Current Plant Species News and Events | Page 25

Current Plant Species News and Events, Plant Species News Articles.
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Fungus application thwarts major soybean pest, study finds
The soybean cyst nematode sucks the nutrients out of soybean roots, causing more than $1 billion in soybean yield losses in the U.S. each year. A new study finds that one type of fungi can cut the nematodes' reproductive success by more than half. (2020-04-09)

Fungus-derived gene in wild wheatgrass relative confers fusarium resistance in wheat
In a wild relative of cultivated wheat, researchers have found a gene, likely delivered through horizontal gene transfer from a fungus, they show, that drives resistance to fusarium head blight (FHB) -- an intractable fungal disease devastating wheat crops worldwide. (2020-04-09)

Canada lynx disappearing from Washington state
Canada lynx are losing ground in Washington state, even as federal officials are taking steps to remove the species' threatened status under the Endangered Species Act. A massive monitoring study led by WSU researchers has found the big cat on only about 20% of its potential habitat in the state. (2020-04-09)

Researchers assess bird flu virus subtypes in China
The avian influenza virus subtype H16N3 is currently detectable in many countries. To examine the potential threat to humans of H16N3, researchers recently performed an extensive avian influenza surveillance in major wild bird gatherings across China from 2017-2019. The findings are published in Transboundary and Emerging Diseases. (2020-04-08)

Building a bean that resists leafhoppers
Promising new pinto bean released with increased leafhopper resistance. (2020-04-08)

Mutation reduces energy waste in plants
In a way, plants are energy wasters: in order to protect themselves from excessive electron transport, they continuously quench light energy and don't use it for photosynthesis and biomass production. A mutation can make them work more efficiently, as was discovered by a team from Ruhr-Universität Bochum (RUB) and Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg (MLU). (2020-04-08)

Amazonian crops domesticated 10,000 years ago
As agriculture emerged in early civilizations, crops were domesticated in four locations around the world -- rice in China; grains and pulses in the Middle East; maize, beans and squash in Mesoamerica; and potatoes and quinoa in the Andes. Now, an international team of researchers have confirmed a fifth domestication area in southwestern Amazonia where manioc, squash and other edibles became garden plants during the early Holocene, starting over 10,000 years ago. (2020-04-08)

Climate change could cause sudden biodiversity losses worldwide
A warming global climate could cause sudden, potentially catastrophic losses of biodiversity in regions across the globe throughout the 21st century, finds a new UCL-led study published in Nature. (2020-04-08)

Don't look to mature forests to soak up carbon dioxide emissions
Research published today in Nature suggests mature forests are limited in their ability to absorb 'extra' carbon as atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations increase. These findings may have implications for New York state's carbon neutrality goals. (2020-04-08)

Wallflowers could lead to new drugs
Plant-derived chemicals called cardenolides - like digitoxin - have long been used to treat heart disease, and have shown potential as cancer therapies. But the compounds are very toxic, making it difficult for doctors to prescribe a dose that works without harming the patient. Researchers now show that the wormseed wallflower could be used as a model species to elucidate how plants biosynthesize cardenolides, knowledge that could aid the discovery and development of safer drugs. (2020-04-08)

Some flowers have learned to bounce back after injury
Some flowers have a remarkable and previously unknown ability to bounce back after injury, according to a new study. (2020-04-07)

Better plant edits by enhancing DNA repair
A protein hijacked from a bacterial pathogen helps to facilitate more precise genome editing in plants. (2020-04-07)

How wallflowers evolved a complementary pair of plant defenses
A pair of chemicals used by wallflowers and their kin to ward off predators have evolved to complement each other, with one targeting generalist herbivores and the other targeting specialized herbivores that have become resistant to the generalist defense. (2020-04-07)

Wild tomato resistance to bacterial canker has implications for commercial tomato industry
Bacterial canker is caused by the pathogen Clavibacter michiganensis, which infects commercially bred tomatoes by colonizing the xylem, a series of tubes that transports water and minerals throughout the plant. There are no commercially available tomatoes resistant to bacterial canker and management options are limited. However, breeders have known that wild tomato species are less susceptible to bacterial canker, but this knowledge is limited. (2020-04-07)

