Current Radiation Damage News and Events

Current Radiation Damage News and Events, Radiation Damage News Articles.
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High energy radiotherapy could 'paint' tumours to avoid harming healthy tissue
A radiotherapy technique which 'paints' tumours by targeting them precisely, and avoiding healthy tissue, has been devised in research led by the University of Strathclyde. (2021-02-23)

Life from Earth could temporarily survive on Mars
German Aerospace Center scientists. The researchers launched these small lifeforms into Earth's stratosphere, which replicates key characteristics of the Martian environment, and found that some microorganisms, in particular spores of black mold, survived the trip. This new way of testing endurance to space travel will be invaluable for understanding the threats and opportunities of microbes in future missions to Mars. (2021-02-22)

Human impact on solar radiation levels for decades
Based on the long-term Potsdam radiation time series, ETH Professor Martin Wild and his collaborators have shown that variations in the intensity of sunlight over decades are down to ultra-fine, man-made dirt particles in the atmosphere. (2021-02-18)

Proton therapy induces biologic response to attack treatment-resistant cancers
Mayo Clinic researchers have developed a novel proton therapy technique to more specifically target cancer cells that resist other forms of treatment. The technique is called LEAP, an acronym for 'biologically enhanced particle therapy.' The findings are published today in Cancer Research, the journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. (2021-02-17)

Fixer-upper: Understanding the DNA repair toolkit to chart cancer evolution
DNA repair pathways exist to correct molecular damage caused by internal and external factors. However, any damage to these pathways can result in the creation of tumors and specific types of cancers. A group of scientists from China have conducted an extensive investigation into the relationship of DNA repair pathways with cancer evolution. Their review, been published in Cancer Biology & Medicine, also shed light on the potential treatment applications of these mechanisms. (2021-02-16)

Radioactive bone cement found to be safer in treating spinal tumors
A radioactive bone cement that's injected into bone to provide support and local irradiation is proving to be a safer alternative to conventional radiation therapy for bone tumors, according to a study led by University of California, Irvine researchers. (2021-02-16)

Research highlights ways to protect astronaut cardiovascular health from space radiation
In the inky blackness of space an invisible threat is ever present - radiation. It can have a huge array of negative effects on astronaut health, including cardiovascular disease. However, if we are ever to journey to the red planet, we will need to understand and reduce this risk. A new review charts a course through what we know about the cardiovascular risks of space radiation, and the best ways to protect space travelers. (2021-02-12)

Genomic test helps estimate risk of prostate cancer metastasis, death
A commercially available genomic test may help oncologists better determine which patients with recurrent prostate cancer may benefit from hormone therapy, according to new research from the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center and 15 other medical centers. (2021-02-11)

Black carbon aerosols in Beijing become "slim"
Scientists observed evident decreases of black carbon aerosol (BC) loading in the atmosphere of urban Beijing since the implementation of China's Action Plan of Prevention and Control of Air Pollution in 2013. And the BC aerosols became ''slim'', appearing with smaller core sizes and less coatings. (2021-02-10)

Radiation vulnerability
Exposure to radiation can wreak indiscriminate havoc on cells, tissues, and organs. Curiously, however, some tissues are more vulnerable to radiation damage than others. A new study now finds that cellular survival after radiation exposure depends on behavior of the tumor-suppressor protein p53 over time. In vulnerable tissues, p53 levels go up and remain high, leading to cell death. In tissues that tend to survive radiation damage, p53 levels oscillate up and down. (2021-02-09)

Combination therapy with radiation shows promise in treating glioblastoma
In a study of mice, researchers at the UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center have identified a new approach that combines an anti-psychotic drug, a statin used to lower high cholesterol levels, and radiation to improve the overall survival in mice with glioblastoma (2021-02-09)

Long-term environmental damage from transportation projects in Kenya, scientists warn
The construction of a major railway through Kenya will have long-term environmental impacts on the area, suggesting more work needs to be done to limit the damage on future infrastructure projects, a major study reveals. (2021-02-09)

Scientists measure spectral line of Cherenkov radiation in radiant regime
The scientists of Tomsk Polytechnic University jointly with the colleagues from Keysight company have conducted an experiment with an electron beam at the TPU microtron to study a super-radiant regime that occurs when radiation is generated by a train of electron bunches. The research findings obtained by a high-precision measurement of a spectral line width proved that about 8,000 electron bunches in a super-radiant regime form monochromatic Cherenkov radiation. This experiment was conducted for the first time. (2021-02-07)

