designing of organic spacers. (2020-11-24)

Perfect imperfection: Electrode defects boost resistive memory efficiency
Resistive switching memory devices offer several advantages over the currently used computer memory technology. Researchers from the MIPT Atomic Layer Deposition Lab have joined forces with colleagues from Korea to study the impact of electrode surface morphology on the properties of a resistive switching memory cell. It turned out that thicker electrodes have greater surface roughness and are associated with markedly better memory cell characteristics (2020-11-23)

Vibrational encounters - phonon polaritons meet molecules
Researchers from CIC nanoGUNE BRTA (San Sebastian, Spain), in collaboration with the Donostia International Physics Center (San Sebastián, Spain) and the University of Oviedo (Spain) employed a spectroscopic nanoimaging technique to study how infrared nanolight - in form of phonon polaritons - and molecular vibrations interact with each other. (2020-11-23)

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