Current Phase Transition News and Events

Current Phase Transition News and Events, Phase Transition News Articles.
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Discovery of a mechanism by which epithelial tumours cause developmental delays
- Conducted on the fly Drosophila, the study shows that tumours caused by chromosomal instability delay entry into the adult phase. - The tumours produce the Upd3 protein (equivalent to human Interleukin-6) to block the production of developmental steroid hormones. - The work of IRB Barcelona's Growth Control and Development laboratory has been published in the journal Current Biology. (2021-02-22)

New "metalens" shifts focus without tilting or moving
An MIT-fabricated metalens shifts focus without tilting, shifting, or otherwise moving. The design may enable miniature zoom lenses for drones, cellphones, or night-vision goggles. (2021-02-22)

Lack of symmetry in qubits can't fix errors in quantum computing, might explain matter/antimatter
A team of quantum theorists seeking to cure a basic problem with quantum annealing computers--they have to run at a relatively slow pace to operate properly--found something intriguing instead. (2021-02-22)

Physics of tumours: Cancer cells become fluidised and squeeze through tissue
Working with colleagues from Germany and the US, researchers at Leipzig University have achieved a breakthrough in research into how cancer cells spread. The team of biophysicists led by Professor Josef Alfons Käs, Steffen Grosser and Jürgen Lippoldt demonstrated for the first time how cells deform in order to move in dense tumour tissues and squeeze past neighbouring cells. They have now published their findings in 'Physical Review X'. (2021-02-18)

Human impact on solar radiation levels for decades
Based on the long-term Potsdam radiation time series, ETH Professor Martin Wild and his collaborators have shown that variations in the intensity of sunlight over decades are down to ultra-fine, man-made dirt particles in the atmosphere. (2021-02-18)

In dueling ants vying to become queen, behavioral and molecular cues quickly determine who will win
In one species of ants, workers duel to establish new leadership after the death of their queen. While these sparring matches stretch for more than a month, changes in behavior and gene expression in the first three days of dueling can accurately predict who will triumph, according to a New York University study published in the journal Genes & Development. (2021-02-18)

Vets' depression, social support & psychological resilience play role in later well being
Veterans who experienced the combination of low depression, high social support and high psychological resilience as they left military service were most likely to report high well-being a year later. (2021-02-17)

Understanding cellular clock synchronization
In humans, the disruption of circadian clocks is the cause of many metabolic diseases. Thanks to an observation tool based on bioluminescence, a research (UNIGE) were able to demonstrate that cells that compose a particular organ can be in-phase, even in the absence of the central brain clock. Indeed, the scientists managed to restore circadian function in the liver in completely arrhythmic mice, demonstrating that neurons are not unique in their ability to coordinate. (2021-02-17)

Nanotechnologies reduce friction and improve durability of materials
A team of scientists from the National Research Nuclear University MEPhI and Immanuel Kant Baltic State Federal University suggested using innovative thin films to considerably reduce friction and thus increase the durability of surfaces in mechanisms. This discovery can be important for many fields, from medicine to space technologies. (2021-02-16)

NREL heats up thermal energy storage with new solution meant to ease grid stress
Scientists from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have developed a simple way to better evaluate the potential of novel materials to store or release heat on demand in your home, office, or other building in a way that more efficiently manages the building's energy use. (2021-02-16)

The time to take low-carbon transition risks seriously is now
A successful climate policy means preparing for unintended adverse impacts, such as job losses in declining energy sectors or potential environmental impacts of scaling up renewables. That's the message of EPFL researchers in their latest policy brief that provides a roadmap for anticipating and mitigating the risks of transitioning to a low-carbon economy and society. It calls on decision-makers to plan ahead and take systematic action. (2021-02-11)

A new quantum switch for electronics
A Russian physicist and his international colleagues studied a quantum point contact (QCP) between two conductors with external oscillating fields applied to the contact. They found that, for some types of contacts, an increase in the oscillation frequency above a critical value reduced the current to zero - a promising mechanism that can help create nanoelectronics components. (2021-02-11)

Stable armchairlike hexazine N6 ring in tungsten hexanitride
We have successfully synthesized WN6 at 126-165 GPa after laser heating up to ?3500 K. The WN6 phase contains novel armchairlike N6 rings. Future efforts in the synthesis and recovery of TMNs will lead to a wealth of knowledge in the novel chemistry and physical properties of the single-bonded hexazine-bearing nitrides. (2021-02-10)