Ural Federal University scientists developed a new way of synthesis of high-purity zircon
A research group from Ural Federal University synthesized high-purity single-phase zircon (ZrSiO4) and analyzed its structural, thermal, vibrational and optical properties. The results have been published in the Journal of Solid State Chemistry (Q2) (2021-02-05)

Grape consumption may protect against UV damage to skin
A recent human study published in the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology found that consuming grapes protected against ultraviolet (UV) skin damage. Study subjects showed increased resistance to sunburn and a reduction in markers of UV damage at the cellular level. Natural components found in grapes known as polyphenols are thought to be responsible for these beneficial effects. (2021-02-05)

Battling bugs help solve mysteries of weapon evolution
Scientists at the University of Arizona outfitted bugs with body armor and pitted them against each other in staged wrestling matches, all in the name of science. The findings shed light on how evolution has shaped the arsenal of weapons in the animal kingdom. (2021-02-04)

Zinc may help with fertility during COVID-19 pandemic, researchers report
Wayne State University School of Medicine researchers have reported that zinc supplements for men and women attempting to conceive either naturally or through assisted reproduction during the COVID-19 pandemic may prevent mitochondrial damage in young egg and sperm cells. (2021-02-04)

Dartmouth-invented technology allows doctors to see beam field during radiation treatment
With the use of the BeamSite Cherenkov imaging camera system invented by DoseOptics, LLC., radiation oncologists at Dartmouth's and Dartmouth-Hitchcock's Norris Cotton Cancer Center can capture real-time external beam delivery images during cancer patients' standard radiation therapy sessions. These images are used to verify that the beam is targeting the exact area intended, and make necessary adjustments to prevent unintentional exposure to patients. (2021-02-04)

On the dot: Novel quantum sensor provides new approach to early diagnosis via imaging
A phenomenon called 'oxidative stress' is seen in affected organs during the early stages of certain difficult-to-treat diseases like cancer and kidney dysfunction. Detecting oxidative stress could thus enable early diagnosis and preventive treatments. But, the in vivo measurement of oxidative stress caused by both oxidation and reduction has historically been difficult. Now, scientists have developed an advanced quantum sensor technology that can detect 'oxidative stress' non-invasively throughout the body using fluorescent imaging and MRI. (2021-02-03)

Providing inclusive care for LGBTQ2SPIA+ cancer patients
In an upcoming issue of the Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences, published by Elsevier, undergraduate researchers from the University of Alberta's Radiation Therapy Program in the Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry describe how LGBTQ2SPIA+ patients face unique cancer risks, including fear of discrimination, higher incidence of certain cancer sites, and lower screening rates, resulting in more cancers detected at later stages. (2021-02-02)

Improved model estimates impact of ozone on soy crops
The impact of ozone on soybean production can be predicted more accurately thanks to improvements to a computer modelling system. (2021-02-01)

Controls needed to stop zebra mussels invading Great Britain
Research team call for more controls and monitoring around boat ramps to reduce the damage caused by zebra mussels. (2021-02-01)

Multiple sclerosis: Immune cells silence neurons by removing synapses
Damage to the brain gray matter plays an important role in the progression of multiple sclerosis. This study now shows that such damage can be caused by inflammatory reactions that lead to loss of synapses, which impairs neural activity. (2021-01-26)

Rates of skin cancer have increased dramatically over recent decades
Incidence rates of skin cancer (cutaneous malignant melanoma) have increased more than 550% in males and 250% in females since the early 1980s in England - according to a new study by Brighton and Sussex Medical School (BSMS). (2021-01-26)

Better bundled: new principle for generating X-rays
X-rays are usually difficult to direct and guide. X-ray physicists at the University of Göttingen have developed a new method with which the X-rays can be emitted more precisely in one direction. To do this, the scientists use a structure of thin layers of materials with different densities of electrons to simultaneously deflect and focus the generated beams. The results of the study were published in the journal Science Advances. (2021-01-25)

Study finds shorter radiation regimen safe, effective for men with advanced prostate cancer
UCLA researchers found shortening a traditional 45-day course of radiation to a five-day course delivered in larger doses is safe and as effective as conventional radiation for men with high-risk forms of prostate cancer. (2021-01-25)

