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Bio-inspired: How lobsters can help make stronger 3D printed concrete
New research addresses some of the technical issues that still need to be solved for 3D printed concrete to be strong enough for use in more free-form structures. Researchers found lobster-inspired printing patterns can make 3DCP stronger and help direct the strength where it's needed. And combining the patterns with a concrete mix enhanced with steel fibres can deliver a material that's stronger than traditionally-made concrete. (2021-01-19)

Eating habits partly down to your genetics, finds new study
Your food intake patterns are partly under genetic control, according to the latest research from researchers at King's College London, published today in the journal Twin Research and Human Genetics. (2021-01-19)

Zebra stripes, leopard spots: frozen metal patterns defy conventional metallurgy
''Stripy zebra, spotty leopard...'' Pattern formation and pattern recognition entertains children and scientists alike. Alan Turing's 1950s model explaining patterns in two-substance systems is used by metallurgists to explain microscopic internal stripes and spots. A study out today explains exotic patterns, counter to Turing's theory, forming on the liquid metal gallium, which melts in the hand. The previously ignored surface-solidification phenomenon improves fundamental understanding of liquid-metal alloys, with a potential patterning tool, and advanced applications in future electronics and optics. (2021-01-18)

New study examines medical practice patterns over time
Variations in medical practice can have serious consequences for the quality, equity and cost of one's health care; however, it's unclear whether these disparities can be attributed to individual differences, from one doctor to another or to changes in your doctor's individual practice over time, perhaps in response to shifts in clinical guidelines or advancements in diagnostic technologists. (2021-01-12)

Researchers speed up analysis of Arctic ice and snow data through AI
Professors at University of Maryland, Baltimore County have developed an artificial intelligence technique to quickly analyze newly collected data based on Arctic ice and snow thickness. Researchers previously analyzed these data manually; this AI will assist them by automating how they detect and analyze patterns in the thickness of the ice. Climate change necessitates a rapid understanding of new developments in the Arctic ice, and this tool provides a faster solution. (2021-01-12)

Imagining a face reactivates face-detecting neurons in humans
Face-sensitive neurons in humans employ distinct activity patterns to encode individual faces; those patterns reactivate when imagining the face, according to research recently published in JNeurosci. (2021-01-11)

Will global warming bring a change in the winds? Dust from the deep sea provides a clue
In a new paper published in Nature, climate researchers from Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory describe a new method of tracking the ancient history of the westerly winds--a proxy for what we may experience in a future warming world. (2021-01-06)

Using wearable activity trackers to distinguish COVID-19 from flu
By analyzing Fitbit data and self-reported symptoms, researchers distinguished trends in heart rate, step count, and symptom duration between patients with flu and those with COVID-19. While both showed similar-looking spikes in resting heart rate and decreases in average step count, COVID-19 symptoms lasted longer and peaked later. The results appear December 12 in the journal Patterns. (2020-12-21)

Seeking answers in ferroelectric patterning
Why do some ferroelectric materials display 'bubble'-shaped patterning, while others display complex, labyrinthine patterns? A FLEET/UNSW study finds the changing patterns in ferroelectric films are driven by non-equilibrium dynamics, with topological defects driving subsequent evolution. Understanding the physics behind ferroelectric material patterns is crucial for designing advanced low-energy ferroelectric electronics, or brain-inspired neuromorphic computing. (2020-12-18)

Change in global precipitation patterns as a result of climate change
The Earth's climate system is largely determined by the differences in temperature between the tropics and the poles. Global warming is likely to cause global atmospheric circulation to change and progressively revert to a situation similar to that of 5,000 to 10,000 years ago. This is the conclusion of a study published in Nature Communications. (2020-12-17)

Fast walking in narrow corridors can increase COVID-19 transmission risk
Simulations have been used to predict droplet dispersal patterns in situations where COVID-19 might be spread and results in Physics of Fluids show the importance of the space shape in modeling how droplets move. The simulations are used to determine flow patterns behind a walking individual in spaces of different shape. The results reveal a higher transmission risk for children in some instances, such as behind quickly moving people in a long narrow hallway. (2020-12-15)

