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New retroreflective material could be used in nighttime color-changing road signs
A thin film that reflects light in intriguing ways could be used to make road signs that shine brightly and change color at night. The technology could help call attention to important traffic information when it's dark, with potential benefits for both drivers and pedestrians, researchers say. (2019-08-09)

Fishing for insights into evolutionary change in the genome of frozen fish
Using decades-old frozen fish, researchers have discovered roots of rapid evolutionary adaptation to human activity in the Anthropocene. Similar traits - at least in the fish they studied -- can arise through highly divergent genetic pathways, the researchers say. (2019-08-01)

Researchers suggest new approach needed to address Anthropocene risk
A team of international researchers suggest adopting a holistic approach to understanding environmental risks. (2019-07-22)

Using visual imagery to find your true passions
You may think you know what you like -- how to spend your time or what profession to pursue. But a new study suggests that your pre-existing self-beliefs, as well as cultural stereotypes, may interfere with your memories and keep you from remembering what truly interests you. However, researchers at The Ohio State University found that one particular mental technique could help us overcome the barriers that block us from finding our passions. (2019-07-22)

Rutgers collaborates with WHO to more accurately describe mental health disorders
A Rutgers University researcher collaborated with the World Health Organization on the first study to seek input from people with common mental health issues on how their disorders are described in diagnostic guidelines. (2019-07-16)

The brain's pathways to imagination may hold the key to altruistic behavior
Boston College researchers used neuroimaging to identify multiple neural pathways in the brain that explain the relationship between imagination and the willingness to help others. (2019-07-12)

How to improve care for patients with disabilities? We need more providers like them
When it comes to patients with disabilities, the chance of getting a clinician 'like them' is extremely low, which may lead to patients' reluctance to seek care or follow prescribed interventions and treatments. Meanwhile, without adequate scientists with disabilities bringing perspectives to patient-centered research, the ability to improve care for patients with disabilities is limited. (2019-06-10)

The Neolithic precedents of gender inequality
Inequality between men and women was not generally consolidated in Iberia during the Neolithic. However, situations progressively appeared that indicate dominance of men over women. Four important lines in which inequality between men and women can be investigated through successive historical periods are their access to funeral rites, the material conditions of their existence, the appearance of specific social roles for each of the genders and the growing association of men with violence. (2019-06-10)

Researchers from IKBFU study properties of amorphous microwires
Glass coated amorphous microwires are the newest perspective magnetic composite alloys that can be used for the creation of modern high-speed mass storage devices with high recording density and logic elements. (2019-05-22)

The enduring effects of mother-child interactions as children become adults
Interactions between a mother and her child have been linked to cognitive outcomes in childhood, but little work has looked at farther-reaching effects. In a Journal of Marriage & Family study that examined data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, more positive mother-child interactions during the first 16 years of life predicted higher education in adulthood, which predicted less decline in episodic memory, or the memory of autobiographical events. (2019-05-09)

Close relatives can coexist: two flower species show us how
Scientists have discovered how two closely-related species of Asiatic dayflower can coexist in the wild despite their competitive relationship. Through a combination of field surveys and artificial pollination experiments, the new study shows that while reproductive interference exists between the two species, both can counter the negative effects of this interference through self-fertilization. (2019-05-07)

Research finds pregnant women feel pushed out of their jobs
Florida State University researcher Samantha Paustian-Underdahl found pregnant women experienced decreased encouragement in the workplace to return to their jobs after pregnancy. (2019-04-18)

Empathy and cooperation go hand in hand
Despite sometimes selfish instincts, cooperation abounds in human societies. Using mathematical models to explore this complex feature of social behavior, a University of Pennsylvania-led team shows that the act of taking another person's perspective -- a form of empathy -- supports the persistence of cooperation and altruism. (2019-04-09)

Visualization strategies may backfire on consumers pursuing health goals
Using visualization as motivation is a common technique for achieving goals, but consumers who are pursuing health goals such as eating healthy or losing weight should use caution when using perspective-based visualizations. (2019-04-04)

