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Deep seabed mining must benefit all humankind
As investors set their sights on the mineral resources of the deep seabed, the International Seabed Authority (ISA) is developing regulations that will govern their future exploration and possible exploitation. A new IASS Policy Brief, published in cooperation with the Federal Environment Agency (UBA), presents three recommendations to ensure that future deep seabed mining would be to the common benefit all humankind, as required by international law. (2021-02-18)

Low-value health care drops only marginally despite effort to curb practices
An estimated 10% to 20% of health care spending consists of low-value care -- patient services that offer no net clinical benefit in specific scenarios. A new study finds that spending on low-value health care among fee-for-service Medicare recipients dropped only marginally from 2014 to 2018, despite both a national campaign to better educate clinicians and increasing use of payment revisions that discourage wasteful care. (2021-02-16)

Scientists developed a novel method of automatic soil mapping
A team of soil scientists developed a new approach to the automatic generation and updating of soil maps. Having applied machine learning technologies to a set of rules traditionally used by experts in manual mapping, the team obtained a highly accurate model that provides easy-to-interpret results. (2021-02-15)

Insilico announces MolGrow -- a new generative model for hierarchical molecular generation
Insilico Presented Its New Molecular Generation Model at the 35th AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence (2021-02-11)

Changing cropping systems in impaired watersheds can produce water quality gains
Growing the right crop in the right place within an impaired watershed can achieve significant water quality improvements, according to Penn State researchers, who conducted a novel study in the drainage of a Susquehanna River tributary in an agricultural area in southeastern Pennsylvania. (2021-02-09)

Potential for misuse of climate data a threat to business and financial markets
Climate information is at risk of being misconstrued and used inappropriately in financial reports and has the potential to expose businesses to significant risk, according to a new paper by Australian researchers. (2021-02-08)

If healthy people are purposefully infected with COVID-19 for the sake of science, they should be paid
Multidisciplinary team of international experts suggests participants should receive a ''substantial'' amount, be paid ethically. (2021-02-05)

Sea level will rise faster than previously thought
There are two main elements to observe when assessing sea level rise. One is the loss of the ice on land and the other is that the sea will expand as it gets warmer. Researchers at the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen have constructed a new method of quantifying just how fast the sea will react to warming. Former predictions of sea level have been too conservative, so the sea will likely rise more and faster than previously believed. (2021-02-02)

A NEAT reduction of complex neuronal models accelerates brain research
Unlike their simple counterparts in artificial intelligence (AI) applications, neurons in the brain use dendrites - their intricate tree-like branches - to find relevant chunks of information. Now, neuroscientists from the University of Bern have discovered a new computational method to make complex dendrite models much simpler. These faithful reductions may lead AI applications to process information much like the brain does. (2021-01-27)

Mammogram-based breast cancer risk model could lead to better screening guidelines
A new machine learning algorithm based on mammograms can estimate the risk of breast cancer in women more accurately than current risk models, according to a study from Adam Yala and colleagues. (2021-01-27)

Is there a link between cashless payments and unhealthy consumption?
The widespread use of cashless payments including credit cards, debit cards, and mobile apps has made transactions more convenient for consumers. However, results from previous research have shown that such cashless payments can increase consumers' spending on unhealthy food. (2021-01-27)

To find the right network model, compare all possible histories
Scientists rarely have the historical data they need to see exactly how nodes in a network became connected. But a new paper in Physical Review Letters offers hope for reconstructing the missing information, using a new method to evaluate the rules that generate network models. (2021-01-25)

Navigating uncertainty: Why we need decision theory during a pandemic
Modern decision theory can assist policymakers in critical times such as the COVID-19 crisis, argue Bocconi University's Massimo Marinacci and Valentina Bosetti in a paper coauthored by Nobel laureate Lars Peter Hansen (2021-01-22)

Combining best of both worlds for cancer modeling
Treatment options for many types of cancers remain limited, due partly to the in vitro tools used to model cancers and that results from animal studies do not always translate well to human disease. These shortcomings point to a clear need for a better, patient-specific model. Researchers suggest bioengineered microscale organotypic models can address this need. They discuss the advantages and capabilities of this technique, as well as its challenges, in the journal APL Bioengineering. (2021-01-21)

Personalizing cancer care with improved tumor models
While decades of research have resulted in substantial improvements in surviving cancer, a key challenge remains in identifying new drugs that improve outcomes for patients. In APL Bioengineering, researchers suggest a major hurdle is the paucity of models for cancer research that accurately represent patient tumors. They provide a perspective on strategies using models from individual patients and where the field needs to go in terms of research in animal systems and in culture systems. (2021-01-21)

Improving long-term climate calculations
Climate researchers have found a simple but efficient way to improve estimations of ultimate global warming from complex climate models. The finding is relevant for the evaluation and comparison of climate models and thus for accurate projections of future climate change - especially beyond the year 2100. (2021-01-19)

Mount Sinai researchers build models using machine learning technique to enhance predictions of COVID-19 outcomes
Mount Sinai researchers have published one of the first studies using federated learning to examine electronic health records to better predict how COVID-19 patients will progress. (2021-01-18)

Deep learning outperforms standard machine learning in biomedical research applications
Compared to standard machine learning models, deep learning models are largely superior at discerning patterns and discriminative features in brain imaging, despite being more complex in their architecture. (2021-01-14)

Inpatient mammograms can reduce disparities in breast cancer screening rates
Inpatient mammograms are a feasible approach to deliver preventive care to hospitalized women who may face significant barriers to completing the test in the outpatient setting. (2021-01-13)

Researchers find wildfire smoke is more cooling on climate than computer models assume
Many of the most advanced climate models simulate smoke that is darker, or more light absorbing, than what researchers see in observations. (2021-01-12)