Discovery of a new law of phase separation
Researchers at The University of Tokyo show that the dynamics of spontaneous phase separations forming network structures can be controlled by the slow dynamics in the networks formed. This work may lead to cheaper and more powerful rechargeable batteries. (2021-02-10)

Physicists have optimized the method of smelting the MAX phase
Physicists from the Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University in collaboration with their foreign colleagues have optimized the method for obtaining highly pure Cr2AlC MAX-phase, which is necessary for studying the magnetic properties of this compound when it is doped with manganese. The unique properties of magnetic MAX materials could be used in a wide range of new technologies from magnetic cooling to spintronics. (2021-02-10)

Challenges of animal ownership during the pandemic should be considered
Animal owners frequently report concerns and worries relating to caring for their animal during the pandemic, new research suggests. The study, by the University of York, also revealed owners had increased their appreciation of their animals during the first lockdown phase. The notion that people 'could not live without' their animals and that they were a 'godsend' or a 'lifeline' in the pandemic was frequently expressed. (2021-02-09)

'Magnetic graphene' forms a new kind of magnetism
Researchers have identified a new form of magnetism in so-called magnetic graphene, which could point the way toward understanding superconductivity in this unusual type of material. (2021-02-08)

Non-teleost ray-finned fishes exhibit mosaic genomic features of lobe- and ray-finned fishes
A research team led by Prof. HE Shunping from the Institute of Hydrobiology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences has discovered through genome sequencing that the non-teleost ray-finned fishes--bichir, paddlefish, bowfin and alligator gar--exhibit mosaic genomic features of lobe- and ray-finned fishes. (2021-02-05)

New research studies 'domino effects' and synchrony in brain activity
Scientists have made a significant breakthrough in the quest to understand the intricate processes that occur in the brain during seizures that are the key symptom of epilepsy. (2021-02-05)

Researchers from NUS create 'whirling' nano-structures in anti-ferromagnets
Inspired by the Big Bang cooling, the new finding could lead to super-fast, energy-efficient memory chips. (2021-02-04)

Role of cell cycle on analyzing telomerase activity with a fluorescence off-on system
Traditional detecting techniques for telomerase activity are mainly based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based classic telomeric repeat amplification protocols (TRAPs) and quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR). However, those methods were mainly relied on the analysis of asynchronous cells with different phases of cell cycle, the heterogeneous behavior of cell cycle were overlooked, which might affect the accuracy of their detection results. (2021-02-04)

More mammals are being struck by aircraft each year
Investigators have published a global review of mammal strikes with aircraft, noting that events have been increasing by up to 68% annually. More mammals were struck during the landing phase of an aircraft's rotation than any other phase, according to the article published in Mammal Review. (2021-02-03)

Brightening the future of semiconductor-based photocatalytic processes
A collaboration between the Pericàs group with Prof. Timothy Noël and Dr. Paola Riente at the Eindhoven University of Technology (TU/e, The Netherlands), has crystallised in a Nature Communications paper where they provide key insight into the chemical nature of the true photocatalyst involved in the Bi2O3-driven atom-transfer radical addition (ATRA) reaction. (2021-02-01)

High-speed holographic fluorescence microscopy system with submicron resolution
The National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT), Tohoku University, Toin University of Yokohama, and Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) have succeeded in developing a scanless high-speed holographic fluorescence microscopy system with submicron resolution for a 3D space. The system is based on digital holography. The developed microscopy system has an algorithm to acquire 3D information of fluorescent objects toward scanless 3D measurement in less than 1 millisecond. (2021-01-29)

Roadblocks to success for PhD grads could mean missed opportunities for Canada
Canada could be sitting on a significant untapped resource, as the number of PhD holders in this country rises, but persistent barriers make it hard for them to put their skills to work. According to a new expert panel report from the Council of Canadian Academies (CCA), PhD graduates play a critical role in the Canadian economy, but many are missing out on important opportunities to contribute their expertise and bolster growth and innovation. (2021-01-26)

Researchers use nanomaterials to make 2D diamond clusters at room temperature
2D hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is a promising material that can undergo transition to strong, super lightweight films. Researchers at the NYU Tandon School of Engineering led by Elisa Riedo have discovered that h-BN in layered, molecule-thin 2D sheets can phase transition to c-BN at room temperature. (2021-01-26)

