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Study: Machine learning can predict market behavior
Machine learning can assess the effectiveness of mathematical tools used to predict the movements of financial markets, according to new Cornell research based on the largest dataset ever used in this area. (2020-08-11)

Updating Turing's model of pattern formation
Research published in EPJ B revisits the Turing instability mechanism; proving mathematically how the instabilities which give rise to patterns can occur through simple reactions, and in widely varied environmental conditions. (2020-08-07)

Herbivorous vertebrates may face most daunting extinction risk
Herbivores -- not predators -- may face a higher risk of extinction among mammals, birds, and reptiles, according to a new study of more than 44,000 living and extinct species. The findings suggest herbivores have consistently suffered the highest threat of extinction in the present day, the recent past, and the late Pleistocene - more so than species from any other position. (2020-08-05)

How the zebrafish got its stripes
Animal patterns are a source of endless fascination, and now researchers at the University Bath have worked out how zebrafish develop their stripes. (2020-07-27)

Artificial Intelligence to identify individual birds of a same species
Humans have a hard time identifying individual birds just by looking at the patterns on their plumage. An international study involving scientists form the CNRS, Université de Montpellier and the University of Porto in Portugal, among others, has shown how computers can learn to differentiate individual birds of a same species. The results are published on 27 July 2020 in Methods in Ecology and Evolution. (2020-07-27)

Wide awake: Light pollution keeps magpies and pigeons tossing and turning
La Trobe University and University of Melbourne researchers find light comparable in intensity to street lighting can disrupt the length, structure and intensity of sleep in magpies and pigeons (2020-07-23)

Study shows how our brains remain active during familiar, repetitive tasks
New research, based on earlier results in mice, suggests that our brains are never at rest, even when we are not learning anything about the world around us. (2020-07-14)

Evolution makes the world less ragged
How does evolution impact ecological patterns? It helps smooth out the rough edges, says UConn Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Professor Mark Urban. Urban led an international team of researchers through a review of the history of ecological and evolutionary research to establish a framework to better understand evolution's impact on ecosystem patterns. The research is published as a perspective in the Proceeding of the National Academy of Sciences. (2020-07-09)

New method for simulating yarn-cloth patterns to be unveiled at ACM SIGGRAPH
A global team of computer scientists from the Institute of Science and Technology (IST) Austria and Indian institute of Technology Delhi (IITD) has developed a method for specifically animating yarn-level cloth effects, accurately capturing the physics of the material, including the stretching and bending response. (2020-07-08)

Center for BrainHealth advances understanding of brain connectivity in cannabis users
Center for BrainHealth® recently examined underlying brain networks in long-term cannabis users to identify patterns of brain connectivity when the users crave or have a desire to consume cannabis. While regional brain activation and static connectivity in response to cravings have been studied before, fluctuations in brain network connectivity had not yet been examined in cannabis users. The findings from this study will help support the development of better treatment strategies for cannabis dependence. (2020-07-02)

Following a variety of healthy eating patterns associated with lower heart disease risk
Greater adherence to a variety of healthy eating patterns was associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), according to new research led by Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health. (2020-06-15)

Repetitive negative thinking linked to dementia risk
Persistently engaging in negative thinking patterns may raise the risk of Alzheimer's disease, finds a new UCL-led study published in Alzheimer's & Dementia. (2020-06-07)

New technique for engineering living materials and patterns
A new method for engineering living materials called 'MeniFluidics', made by researchers at the University of Warwick could see a transformation in tissue engineering and bio-art, as well as new ways to research cellular interactions. (2020-06-05)

K-State study reveals asymmetry in spin directions of galaxies
The patterns formed by spiral galaxies show that the universe may have a defined structure and suggest that the early universe could have been spinning, according to a Kansas State University computational astronomer. (2020-06-01)

Scientists analyze spatio-temporal differentiation of spring phenology in China from 1979 to 2018
By simulating the spatial and temporal features of the first bloom date (FBD) of typical vegetation for last four decades in China, Beijing normal university applied co-clustering analysis for high dimensional sparse matrix and revealed the spatio-temporal patterns of FBD in China in different time periods for the first time. (2020-05-28)

High-resolution 3D view inside tumors
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. But individual tumors can vary significantly, presenting different spatial patterns within their mass. Researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) and Helmholtz Zentrum München have now succeeded in visualizing spatial changes within tumors by means of optoacoustics. This method may be helpful for the future development of new drugs. (2020-05-26)

Early visual experience drives precise alignment of cortical networks for binocular vision
Researchers identify three distinct cortical representations that develop independent of visual experience but undergo experience-dependent reshaping, an essential part of cortical network alignment and maturation. (2020-05-18)

Lyin' eyes: Butterfly, moth eyespots may look the same, but likely evolved separately
The iconic eyespots that some moths and butterflies use to ward off predators likely evolved in distinct ways, providing insights into how these insects became so diverse. (2020-05-06)

Evaluation of pedestrian walking speed change patterns at crosswalks in palestine
One of the main pedestrian issues considered in facilities and traffic signal design is pedestrian walking speed. It is, therefore, necessary to evaluate the walking speed change patterns at crosswalks and the appropriate design walking speed for pedestrians, which can then be used to design pedestrian facilities and traffic signals. (2020-05-05)

Skin that computes
As our body's largest and most prominent organ, the skin also provides one of our most fundamental connections to the world around us. From the moment we're born, it is intimately involved in every physical interaction we have. (2020-04-15)

Stanford researcher investigates how squid communicate in the dark
Researchers begin to reveal how social squid communicate in the near-blackness of the deep sea. (2020-03-23)

