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Physics tip sheet #5 - March 20, 2002
´╗┐Highlights of this issue include traffic congestion prevention through on-ramp control, osmium being less compressible than diamond, achievement of record terabit transmission rates and tangling of DNA due to entropy. Also included are reports on quantum computing without qubits, (2002-03-20)

One in seven prisoners in western countries may need psychiatric treatment
One in seven prisoners in western countries could have treatable conditions such as psychotic illnesses or major depression--disorders that might be risk factors for suicide, conclude authors of a systematic review in this week's issue of THE LANCET. The results have implications for how prison services may need to adopt new mental-health policies for prison populations. (2002-02-14)

Measures needed to reduce bloodborne infections in Irish prisons
There is an urgent need for increased infection control and harm reduction measures to reduce the transmission of hepatitis B and C viruses, and HIV in Irish prisons, concludes a study in this week's BMJ. (2001-11-22)

Physician participation in executions is a violation of medical ethics
Despite arguments that physician involvement in executions reduces prisoners' pain and suffering, lethal injection and other forms of capital punishment are no closer to being medical procedures than is killing with a knife or a gun, according to two Northwestern University researchers. (2001-11-19)

Epidemic of tuberculosis in Russia
People who are infected with HIV are more likely to catch tuberculosis. The rapid spread of HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa has led to an epidemic of tuberculosis. In a Research Letter in this week's issue of The Lancet, Dr Boris Kazionny and colleagues warn that an epidemic of tuberculosis may affect Russia. (2001-11-01)

HIV patients more likely to accept a drug regimen if they trust in the physician, Yale researchers find
A study of HIV-infected prisoners shows that they are more likely to accept antiretroviral therapy (ART) if they have trust in the treatment, their physicians and in medical institutions, highlighting the important role that trust plays in HIV therapy, Yale researchers report. (2001-10-30)

Growing need for long-term care services among aging inmate population, study finds
With stricter sentencing policies, states are facing a growing prison population of aging inmates. In addition, there are younger, disabled inmates who need long-term health care assistance. A Penn State study examines ad-hoc and planned strategies used by one state's correctional system to deal with these needs, and suggests ways to deal with inmates' long-term care needs at prisons nationwide. (2001-09-25)

Prison population swells under Republican presidents, study says
The number of prisoners nationwide increases more under Republican presidents than it does when a Democrat leads the country, according to a new study that looked at 52 years of data. Yet Bill Clinton was a major exception, in that the prison population also increased greatly during his terms in office. The results suggest that politics plays a major role in how many people are put behind bars in the United States. (2001-08-22)

Women's prisons places of contradiction, says professor
Canadians expect too much from their prisons for women, says Kelly Hannah-Moffat, a sociology professor at the University of Toronto at Mississauga who studies women's imprisonment and the country's criminal justice system. (2001-04-24)

Researchers find jail-based surveillance screening useful in monitoring HIV and sexually transmitted disease epidemics
A study by the San Francisco Department of Public Health, conducted at the San Francisco County Jail, has found that anonymous HIV screening of jail inmates offers an opportunity to track the epidemic in at-risk groups, particularly those who traditionally under-utilize health care services. (2000-07-10)

Drug use and hepatitis infection are widespread in Irish prisons
Drug use and infection with hepatitis C are endemic among Irish prisoners, stressing the need for scrutiny and improvement of the Irish prison healthcare system, according to a study in this week's BMJ. (2000-07-06)

Tuberculosis in former Soviet Union threatens international public health: Doctors without borders
World governments must take immediate action to prevent an epidemic of tuberculosis in the former Soviet Union from spreading, say a group of authors in the April 12 issue of the Journal of Women's Health and Law. (2000-04-19)

Care of mentally ill prisoners well below NHS standards
The care of mentally ill prisoners in prison healthcare centres falls well below that provided for mentally ill patients in the NHS, finds research in this week's BMJ. (2000-04-13)