The link between virus spillover, wildlife extinction and the environment
As COVID-19 spreads across the globe, a common question is, can infectious diseases be connected to environmental change? Yes, indicates a study published today from the University of California, Davis' One Health Institute. Exploitation of wildlife by humans through hunting, trade, habitat degradation and urbanization facilitates close contact between wildlife and humans, which increases the risk of virus spillover, the study found. Many of these same activities also drive wildlife population declines and the risk of extinction. (2020-04-07)

Stronger Atlantic currents drive temperate species to migrate towards the Arctic Ocean
The Arctic Ocean increasingly resembles the Atlantic, not only regarding its temperature but also the species that live there. However, scientists from the CNRS and Université Laval, Quebec showed that an unprecedented strengthening of Atlantic currents is playing a major role in this phenomenon called 'Atlantification.' The research team studied Emiliania huxleyi, a marine microalgae that typically lives in temperate waters at lower latitudes. (2020-04-06)

Making biofuels cheaper by putting plants to work
One strategy to make biofuels more competitive is to make plants do some of the work themselves. Scientists can engineer plants to produce valuable chemical compounds, or bioproducts, as they grow. Then the bioproducts can be extracted from the plant and the remaining plant material can be converted into fuel. But one important part of this strategy has remained unclear -- exactly how much of a particular bioproduct would plants need to make in order to make the process economically feasible? (2020-04-06)

MSU scientists discover legacy of past weather in stories of prairie plant restoration
Michigan State University's Lars Brudvig, associate professor in the Department of Plant Biology, and former MSU graduate student Anna Funk investigated fields of data going back 20 years to find out why some replanted prairies are healthier than others. Their research is published in Scientific Reports. (2020-04-06)

Climate change to affect fish sizes and complex food webs
Global climate change will affect fish sizes in unpredictable ways and, consequently, impact complex food webs in our oceans, a new IMAS-led study has shown. Led by IMAS and Centre for Marine Socioecology scientist Dr Asta Audzijonyte and published in the journal Nature Ecology and Evolution, the study analysed three decades of data from 30 000 surveys of rocky and coral reefs around Australia. (2020-04-06)

Invasive species with charisma have it easier
It's the outside that counts: Their charisma has an impact on the introduction and image of alien species and can even hinder their control. An international research team, led by the Biology Centre of the Czech Academy of Sciences and the Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries (IGB), have investigated the influence of charisma on the management of invasive species. (2020-04-06)

Scientists' warning to humanity on insect extinctions
As the human race continues to battle the COVID-19 pandemic, scientists have found that the planet's insects are also facing a crisis after accelerating rates of extinction have led to a worldwide fall in insect numbers. (2020-04-06)

Fungi found in cotton can decrease root knot nematode galling
Gregory Sword and colleagues at Texas A&M University inoculated cotton seeds with a diverse array of fungal isolates and tested the resulting seedlings in greenhouse trials for susceptibility to gall formation by root knot nematodes. A majority (77%) of the fungal treatments reduced galling and these reductions were highly repeatable across independent trials. (2020-04-06)

Applying CRISPR beyond Arabidopsis thaliana
In the plant sciences, CRISPR--the bacterial gene editing toolbox that enables more precise and efficient editing of genomic sequences than previously possible--has initially been applied with genetic model organisms like Arabidopsis thaliana. While these species are valuable, they represent only a small sample of plant diversity. Researchers at the University of Florida, Gainesville, review the prospects for expanding CRISPR use in nongenetic model plant species, many of which are economically and biologically important. (2020-04-06)

An antibiotic masquerading as a natural compound in the Giant Madeiran Squill
A previous study has shown that a type of squill growing in Madeira produces a chemical compound that may be useful as a medicinal drug. But a new study from researchers at Uppsala University has shown that this is probably not true: instead, the plant had likely accumulated antibiotics from contaminated soil. (2020-04-03)

Oysters and clams can be farmed together
Eastern oysters and three species of clams can be farmed together and flourish, potentially boosting profits of shellfish growers, according to a Rutgers University-New Brunswick study. Though diverse groups of species often outperform single-species groups, most bivalve farms in the United States and around the world grow their crops as monocultures, notes the study in the journal Marine Ecology Progress Series. (2020-04-02)