Oregon researchers find that like adults, children by age 3 prefer seeing fractal patterns
By the time children are 3 years old they already have an adult-like preference for visual fractal patterns commonly seen in nature, according to University of Oregon researchers. (2020-12-11)

Parents shouldn't worry about their baby's inconsistent sleep patterns
New parents often expect their baby to start sleeping through the night around the time they reach six months of age. But according to a new study led by McGill Professor Marie-Helene Pennestri, parents should view sleep consolidation as a process, instead of a milestone to be achieved at a specific age. (2020-12-02)

The making of mysterious mazes: how animals got their complex colorations
A researcher at Osaka University uncovered a simple mechanism underlying the intricate skin patterns of animals through comprehensive analyses of the diversity of fish colorations. (2020-12-02)

Mobility behavior may be the key to predicting, promoting individual well-being
DSI postdoctoral fellow Sandrine Müller uses smartphone sensor data to study human behavior. (2020-11-16)

Machine learning algorithm could provide Soldiers feedback
A new machine learning algorithm, developed with Army funding, can isolate patterns in brain signals that relate to a specific behavior and then decode it, potentially providing Soldiers with behavioral-based feedback. (2020-11-12)

Urban gulls adapt foraging schedule to human activity patterns
If you've ever seen a seagull snatch a pasty or felt their beady eyes on your sandwich in the park, you'd be right to suspect they know exactly when to strike to increase their chances of getting a human snack. A new study by the University of Bristol is the most in-depth look to date at the foraging behaviours of urban gulls and how they've adapted to patterns of human activity in a city. (2020-11-10)

Researchers isolate and decode brain signal patterns for specific behaviors
A standing challenge has been isolating patterns in brain signals that relate to a specific behavior, such as finger movements. Researchers have developed a machine learning algorithm that resolved this challenge by uncovering neural patterns missed by other methods. This could both enable new neuroscience discoveries and enhance future brain-machine interfaces. (2020-11-09)

A.I. tool provides more accurate flu forecasts
Yue Ning and her team at Stevens Institute of Technology trained their A.I. tool using real-world state and regional data from the U.S. and Japan, then tested its forecasts against historical flu data. By incorporating location data, the A.I. system is able to outperform other state-of-the-art forecasting methods, delivering up to an 11% increase in accuracy and predicting influenza outbreaks up to 15 weeks in advance. (2020-11-02)

Physical activity and sleep in adults with arthritis
A new study published in Arthritis Care & Research has examined patterns of 24-hour physical activity and sleep among patients with rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and knee osteoarthritis. (2020-10-07)

Drugs aren't typically tested on women. AI could correct that bias
Researchers at Columbia University have developed AwareDX--Analysing Women At Risk for Experiencing Drug toXicity--a machine learning algorithm that identifies and predicts differences in adverse drug effects between men and women by analyzing 50 years' worth of reports in an FDA database. The algorithm, described September 22 in the journal Patterns, automatically corrects for the biases in these data that stem from an overrepresentation of male subjects in clinical research trials. (2020-09-30)

New way of analyzing soil organic matter will help predict climate change
A new way of analyzing the chemical composition of soil organic matter will help scientists predict how soils store carbon -- and how soil carbon may affect climate in the future, says a Baylor University researcher. (2020-09-25)

Evolutionary paths: Scientists have found new patterns in protein evolution
Russian scientists studied the trends in the evolution of amino acid sequences of proteins in vertebrates and insects. External factors can be considered as a reason for positive selection affecting genomic positions and serve as an essential aspect of the rapid evolution. But the effect of epistasis is manifested in positions under negative selection, as a result of which substitutions occur less often in them - they evolve more slowly. (2020-09-18)

Analysis of COVID-19 publications identifies research gaps
Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, scientific and medical journals have published over 100,000 studies on SARS-CoV-2. But according to data scientists who created a machine-learning tool to analyze the deluge of publications, basic lab-based studies on the microbiology of the virus, including research on its pathogenesis and mechanisms of viral transmission, are lacking. Their analysis appears September 16 in the journal Patterns. (2020-09-17)

How the brain's inner clock measures seconds
UCLA researchers have pinpointed a second hand to the brain's internal clock. By revealing how and where the brain counts and represents seconds, the UCLA discovery will expand scientists' understanding of normal and abnormal brain function. (2020-09-17)