Health of women prisoners
A study of women prisoners in a British Columbia correctional facility finds most would agree to have Papanicolaou smear tests. (2000-03-06)

Traumatic stress disorder, dementia linked in WWII vets
For World War II and Korean War veterans who develop dementia as they age, there's a risk that painful war memories may be unlocked, triggering violent episodes of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), reports Dr. Deirdre Johnston of Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center in January's issue of the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. (2000-01-12)

U-M to study whether POWs experience "post-traumatic growth"
The adverse effects experienced by repatriated prisoners of war are well-documented, but what's not well-known is whether POW's realize positive outcomes from their traumatic experiences. Now, a research team, led by a University of Michigan Health System investigator, is launching a study to examine that question. (1999-12-12)

Inter-vehicular communication system research shedding light on solution to road rage problem
Experts say the pressures and stresses of ordinary living cause some drivers to use their automobiles as weapons. These drivers experience a kind of uncontrollable rage that leaves other drivers in fear, in panic, and sometimes in physical pain. Two researchers have concluded that the distress associated with road rage can be depreciated through the positive use of an inter-vehicular communication system. (1999-10-24)

Is drug abuse, not brutality, behind some deaths in custody?
Many deaths in custody that are blamed on the police using excessive force in restraining prisoners may in fact be the result of prisoners' long-term cocaine abuse. This provocative suggestion from a leading forensic toxicologist in America is sure to inflame controversy over one of the most contentious issues in policing. (1999-09-22)

Procedure, new apparatus may allow relief from incontinence
Imagine planning your life around the location of the nearest restroom or missing out on a nightly walk or tennis match due to the chance of an embarrassing accident. (1999-06-10)

Future Of West Tied To Saving, Not Extracting, The Land
The mythical road to riches in the American West has always been tied to a deeper coal mine, a bigger clear-cut, a greater take from the earth. But the road to economic stability for the west today, argues a University of Wisconsin-Madison rural sociologist, is one that takes an ironic twist to the frontier axiom that (1999-01-23)

International Conference Addresses Drug-Resistant TB Epidemic Ravaging Russia
International Workshop on TB Epidemic in Russia on Sept. 7, 10 a.m.-5 p.m. (2 a.m.-9 a.m. E.D.T.) at the Moscow Academy of Sciences. A press backgrounder will be held Sept. 4 in Moscow, 9 a.m. (1 a.m. E.D.T.). Press can attend both events via phone or in person. (1998-09-02)

Engineers Are Working Toward Designing A Better Handcuff
This item which appears in the August 1998 issue of NIST Tech Beat describes the efforts of a researcher in NIST's Office of Law Enforcement Standards to help handcuff manufacturers better measure the forces that can lock, unlock or break a set of cuffs. Such measurements are being used to design more escape-proof restraints. (1998-08-19)

Injecting Drug Users Eight Times More Likely To Overdose Within Two Weeks Of Release From Prison
For injecting drug users with HIV, the risk of dying from an overdose seems to be eight times higher within the first two weeks after release from prison, than it is during the subsequent ten weeks. These deaths may outnumber the deaths from suicide in Scottish prisons by three to one. The authors suggest that prison based trials of interventions to reduce overdose deaths are implemented. (1998-02-06)

New Research Finds Better Pregnancy Outcomes Among Imprisoned Women
Babies born to women who were in prison while pregnant appear to have healthier birthweights as a group than infants born to women imprisoned at some other time, according to a unique new study. (1997-09-30)

Testosterone Linked To Violence In Female Inmates
Higher testosterone levels are linked with criminal violence and aggressive dominance among women in prison, says a Georgia State University study. Researchers measured testosterone in 87 female inmates at a maximum security prison and found it associated with both the violence of the women's crimes and their aggressive dominance in prison. (1997-09-23)

Nuremberg Medical Ethics Reexamined
The Nuremberg doctors Trial is examined by a Cornell historian of science, who finds there are lessons to be learned. His paper is published in the Journal of the American Medical Association (1996-11-25)

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