Stanford scientists discover the mathematical rules underpinning brain growth
'How do cells with complementary functions arrange themselves to construct a functioning tissue?' said study co-author Bo Wang, an assistant professor of Bioengineering. 'We chose to answer that question by studying a brain because it had been commonly assumed that the brain was too complex to have a simple patterning rule. We surprised ourselves when we discovered there was, in fact, such a rule.' (2020-03-11)

Thinking in acids and bases
Researchers from the National Institute for Physiological Sciences in Okazaki designed and tested a probe to track brain pH in mice during a visual task. The new proton image sensor has increased spatial and temporal accuracy compared with previous techniques, and revealed distinct patterns of pH changes in the primary visual cortex that were induced by different stimulus patterns, making it a valuable tool for examining the role of pH in neurotransmission. (2020-03-06)

Topology protects light propagation in photonic crystal
Researchers of AMOLF and TU Delft have seen light propagate in a special material without it suffering from reflections. The material, a photonic crystal, consists of two parts that each have a slightly different pattern of perforations. Light can propagate along the boundary between these two parts in a special way: it is topologically protected and, therefore, does not bounce back at imperfections. (2020-03-06)

Male-killing bugs hold key to butterflies' curious color changes
An international team of researchers have shed new light on the complex reproductive process which dictates that only female offspring of the Danaus chrysippus survive -- all in close proximity to Kenya's capital, Nairobi. (2020-02-28)

Male-killing bacteria linked to butterfly color changes
Like many poisonous animals, the African monarch butterfly's orange, white and black pattern warns predators that it is toxic. Warning patterns like this are usually consistent across individuals to help predators learn to avoid them. However, a recent study, published February 27 in the open-access journal PLOS Biology, shows how a population of African monarch butterflies (Danaus chrysippus) breaks this rule and has highly variable warning patterns. (2020-02-28)

How do zebrafish get their stripes? New data analysis tool could provide an answer
A new mathematical tool developed at Brown could help scientists better understand how zebrafish get their stripes as well as other self-assembled patterns in nature. (2020-02-27)

Not falling far from tree: Ecologists study seed-to-seedling transitions
Ecologists studying spatial patterns of seeds and surviving seedlings among trees on Panama's Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute Forest Dynamics Plot on Barro Colorado Island observed the Hubbell pattern: A large number of seedlings survived under parent trees compared to far away. Findings suggest the strength of mortality experienced from the seed to seedling stage may not be sufficient to promote local diversity. (2020-02-27)

Social isolation during adolescence drives long-term disruptions in social behavior
Mount Sinai Researchers find social isolation during key developmental windows drives long term changes to activity patterns of neurons involved in initiating social approach in an animal model. (2020-02-21)

More clues for how the monkeyflower got its spots
The monkeyflower, or Mimulus, though possessing a relatively simple genome is able to produce a stunning array of pigmentation patterns. A team of researchers is one step closer to understanding exactly how this genus of wildflowers is able to achieve such remarkable diversity, their work will be published Thursday in Current Biology. (2020-02-20)

Stressed corals set up progeny for a better life
First evidence that animal DNA methylation patterns can be passed to the next generation. (2020-02-19)

New mathematical model reveals how major groups arise in evolution
Researchers at Uppsala University and the University of Leeds presents a new mathematical model of patterns of diversity in the fossil record, which offers a solution to Darwin's ''abominable mystery'' and strengthens our understanding of how modern groups originate. The research is published in the journal Science Advances. (2020-02-19)

Artificial intelligence finds disease-related genes
An artificial neural network can reveal patterns in huge amounts of gene expression data, and discover groups of disease-related genes. This has been shown by a new study led by researchers at Linköping University, Sweden, published in Nature Communications. The scientists hope that the method can eventually be applied within precision medicine and individualized treatment. (2020-02-13)

Epigenetics: Inheritance of epigenetic marks
A study undertaken by an international team led by Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich molecular biologist Axel Imhof sheds new light on the mechanisms that control the establishment of epigenetic modifications on newly synthesized histones following cell division. (2020-02-10)

Epigenetics: Inheritance of epigenetic markers
A study undertaken by an international team led by Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich molecular biologist Axel Imhof sheds new light on the mechanisms that control the establishment of epigenetic modifications on newly synthesized histones following cell division. (2020-02-07)

Setting up fundamental bases for information metasurface
In recent years, investigations of metasurfaces have been extended from the physical and material sciences to digital and information category. Therefore, the study of metasurfaces from information perspective requires a general theory for guidance. Scientists in China reported a theory for characterization on information and information processing capabilities of metasurfaces, and demonstrated the relation between the information of metasurface and its far-field pattern. (2020-02-06)

Patterns in the brain shed new light on how we function
Patterns of brain connectivity take us a step closer to understanding the key principles of cognition. (2020-01-30)

Studying the geometry of a common skin disease
In a recent study from Hiroshima University, researchers turned to mathematics to predict hive patterns in humans. (2020-01-28)

Memory boost with just one look
HRL Laboratories, LLC, researchers have published results showing that targeted transcranial electrical stimulation during slow-wave sleep can improve metamemories of specific episodes by 20% after only one viewing of the episode, compared to controls. The same technology may offer a non-invasive treatment to mitigate bad memories that might cause post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Metamemory describes the sensitivity of whether memories are recalled accurately or not, such as during eyewitness testimony. (2020-01-14)

Animals reduce the symmetry of their markings to improve camouflage
Some forms of camouflage have evolved in animals to exploit a loophole in the way predators perceive their symmetrical markings. The University of Bristol findings, published in Proceedings of the Royal Society B today, describe how animals have evolved to mitigate this defensive disadvantage in their coloration. (2020-01-14)

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