Study suggests unconscious learning underlies belief in God
Individuals who can unconsciously predict complex patterns, an ability called implicit pattern learning, are likely to hold stronger beliefs that there is a god who creates patterns of events in the universe, according to neuroscientists at Georgetown University. (2020-09-09)

New insights into evolution of gene expression
The long-term expression of genes in vertebrate organs predisposes these genes to be subsequently utilized in other organs during evolution. The scientists Kenji Fukushima and David D. Pollock report this finding in the journal Nature Communications. (2020-09-08)

In sickness and in health
Researchers at the University of Tsukuba have shown that for men with major cardiovascular disease risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia, their wives are more likely to suffer from the same diseases. These results emphasize the need for extending disease concerns beyond relatives who share ancestry to the patient's spouse. Further, couple-based interventions are desirable for the management of lifestyle diseases, and spouses should be informed of their risk. (2020-08-25)

Equatorial winds ripple down to Antarctica
A CIRES-led team has uncovered a critical connection between winds at Earth's equator and atmospheric waves 6,000 miles away at the South Pole. The team has found, for the first time, evidence of a Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) -- an atmospheric circulation pattern that originates at the equator--at McMurdo, Antarctica. (2020-08-17)

Study finds cancer mapping may solve puzzle of regional disease links
New statistical analysis finds cancer mapping may help question regional disease links. (2020-08-13)

Mathematical patterns developed by Alan Turing help researchers understand bird behavior
Scientists from the University of Sheffield have used mathematical modelling to understand why flocks of long-tailed tits segregate themselves into different parts of the landscape. (2020-08-11)

Study: Machine learning can predict market behavior
Machine learning can assess the effectiveness of mathematical tools used to predict the movements of financial markets, according to new Cornell research based on the largest dataset ever used in this area. (2020-08-11)

Updating Turing's model of pattern formation
Research published in EPJ B revisits the Turing instability mechanism; proving mathematically how the instabilities which give rise to patterns can occur through simple reactions, and in widely varied environmental conditions. (2020-08-07)

Herbivorous vertebrates may face most daunting extinction risk
Herbivores -- not predators -- may face a higher risk of extinction among mammals, birds, and reptiles, according to a new study of more than 44,000 living and extinct species. The findings suggest herbivores have consistently suffered the highest threat of extinction in the present day, the recent past, and the late Pleistocene - more so than species from any other position. (2020-08-05)

How the zebrafish got its stripes
Animal patterns are a source of endless fascination, and now researchers at the University Bath have worked out how zebrafish develop their stripes. (2020-07-27)

Artificial Intelligence to identify individual birds of a same species
Humans have a hard time identifying individual birds just by looking at the patterns on their plumage. An international study involving scientists form the CNRS, Université de Montpellier and the University of Porto in Portugal, among others, has shown how computers can learn to differentiate individual birds of a same species. The results are published on 27 July 2020 in Methods in Ecology and Evolution. (2020-07-27)

Wide awake: Light pollution keeps magpies and pigeons tossing and turning
La Trobe University and University of Melbourne researchers find light comparable in intensity to street lighting can disrupt the length, structure and intensity of sleep in magpies and pigeons (2020-07-23)

Study shows how our brains remain active during familiar, repetitive tasks
New research, based on earlier results in mice, suggests that our brains are never at rest, even when we are not learning anything about the world around us. (2020-07-14)

Evolution makes the world less ragged
How does evolution impact ecological patterns? It helps smooth out the rough edges, says UConn Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Professor Mark Urban. Urban led an international team of researchers through a review of the history of ecological and evolutionary research to establish a framework to better understand evolution's impact on ecosystem patterns. The research is published as a perspective in the Proceeding of the National Academy of Sciences. (2020-07-09)

New method for simulating yarn-cloth patterns to be unveiled at ACM SIGGRAPH
A global team of computer scientists from the Institute of Science and Technology (IST) Austria and Indian institute of Technology Delhi (IITD) has developed a method for specifically animating yarn-level cloth effects, accurately capturing the physics of the material, including the stretching and bending response. (2020-07-08)

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