Johns Hopkins faculty staff members address travails of navigating metastatic cancer survivorship
Due to advances in treatment, an ever-increasing number of patients are living longer as metastatic cancer survivors. They and their doctors face a host of new challenges that require immediate attention. (2019-04-03)

Proofs of parallel evolution between cognition, tool development, and social complexity
A study led by the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC) has used eye-tracking techniques to analyse the processes of selective attention that determine the way in which we explore and interact with our environment. Researchers studied the movements of the eyes when observing different decorative patterns represented in prehistoric ceramic objects. The results indicate that there is a parallel evolution between the cognitive processes, the development of material culture, and social complexity. (2019-03-08)

Longitudinal studies provide an excellent research learning environment for trainees
Compared to experimental studies that require complex infrastructures such as laboratories or clinical trials at multiple centers, studies using a longitudinal cohort (an observational research method in which data is gathered for the same participants repeatedly over a period of time) could be a good alternative for investigators as they begin their early research careers. (2019-03-07)

New wireless system 'cuts the cord' from newborn patient monitoring approaches
A new, less invasive system for monitoring the vital signs of some of the world's most fragile patients -- infants born pre-term or with debilitating disease -- would allow parents skin-to-skin contact with these children when they otherwise couldn't have it. (2019-02-28)

Research shows for the first time how we use others' viewpoints to make decisions
Everyday life is full of situations that require us to take others' perspectives. Now new research by the University of Plymouth has provided the first direct evidence that we can do this because we spontaneously form mental images of how the world looks to the other person, so that we can virtually see through their eyes and make judgements as if it was what we were seeing. (2019-02-21)

Grasses can acquire genes from neighboring plants
Published in the Feb. 18, 2019, edition of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, a study led by an international team including Guillaume Besnard, CNRS researcher at the 'Evolution et diversité biologique' laboratory (CNRS/IRD/Université Toulouse III -- Paul Sabatier), reveals that the genome of Alloteropsis semialata, a grass found in Australia, contains nearly 60 genes acquired from at least nine donor grasses species. (2019-02-18)

Broad regional accents are a barrier to social mobility, research finds
New research via Bath's Department of Education looked at the perception of regional accents for teachers across the UK. (2019-02-13)

Anther rubbing, a new movement discovered in plants, promotes prior selfing
Most plants have developed mechanisms to prevent self-fertilization and its detrimental effects of inbreeding depression. Traits promoting selfing in plants have been approached mainly from the perspective of a loss of function. However, the shift from cross-fertilization to selfing has been identified as one of the most frequent evolutionary transitions. Therefore, adaptive mechanisms actively promoting selfing should be usual in the plant kingdom, but, remarkably, they have not been frequently found. (2019-02-08)

Putting yourself in their shoes may make you less open to their beliefs
Trying to take someone else's perspective may make you less open to their opposing views, according to findings published in Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science. (2019-02-04)

Nudging does not necessarily improve decisions
Nudging, the concept of influencing people's behavior without imposing rules, bans or coercion, is an idea that government officials and marketing specialists alike are keen to harness, and itis often viewed as a one-size-fits-all solution. Now, a study by researchers from the University of Zurich puts things into perspective: Whether a nudge really does improve decisions depends on a person's underlying decision-making process. (2019-01-16)

Analysis estimates mortality from fungal infections of ash trees
The ash dieback epidemic, caused by the fungus Hymenoscyphus fraxineus, has swept across Europe over the past 20 years and caused widespread damage and death in ash tree (Fraxinus excelsior) populations. A recent analysis of surveys of ash dieback across Europe, published in Plants, People, Planet, reveals mortality rates as high as 85 percent in plantations and 70 percent in woodlands. (2018-12-05)

Obesity and food restrictions proven to be associated with less food enjoyment
A study carried out by UGR scientists shows that obesity and food restrictions -even trivial ones- such as temporary diets are associated with a reduction in enjoyment For this research, food-related emotions were analyzed in 552 adolescents aged 11 to 17 belonging to several high schools from Granada. (2018-11-13)