Preserving workers' hearing health by improving earplug efficiency
How could we improve the comfort and effectiveness of these earplugs? What aspects of the ear canal must be taken into account? To answer these questions, researchers from the École de technologie supérieure (ÉTS University) and the Institut de recherche en santé et sécurité du travail (IRSST) analyzed the varying structure of ear canals to find a correlation between their shapes and the effectiveness of three commonly-used models of earplugs. (2021-01-08)

Latina mothers, often essential workers, report COVID-19 took toll
More than half of Latina mothers surveyed in Yolo and Sacramento counties reported making economic cutbacks in response to the pandemic shutdown last spring -- saying they bought less food and missed rent payments. Hardships were not reduced by stimulus checks. (2021-01-08)

Model used to evaluate lockdowns was flawed
In a recent study, researchers from Imperial College London developed a model to assess the effect of different measures used to curb the spread of the coronavirus. However, the model had fundamental shortcomings and cannot be used to draw the published conclusions, claim Swedish researchers from Lund University, and other institutions, in the journal Nature. (2020-12-26)

Alzheimer's disease: regulating copper in the brain stops memory loss among mice
Alzheimer's disease is characterized by the presence of amyloid plaques1 in the patient's brain. These plaques sequester copper, and contain approximately five times as much as a healthy brain. Two CNRS scientists from the Coordination Chemistry Laboratory recently developed, with their colleagues from the Guangdong University of Technology and Shenzhen University (China), a molecule that regulates the circulation of copper in the brain. (2020-12-17)

Calibrating kidney function for cancer patients
A new model to evaluate kidney function can help clinicians find the right balance between treating cancer and avoiding chemotherapy's dangerous side effects. (2020-12-10)

Predicting British railway delays using artificial intelligence
Over the past 20 years, the number of passengers traveling on British train networks has almost doubled to 1.7 billion annually. With numbers like that it's clear that people rely on rail service in Great Britain, and how many disgruntled patrons there would be when delays occur. A recent study from the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign used British Railway data and an artificial intelligence model to improve the ability to predict delays in railway networks. (2020-12-10)

Predicting epilepsy from neural network models
A new study published in EPJ B shows how 'tipping points' in the brain, responsible for diseases including epilepsy, can be better predicted by accounting for branches in networks of neurons. (2020-12-08)

Tech makes it possible to digitally communicate through human touch
Researchers have developed the first technology capable of sending digital information, such as a photo or password, by touching a surface with your finger. (2020-12-03)

Flashy lizards are more attractive to mates and to predators
In the lizard world, flashy colors attract the interest of females looking for mates. But they can make colorful males desirable to other eyes, too -- as lunch, according to new research led by faculty at Binghamton University, State University of New York. (2020-12-01)

Older adults with dementia exhibit financial 'symptoms' up to six years before diagnosis
A new study led by researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and the Federal Reserve Board of Governors found that Medicare beneficiaries who go on to be diagnosed with dementia are more likely to miss payments on bills as early as six years before a clinical diagnosis. (2020-11-30)

Study shows minimal impact of APPs on ED productivity, flow, safety, patient experience
Advanced practice providers (APPs) have lower productivity compared with emergency department physicians, seeing fewer and less complex patients and generating less relative value units per hour, and having no apparent impact on patient satisfaction and safety metrics. (2020-11-25)

U.S. should look at how other high-income countries regulate health care costs
Structuring negotiations between insurers and providers, standardizing fee-for-service payments and negotiating prices can lower the United States' health care spending by slowing the rate at which healthcare prices increase, according to a Rutgers study. (2020-11-22)

Deep learning in the emergency department
Harnessing the power of deep learning leads to better predictions of patient admissions and flow in emergency departments (2020-11-22)

Peptide is a key mediator in the regulation of compulsive alcohol drinking
Researchers from Boston University School of Medicine (BUSM) have identified that a peptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating mediator of compulsive consumption of alcohol. In addition, they have discovered that this protein acts in an area of the brain called the Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis, or BNST, a region involved in fear, anxiety and stress responses, to exert these effects. (2020-11-16)

CMIP6 adds more value in simulating extreme temperatures in China
CMIP6 adds more value in simulating extreme temperatures in China. (2020-11-13)

Past is key to predicting future climate, scientists say
In a review paper published in the journal Science, a group of climate experts make the case for including paleoclimate data in the development of climate models. Such models are used globally to assess the impacts of human-caused greenhouse gas emissions, predict scenarios for future climate and propose strategies for mitigation. (2020-11-05)

Pay people to get COVID-19 jab to ensure widespread coverage, says leading ethicist
Governments should consider incentivising people to get a COVID-19 jab, when the vaccine becomes available, to achieve the required level of herd immunity--which could be up to 80%+ of the population--and stamp out the infection, argues a leading ethicist in an opinion piece accepted for publication in the Journal of Medical Ethics. (2020-11-05)

Machine learning shows similar performance to traditional risk prediction models
Some claim that machine learning technology has the potential to transform healthcare systems, but a study published by The BMJ finds that machine learning models have similar performance to traditional statistical models and share similar uncertainty in making risk predictions for individual patients. (2020-11-04)

How to figure out what you don't know
Sometimes, what seems like a good way to explain the world--a model--turns out to be wrong. CSHL machine learning researchers developed a way to find the best answers to complicated questions, rather than answers that only appear to be right when tested in a few ways. (2020-10-26)

ACP leaders urge consideration of presidential candidates' proposals for better US health care
As voters cast their ballots, it is important for them to know the health care proposals of the two presidential candidates and how they will address and improve the U.S. health care system especially in light of the problems with the system that have been underscored this year during the COVID-19 pandemic, say leaders from the American College of Physicians (ACP). (2020-10-26)

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