Fourth new pterosaur discovery in matter of weeks
You wait ages for a pterosaur and then four come along at once. Hot on the heels of a recent paper discovering three new species of pterosaur, University of Portsmouth palaeobiologists have identified another new species -- the first of its kind to be found on African soil. (2020-04-02)

In South Africa, three hominins, including earliest Homo erectus, lived during same period
Nearly 2 million years ago, three hominin genera -- Australopithecus, Paranthropus and the earliest Homo erectus lineage -- lived as contemporaries in the karst landscape of what is now South Africa, according to a new geochronological evaluation of the hominin fossil-rich Drimolen Paleocave complex. (2020-04-02)

Overcoming carbon loss from farming in peatlands
Miscanthus, willow found as good biomass crops to add carbon to vulnerable soils. (2020-04-01)

Plant disease primarily spreads via roadsides
A precise statistical analysis reveals that on the Åland Islands a powdery mildew fungus that is a common parasite of the ribwort plantain primarily spreads via roadsides because traffic raises the spores found on roadsides efficiently into the air. (2020-04-01)

About the distribution of biodiversity on our planet
Large open-water fish predators such as tunas or sharks hunt for prey more intensively in the temperate zone than near the equator. With this result, a study headed by Marius Roesti of the University of Bern is challenging a long-standing explanation for the distribution of biodiversity on our planet. (2020-04-01)

Tiny fly from Los Angeles has a taste for crushed invasive snails
As part of their project BioSCAN the scientists at the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County (USA) have already discovered plenty of minute insects that are new to science, but they are still only guessing what the lifestyles of these species are. In their latest discovery, published in the open-access Biodiversity Data Journal, however, they found out that one particular species of tiny phorid fly has an unusual taste for smashed invasive snails. (2020-04-01)

Study finds fish have diverse, distinct gut microbiomes
The rich biodiversity of coral reefs even extends to microbial communities within fish, according to new research. The study in Proceedings of the Royal Society: Biological Sciences reports that several important grazing fish on Caribbean coral reefs each harbor a distinct microbial community within their guts, revealing a new perspective on reef ecology. (2020-04-01)

Six million-year-old bird skeleton points to arid past of Tibetan plateau
Researchers from the Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology (IVPP) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences have found a new species of sandgrouse in six to nine million-year-old rocks in Gansu Province in western China. The newly discovered species points to dry, arid habitats near the edge of the Tibetan Plateau as it rose to its current extreme altitude. (2020-04-01)

Untangling the social lives of spiders
Scientists begin to unravel the genetic mechanism by which a solitary spider becomes a social one. (2020-03-31)

Exeter researchers discover a novel chemistry to protect our crops from fungal disease
Exeter researchers have discovered a novel chemistry to protect our crops from fungal disease. (2020-03-30)

Changing forests
As the climate is changing, so too are the world's forests. From the misty redwoods in the west to the Blue Ridge forest of Appalachia, many sylvan ecosystems are adapting to drier conditions. (2020-03-30)

Bison in northern Yellowstone proving to be too much of a good thing
Increasing numbers of bison in Yellowstone National Park in recent years have become a barrier to ecosystem recovery in the iconic Lamar Valley in the northern part of the park. (2020-03-30)

A plant-based diet helps to prevent and manage asthma, according to new review
A plant-based diet can help prevent and manage asthma, while dairy products and high-fat foods raise the risk, according to a new review published in Nutrition in Clinical Care. (2020-03-27)

In Earth's largest extinction, land animal die-offs began long before marine extinction
Because of poor dates for land fossils laid down before and after the mass extinction at the end of the Permian, paleontologists assumed that the terrestrial extinctions from Gondwana occurred at the same time as the better-documented marine extinctions. But a new study provides more precise dates for South African fossils and points to a long, perhaps 400,000-year period of extinction on land before the rapid marine extinction 252 million years ago. (2020-03-27)

New framework will help decide which trees are best in the fight against air pollution
A study from the University of Surrey has provided a comprehensive guide on which tree species are best for combating air pollution that originates from our roads -- along with suggestions for how to plant these green barriers to get the best results. (2020-03-26)

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