New scheduling system could help reduce flight delays
Scheduling and coordinating air traffic can be difficult, but taking the airlines' and passengers' delay costs into account can actually save airlines money and result in fewer delays, according to a new study from Binghamton University, State University of New York. (2018-11-13)

Flow units: Dynamic defects in metallic glasses
Metallic glass is promising and advanced metallic material with many unique properties. It is also considered as a model system to study fundamental issues of amorphous materials. Recently, experiments and simulation results support the existence of so-called flow units in metallic glasses. As dynamic defects, flow units are closely related with deformation, dynamics, relaxations and the glass transition. Scientists from Chinese Academy of Sciences summarize the latest advances in the study of flow units and properties optimizations based on it. (2018-11-06)

Virtual reality may encourage empathic behavior
Virtual reality could be a useful tool to encourage empathy, helpful behavior, and positive attitudes towards marginalized groups, according to a study published Oct. 17, 2018, in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Fernanda Herrera from Stanford University, USA, and colleagues. (2018-10-17)

Factors linked with wellbeing and medication adherence in young adults with kidney failure
In a study of young adults with kidney failure, poor wellbeing and lower medication adherence were both associated with psychological morbidity. Dialysis treatment (vs. kidney transplantation) was associated with poorer wellbeing and medication adherence. (2018-10-16)

The chromosome responsible for asparagus gender is characterized
A University of Cordoba research project draws a genetic map of garden asparagus and marks the chromosome determining gender. (2018-10-08)

Educating the next generation of medical professionals with machine learning is essential
Artificial intelligence (AI) driven by machine learning (ML) algorithms is a branch in the field of computer science that is rapidly gaining popularity within the healthcare sector. However, graduate medical education and other teaching programs within academic teaching hospitals across the US and around the world have not yet come to grips with educating students and trainees on this emerging technology. (2018-09-27)

Take a step back from yourself to better realize the benefits of awe
Religion and nature can both lead to awe, and turning to one or the other is a common coping strategy for the stress. But an awe-inspiring experience can have negative consequences as well as benefits, according to a novel UB-led study that uses cardiovascular responses to stress to take a broad look at awe and the critical role perspective plays when considering the effects of encountering awe. (2018-09-24)

Hate speech-detecting AIs are fools for 'love'
Hateful text and comments are an ever-increasing problem in online environments, yet addressing the rampant issue relies on being able to identify toxic content. A new study by the Aalto University Secure Systems research group has discovered weaknesses in many machine learning detectors currently used to recognize and keep hate speech at bay. (2018-09-14)

NASA's SDO spots 2 lunar transits in space
On Sept. 9, NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory saw two lunar transits over the course of just six hours. (2018-09-10)

Zeroing in: What triggered the recent yellow fever outbreak in Brazil
In a 'tour de force genetic investigation of the outbreak' according to a related Perspective, scientists have shown how the recent yellow fever outbreak in Brazil originated in nonhuman primates in the forest and spilled over into human populations. (2018-08-23)

Lithium-oxygen battery technology charges ahead
A new report overcomes hurdles related to the electrochemistry underlying the lithium-oxygen battery, making it a little more likely this high-powered battery could be broadly adopted in years ahead. (2018-08-23)

Patients with healthcare-associated infections suffer social, emotional pain
The consequences of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) reach well beyond patients' physical health, souring social relationships, and leading some healthcare providers (HCP) to distance themselves from affected patients, according to a qualitative, systematic review published in the American Journal of Infection Control (AJIC), the journal of the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC). (2018-08-16)

Forget the bling: High status-signaling deters new friendships
When it comes to making new friends, status symbols actually repel people from making friends with us, according to new research published in the journal Social Psychological and Personality Science. (2018-08-15)

Parents' smoking and depression linked to increased ADHD risk in children
A new study has identified adults' smoking and depression as family environmental factors associated with the development of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. The findings, which are published in Asia Pacific Psychiatry, come from an analysis of information on 23,561 children in Korea. (2018-08-08)

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