A microscopic look at aneurysm repair
Research from the University of Pittsburgh and the Mayo Clinic, published in Experimental Mechanics, is the first to show that there are two phases of wall restructuring after an aneurysm forms, the first beginning right away to reinforce the weakened points. (2021-01-25)

MRI helps unravel the mysteries of sleep
Scientists at EPFL and the Universities of Geneva, Cape Town and Bochum have joined forces to investigate brain activity during sleep with the help of MRI scans. It turns out our brains are much more active than we thought. (2021-01-22)

Fungi strengthen plants to fend off aphids
Researchers at the University of Copenhagen have demonstrated that unique fungi strengthen the ''immune systems'' of wheat and bean plants against aphids. Fungi enter and influence the amount of a plant's own defences, resulting in fewer aphids. The results could serve to reduce agricultural insecticide use and bring Denmark a step further along the path towards its green transition. (2021-01-22)

Crystal structures in super slow motion
Laser beams are used to change the properties of materials in an extremely precise way. However, the underlying processes generally take place at such unimaginably fast speeds and at such a small scale that they have so far eluded direct observation. Göttingen researchers have now managed to film, for the first time, the laser transformation of a crystal structure with nanometre resolution and in slow motion in an electron microscope. The results were published in Science. (2021-01-22)

Teamwork in a molecule
Chemists at the Friedrich Schiller University Jena have demonstrated the value of 'teamwork' by successfully harnessing the interaction between two gallium atoms in a novel compound to split the particularly strong bond between fluorine and carbon. The gallium compound is also cheaper and more environmentally friendly than conventional alternatives. (2021-01-21)

Squeezing a rock-star material could make it stable enough for solar cells
A promising lead halide perovskite is great at converting sunlight to electricity, but it breaks down at room temperature. Now scientists have discovered how to stabilize it with pressure from a diamond anvil cell. The required pressure is well within the reach of industrial manufacturing requirements. (2021-01-21)

Adaptive optics with cascading corrective elements
As reported in Advanced Photonics, researchers from the University of Freiburg, Germany, have made a significant advance in AO microscopy through the demonstration of a new AO module comprising two deformable phase plates (DPPs). (2021-01-21)

Geoscientists reconstruct 6.5 million years of sea level stands
The geological features in caves from Mallorca provide scientific insights for understanding modern-day sea level changes. (2021-01-21)

Experimental evidence of an intermediate state of matter between a crystal and a liquid
Scientists from the Joint Institute for High Temperatures Russian Academy of Sciences (JIHT RAS) and Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT) have experimentally confirmed the presence of an intermediate phase between the crystalline and liquid states in a monolayer dusty plasma system. (2021-01-19)

New clues help explain why PFAS chemicals resist remediation
Chemicals used in firefighting foam and other products can last for decades in the environment, resisting efforts to remove them. New research suggest why that happens and new avenues for remediation. (2021-01-19)

Novel organoid models: Illuminating path to cervical cancers
How do tumors develop in the cervix? Many new details are now known about this question. This is also thanks to Dr. Cindrilla Chumduri from the Biocentre at the University of Würzburg. (2021-01-18)

Modulating helical nanostructures in liquid crystal phase by molecular design
Toyohashi University of Technology has successfully developed sulfur-containing liquid crystal (LC) dimer molecules, which exhibit a helical liquid crystal phase, over a wide temperature range. It is that the ester bond direction in the molecular structures largely impacts the pitch lengths of helical nanostructures in the NTB phase. It is expected that this molecular design can be used to tune the resultant physical properties of LC materials that would contribute to new LC technologies. (2021-01-18)

Robot learns fast but safe navigation strategy
A research group from the Active Intelligent System Laboratory (AISL) at Toyohashi University of Technology (TUT) has proposed a new framework for training mobile robots to quickly navigate while maintaining low collision rates. The framework combines deep reinforcement learning (DRL) and curriculum learning in the training process for robots to learn a fast but safe navigation policy. (2021-01-18)

What stops flows in glassy materials?
Researchers from the Institute of Mechanics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Hong Kong University of Science and Technology recently conducted experimental studies for the first time on glassy systems composed of nonspherical particles. (2021-01-17)

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