How does incident solar radiation affect urban canyons?
Toyohashi University of Technology proposed a numerical bead model to predict the upward-to-downward reflection ratio of glass bead retro-reflective (RR) material purposed for urban heat island (UHI) mitigation and reducing energy consumption. These results will contribute to existing research on the absorption or reflection of solar radiation to improve urban thermal and lighting conditions, and to reduce building energy consumption. (2021-01-25)

University of Cincinnati research unveils possible new combo therapy for head and neck cancer
Researchers at the University of Cincinnati have tested a new combination therapy in animal models to see if they could find a way to make an already effective treatment even better. Since they're using a Food and Drug Administration-approved drug to do it, this could help people sooner than later. (2021-01-22)

Hair aging differs by race, ethnicity
While aging is an unavoidable biological process with many influencing factors that results in visible changes to the hair, there is limited literature examining the characteristics of hair aging across the races. Now a new study describes the unique characteristics of hair aging among different ethnicities that the authors hope will aid in a culturally sensitive approach when making recommendations to prevent hair damage during one's life-time. (2021-01-21)

Sunbathing after menopause may be harmful
UV-radiation can affect hormone levels of postmenopausal women negatively and this may contribute to several health issues, according to new research from Kai Triebner, University of Bergen, and colleagues. (2021-01-20)

How to find mutated sperm? Just go FISH
A test developed by Berkeley Lab scientists can quickly and easily detect whether sperm cells are carrying chromosomal defects, an advance that will help men who have undergone cancer treatment father healthy children. (2021-01-19)

Clocking electron movements inside an atom
Hard X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) have delivered intense, ultrashort X-ray pulses for over a decade. One of the most promising applications of XFELs is in biology, where researchers can capture images down to the atomic scale even before the radiation damage destroys the sample. In physics and chemistry, these X-rays can also shed light on the fastest processes occurring in nature with a shutter speed lasting only one femtosecond - equivalent to a millionth of a billionth of a second. (2021-01-19)

Dartmouth researchers pilot FLASH radiotherapy beam development for treatment of cancer
A team of researchers led by Dartmouth's and Dartmouth-Hitchcock's Norris Cotton Cancer Center has produced a 'FLASH' ultra-high-dose rate radiation therapy beam, demonstrating that such a beam can be achieved reversibly on a clinical linear accelerator and delivered to the patient treatment site. FLASH beam radiotherapy improves patient safety by protecting normal tissues from excess damage while still having the same treatment effect on tumor tissues. (2021-01-19)

5G doesn't cause COVID-19, but the rumor it does spread like a virus
Research team investigated how COVID-19 misinformation proliferated using the same epidemiological techniques for modeling disease transmission. (2021-01-19)

An unexpected, and novel, target for prostate cancer - our biological clock
Researchers find that CRY-1, a regulator of circadian rhythms, promotes tumor progression by altering DNA repair. (2021-01-15)

Study suggests compound protects myelin, nerve fibers
A compound developed at Oregon Health & Science University appears to protect nerve fibers and the fatty sheath, called myelin, that covers nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord. The new research in a mouse model advances earlier work to develop the compound - known as sobetirome - that has already showed promise in stimulating the repair of myelin. (2021-01-13)

Engineers find antioxidants improve nanoscale visualization of polymers
Reactive molecules, such as free radicals, can be produced in the body after exposure to certain environments or substances and go on to cause cell damage. Antioxidants can minimize this damage by interacting with the radicals before they affect cells. (2021-01-08)

New hard disk write head analytical technology can increase hard disk capacities
Using synchrotron radiation at SPring-8 - a large-scale synchrotron radiation facility - Tohoku University, Toshiba Corporation, and the Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI) have successfully imaged the magnetization dynamics of a hard disk drive (HDD) write head for the first time, with a precision of one ten-billionth of a second. The method makes possible precise analysis of write head operations, accelerating the development of the next-generation write heads and further increasing HDD capacity. (2021-01-07)

Inverted fluorescence
Fluorescence usually entails the conversion of light at shorter wavelengths to light at longer wavelengths. Scientists have now discovered a chromophore system that goes the other way around. When excited by visible light, the fluorescent dyes emit light in the ultraviolet region. According to the study published in the journal Angewandte Chemie, such light upconversion systems could boost the light-dependent reactions for which efficiency is important, such as solar-powered water splitting. (2020-12-18)

For college students, skin cancer risk remains high in winter months
New research finds college students could be just as at risk for developing skin cancer in the dead of winter as they are in the middle of summer. (2020-12-17)

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